Parliament of England
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it merged with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1066, William of Normandy introduced what, in centuries, became referred to as a feudal system, by which he sought the advice of a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics before making laws. In 1215, the tenants-in-chief secured Magna Carta from King John, which established that the king may not levy or collect any taxes, save with the consent of his royal council, which developed into a parliament. Over the centuries, the English Parliament progressively limited the power of the English monarchy which arguably culminated in the English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649. After the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, the subsequent Glorious Revolution of 1688, the supremacy of Parliament was a settled principle and all future English and British sovereigns were restricted to the role of constitutional monarchs with limited executive authority.
The Act of Union 1707 merged the English Parliament with the Parliament of Scotland to form the Parliament of Great Britain. When the Parliament of Ireland was abolished in 1801, its former members were merged into what was now called the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Under a monarchical system of government, monarchs must consult and seek a measure of acceptance for their policies if they are to enjoy the broad cooperation of their subjects. Early kings of England had no standing army or police, so depended on the support of powerful subjects; the monarchy had agents in every part of the country. However, under the feudal system that evolved in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066, the laws of the Crown could not have been upheld without the support of the nobility and the clergy; the former had economic and military power bases of their own through major ownership of land and the feudal obligations of their tenants. The Church was a law unto itself in this period as it had its own system of religious law courts.
In order to seek consultation and consent from the nobility and the senior clergy on major decisions, post-Norman Conquest English monarchs called Great Councils. A typical Great Council would consist of archbishops, abbots and earls, the pillars of the feudal system; when this system of consultation and consent broke down, it became impossible for government to function effectively. The most prominent instances of this before the reign of Henry III are the disagreements between Thomas Becket and Henry II and between King John and the barons. Becket, who served as Archbishop of Canterbury between 1162 and 1170, was murdered after a long running dispute with Henry II over the jurisdiction of the Church. John, king from 1199 to 1216, aroused such hostility from many leading noblemen that they forced him to agree to Magna Carta in 1215. John's refusal to adhere to this charter led to civil war; the Great Council evolved into the Parliament of England. The term came into use during the early 13th century, when it shifted from the more general meaning of "an occasion for speaking."
It first appears in official documents in the 1230s. As a result of the work by historians G. O. Sayles and H. G. Richardson, it is believed that the early parliaments had a judicial as well as a legislative function. During the 13th and 14th centuries, the kings called Knights of the Shire to meet when the monarch saw it as necessary. A notable example of this was in 1254 when sheriffs of counties were instructed to send Knights of the Shire to parliament to advise the king on finance. Parliaments were summoned when the king needed to raise money through taxes. After Magna Carta, this became a convention; this was due in no small part to the fact that King John died in 1216 and was succeeded by his young son Henry III. Leading peers and clergy governed on Henry's behalf until he came of age, giving them a taste for power that they would prove unwilling to relinquish. Among other things, they made sure. Once the reign of John ended and Henry III took full control of the government, leading peers became concerned with his style of government his unwillingness to consult them on decisions he took, his seeming patronisation of his foreign relatives over his native subjects.
Henry's support of a disastrous papal invasion of Sicily was the last straw. In 1258, seven leading barons forced Henry to swear to uphold the Provisions of Oxford, the following year, by the Provisions of Westminster; this abolished the absolutist Anglo-Norman monarchy, giving power to a council of fifteen barons, providing for a thrice-yearly meeting of parliament to monitor their performance. Parliament assembled six times between June 1258 and April 1262, most notably at Oxford in 1258; the French-born nobleman Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, emerged as the leader of this characteristically English rebellion. In the years that followed, those supporting Montfort and those supporting the king grew more hostile to each other. Henry obtained a papal bull in 1263 exempting him from his oath and both sides began to raise armies. At the Battle of Lewes on 14 May 1264, Henry was taken prisoner by Montfort's army. However, many of the peers who had supported Montfort began to suspect that he ha
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
Edward Stanley, 11th Earl of Derby
Edward Stanley, 11th Earl of Derby, known as Sir Edward Stanley, 5th Baronet, from 1714 to 1736, was a British nobleman and politician. Derby was the son of Sir Thomas Stanley, 4th Baronet, Elizabeth Patten, succeeded his father in the baronetcy in 1714; this branch of the Stanley family, known as the "Stanleys of Bickerstaffe", were descended from Sir James Stanley, younger brother of Thomas Stanley, 2nd Earl of Derby. He was appointed High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1723, he was elected to the House of Commons for Lancashire in 1727, a seat he held until 1736, when he succeeded his distant relative James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby, as eleventh Earl of Derby, took his seat in the House of Lords. He served as Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire from 1741 to 1757 and again from 1771 to 1776. Lord Derby married Elizabeth Hesketh, daughter of Robert Hesketh, in 1714, he died in February 1776, aged 86, was succeeded in the earldom by his grandson Edward, his son James Smith-Stanley, Lord Strange, having predeceased him.
His daughter, Lady Charlotte Stanley, married General John Burgoyne. His great-great-grandson Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's The Peerage. Accessed July 4, 2017. Www.thepeerage.com
Earl of Derby
Earl of Derby is a title in the Peerage of England. The title was first adopted by Robert de Ferrers, 1st Earl of Derby, under a creation of 1139, it continued with the Ferrers family until the 6th Earl forfeited his property toward the end of the reign of Henry III and died in 1279. Most of the Ferrers property and, by a creation in 1337, the Derby title, were held by the family of Henry III; the title merged in the Crown upon Henry IV's accession to the throne. It was created again for the Stanley family in 1485. Lord Derby's subsidiary titles are Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe in the County Palatine of Lancaster, Baron Stanley of Preston, in the County Palatine of Lancaster; the 1st to 5th Earls held an earlier Barony of Stanley, created for the 1st Earl's father in 1456 and abeyant. The courtesy title of the heir apparent is Lord Stanley. Several successive generations of the Stanley Earls, along with other members of the family, have been prominent members of the Conservative Party, at least one historian has suggested that this family rivals the Cecils as the single most important family in the party's history.
They were at times one of the richest landowning families in England. The Stanley Cup, the championship trophy of the National Hockey League, was presented to the Dominion of Canada in 1892 by Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby during his tenure as Governor General of Canada; the family seat is Knowsley Hall, near Merseyside. Ferrières in Normandy, the hometown of the de Ferrers family, was an important centre for iron and takes its name from the iron ore mines used during the Gallo-Roman period. Lord of Longueville, a Domesday Commissioner; the Ferrers, lords of the barony of Ferrières in Normandy, were accompanied to England by three other families who were their underlords in France: the Curzons, the Baskervilles and the Levetts. Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Earl of Ferrières was created Earl of Derby by King Stephen in 1138 for his valiant conduct at the Battle of Northallerton, he was married to Hawise de Vitre and died in 1139. His son Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Earl of Derby became the next earl and was married to Margaret Peverel.
He founded Merevale Abbey. His son William de Ferrers, 3rd Earl of Derby was married to Sybil de Braose, he was imprisoned at Caen, Normandy. He died in the Crusades at the Siege of Acre, he was succeeded by his son William de Ferrers, 4th Earl of Derby who married Agnes de Kevelioc, daughter of Hugh de Kevelioc, 3rd Earl of Chester. He was succeeded by his son William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby who married Sibyl Marshall and Margaret de Quincy with whom he had his son and heir Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby, who became the next Earl, he rebelled against King Henry III and was arrested and imprisoned first in the Tower of London in Windsor Castle and Wallingford Castle, in 1266 his lands and earldom were forfeited, including Tutbury Castle which still belongs to the Duchy of Lancaster. Through one line the descent of the Earls of Derby gave rise to the Earls Ferrers. Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl Ferrers, was the only peer of the realm to be hanged for murder. Another familial line takes in the Baron Ferrers of Chartley descent.
The large estates which were taken from Robert in 1266 were given by Henry III to his son, Edmund Crouchback. In 1337 Edmund's grandson, Henry of Grosmont, afterwards Duke of Lancaster, was created Earl of Derby, this title was taken by Edward III's son, John of Gaunt, who had married Henry's daughter, Blanche. John of Gaunt's son and successor was Henry Bolingbroke, who acceded to the throne as Henry IV in 1399; the title Earl of Derby merged into the Crown. The Stanley family was descended from Ligulf of Aldithley, the ancestor of the Audleys. One of his descendants married an heiress whose marriage portion included Stoneley, Staffordshire – hence the name Stanley. Sir Thomas Stanley served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and represented Lancashire in the House of Commons. In 1456 he was summoned to the House of Lords as Lord Stanley, his eldest son Thomas Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley, married Lady Margaret Beaufort, the mother of King Henry VII, Eleanor Nevill. The title of Earl of Derby was conferred on him in 1485 by his stepson Henry VII after the Battle of Bosworth Field where Thomas decided not to support King Richard III.
The title derives from the family's extensive lands in the hundred of West Derby and not the county or city of Derby. His eldest son and heir apparent George Stanley, Lord Stanley, married Joan Strange, 9th Baroness Strange and 5th Baroness Mohun, was summoned to the House of Lords as Lord Strange in right of his wife. Lord Derby was succeeded by the eldest son of Lord Strange, he had succeeded his mother as tenth Baron Strange and sixth Baron Mohun. He married daughter of Lord Hungerford and Hastings; the second Earl's son Edward became the 3rd Earl. He notably served as Lord High Steward at the coronation of Queen Mary of England in 1553 and was Lor
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Thomas Stanley, 2nd Earl of Derby
Thomas Stanley, 2nd Earl of Derby was an English nobleman and peer. Thomas Stanley was the eldest son of George Stanley, 9th Baron Strange and Joan Strange and heiress of John Strange, Lord Strange of Knockin, by his first wife, Jacquette Woodville, daughter of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers, he was the grandson of Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby, Eleanor Neville, fourth daughter of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, by Alice Montagu, the daughter and heiress of Thomas Montagu, 4th Earl of Salisbury. After the death of his first wife, Eleanor Neville, Thomas Stanley's grandfather married Margaret Beaufort, widow of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, mother of King Henry VII. Stanley had four brothers, John, Sir James and George, five sisters, wife of Sir Edward Stanley, Katherine, who married Sir Robert Sheffield, Margaret, wife of John Osbaldeston, esquire; as a result of his marriage to Joan Strange, Thomas Stanley's father, had been summoned to Parliament by writs directed to Georgio Stanley de la Strange, by which he became Lord Strange.
George Stanley died at London, on 4 or 5 December 1503, predeceasing his father. He was said to have been poisoned at a banquet. A year Thomas Stanley's grandfather, the 1st Earl, died at Lathom in Lancashire on 9 November 1504, Thomas succeeded to the earldom of Derby and the barony of Stanley; when his mother died at Colham Green, Middlesex, on 20 March 1514, Derby inherited the baronies of Strange and Mohun. Derby was at the Battle of the Spurs in 1513. Both he and his wife were in attendance at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in June 1520, Derby attended the King at his meeting with the Emperor Charles V at Dover that year. In the same year, Derby became a member of Gray's Inn. Derby died at Colham Green, Middlesex, on 23 May 1521, was buried at Syon, his widow, died at Colham Green, was buried 17 November 1550. Derby's line failed with the death of James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby in 1736, when the earldom passed to a descendant of his younger brother, Sir James Stanley, ancestor of the Stanleys of Bickerstaffe.
Derby was betrothed in 1498 to Elizabeth Wells, the daughter of John Welles, 1st Viscount Welles, by Cecily of York, the daughter of King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. A papal dispensation was obtained for the marriage; however Elizabeth died that year. By indenture dated 17 December 1505 Derby married Anne Hastings, the daughter of Edward Hastings, 2nd Baron Hastings, Mary Hungerford, by her had two sons and a daughter: Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby Margaret Stanley, who married Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex, by him had two daughters, who married Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montague, Anne, who married Thomas Wharton, 2nd Baron Wharton. John Stanley; the failure of Thomas Stanley's grandfather, Lord Stanley, to come to the aid of King Richard III at Bosworth contributed to King Richard's defeat. Lord Stanley, by married to the future Henry VII's mother, Margaret Beaufort, is given a major role in Shakespeare's Richard III. Lord Stanley's son, Thomas Stanley's father, was held hostage by King Richard, as noted in this speech given to Lord Stanley in Act IV, scene v of the play: Sir Christopher, tell Richmond this from me:That in the sty of the most deadly boarMy son George Stanley is frank'd up in hold.
Richardson, Douglas. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. I. Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966373 Richardson, Douglas. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. IV. Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709 Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Thepeerage.com: Thomas Stanley, 2nd Earl of Derby Stanley's patronage of theater and/or music: Patrons and Performances Web Site Anne Hastings' patronage of theater and/or music: Patrons and Performances Web Site thePeerage.com Joan Bedlisgate
Preston (UK Parliament constituency)
Preston is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2000 by Sir Mark Hendrick, a member of the Labour Party and Co-operative Party. 1295-1950The seat was created for the Model Parliament and sent members until at least 1331 until a new grant of two members to Westminster followed. From 1529 extending unusually beyond the 19th century until the 1950 general election the seat had two-member representation. Party divisions tended to run stronger after 1931 before which two different parties' candidates came first and second at elections under the bloc vote system. In 1929, a elected Liberal, Sir William Jowitt decided to join the Labour Party and called for a by-election to support this change of party, which he won, to take up for two years the position of Attorney General of England and Wales as part of the Government, he became the highest judge during the Attlee Ministry, the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain and Speaker of the House of Lords under a hereditary-dominated House leading to a Conservative majority.
He was selected to be elevated to a peerage as 1st Earl Jowitt. With no sons, he was to wrote the Dictionary of English Law. 1950-1983Preston was abolished as a constituency by the House of Commons Act 1949 being replaced by Preston North and Preston South constituencies. 1983–presentThe representatives since the seat's revival after 33 years of being split between North and South seats have all been members of the Labour Party. The member from 1987-2000 was Audrey Wise, a member of the Socialist Campaign Group and reformer of maternity healthcare in opposition on the Select Committee. 1983-1997: The Borough of Preston wards of Ashton, Brookfield, Deepdale, Ingol, Moorbrook, Ribbleton, St John's, St Matthew's, Tulketh. 1997-2010: The Borough of Preston wards of Ashton, Brookfield, Deepdale, Larches, Moor Park, Riversway, St Matthew's, Tulketh, the Borough of South Ribble wards of Bamber Bridge Central, Bamber Bridge South, Walton-le-Dale. 2010–present: The City of Preston wards of Ashton, Deepdale, Ingol, Moor Park, Riversway, St George's, St Matthew's, Town Centre and University.
The composition of the Preston constituency was confirmed in time for the United Kingdom general election, 2010 as part of the Fifth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies. While it crossed the River Ribble to include Bamber Bridge and Walton-le-Dale from South Ribble District, the seat now falls within the City boundaries. In the late 19th Century the boundaries of the two-member Preston constituency were described as comprising:...he old Borough of Preston, the township of Fishwick, so much of the Municipal Borough as is not included in the Parliamentary Borough, the Local Government District of Fulwood, so much of the parishes of Lea, Ashton and Cotham, Penwortham, as will be added to the Municipal Borough of Preston on June 1st, 1889 In the Representation of the People Act, 1918 the boundaries of the two-member constituency were described as the: County borough of Preston and urban district of Fulwood: The single seat of Preston formed from 1918 until 1949 was created by the County Borough of Preston and Urban District of Fulwood.
From the general election of 1950 to the 1983 Preston was divided into the constituencies of Preston North and Preston South. In time for the 1983 general election, the boundaries on which the current seat is drawn were confirmed; the northern, Fulwood area, was divided between Ribble Valley. The ward of Lea is within the constituency of Fylde; the wards of Preston Rural North, Preston Rural East and the Fulwood wards are within the constituency of Wyre and Preston North. By the end of the review, the newly recommended Preston constituency had the smallest number of voters of an English constituency based on 2006 electorates. Representatives have sat in Parliament for Preston for nearly 800 years, the first recorded names being Willielmus fil' Pauli and Adam Russel. Prior to being reformed as "Preston" in 1983, the former Preston North and Preston South seats were amongst the most marginal in the country - in 1979, Conservative Robert Atkins won Preston North by 29 votes. With the suburban, middle class former Fulwood Urban District area within Ribble Valley, the southern portion has awarded MPs with much healthier and secure majorities.
All of Preston's representatives from 1915 to 1950, since its recreation as a single constituency in 1983, have been Labour candidates. Between 1918 and 1949, the two-seat constituency of Preston was formed by the County Borough of Preston and the Urban District of Fulwood. In 1997, Audrey Wise secured a majority of over 18,000; the collapse of the Conservative vote - 10 percentage points down from 1992 - was with the pattern of the Tory fortunes in that year. The death of Audrey Wise in 2000 triggered a by-election. At that Preston by-election, Mark Hendrick, former Member of the European Parliament for the Lancashire Central constituency with Preston at its heart, secured a victory with a 4,400 majority; the surprise of the night was the result of the fledgling Socialist Alliance, for whom Terry Cartright saved his deposit. Less than a year the 2001 general election returned Mark Hendrick with a much healthier 12,200 majority, up against South Ribble councillor Graham O'Hare for the Conservatives and the local Liberal Democrat leader Bill Chadwick.
In real terms, all three main parties lost support from 1