Royal Society of Edinburgh
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters. It is a registered charity, operating on a wholly independent and non-party-political basis and providing public benefit throughout Scotland, it was established in 1783. As of 2017, it has more than 1,660 Fellows; the Society covers a broader selection of fields than the Royal Society of London including literature and history. Fellowship includes people from a wide range of disciplines – science & technology, humanities, social science and public service. At the start of the 18th century, Edinburgh's intellectual climate fostered many clubs and societies. Though there were several that treated the arts and medicine, the most prestigious was the Society for the Improvement of Medical Knowledge referred to as the Medical Society of Edinburgh, co-founded by the mathematician Colin Maclaurin in 1731. Maclaurin was unhappy with the specialist nature of the Medical Society, in 1737 a new, broader society, the Edinburgh Society for Improving Arts and Sciences and Natural Knowledge was split from the specialist medical organisation, which went on to become the Royal Medical Society.
The cumbersome name was changed the following year to the Edinburgh Philosophical Society. With the help of University of Edinburgh professors like Joseph Black, William Cullen and John Walker, this society transformed itself into the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1783 and in 1788 it issued the first volume of its new journal Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; as the end of the century drew near, the younger members such as Sir James Hall embraced Lavoisier's new nomenclature and the members split over the practical and theoretical objectives of the society. This resulted in the founding of the Wernerian Society, a parallel organisation that focused more upon natural history and scientific research that could be used to improve Scotland's weak agricultural and industrial base. Under the leadership of Prof. Robert Jameson, the Wernerians first founded Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society and the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, thereby diverting the output of the Royal Society's Transactions.
Thus, for the first four decades of the 19th century, the RSE's members published brilliant articles in two different journals. By the 1850s, the society once again unified its membership under one journal. During the 19th century the society contained many scientists whose ideas laid the foundation of the modern sciences. From the 20th century onward, the society functioned not only as a focal point for Scotland's eminent scientists, but the arts and humanities, it still continues to promote original research in Scotland. In February 2014, Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell was announced as the society's first female president, taking up her position in October; the Royal Society has been housed in a succession of locations: 1783–1807 – College Library, University of Edinburgh 1807–1810 – Physicians' Hall, George Street. The Royal Medals are awarded annually, preferably to people with a Scottish connection, who have achieved distinction and international repute in either Life Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Arts and Social Sciences or Business and Commerce.
The Medals were instituted in 2000 by Queen Elizabeth II, whose permission is required to make a presentation. Past winners include: The Lord Kelvin Medal is the Senior Prize for Physical and Informatics Sciences, it is awarded annually to a person who has achieved distinction nationally and internationally, who has contributed to wider society by the accessible dissemination of research and scholarship. Winners are required to deliver a public lecture in Scotland; the award is named after William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, a famous mathematical physicist and engineer, Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. Senior Prize-winners are required to have a Scottish connection but can be based anywhere in the world; the Keith medal has been awarded every four years for a scientific paper published in the society's scientific journals, preference being given to a paper containing a discovery. It is awarded alternately for papers on Environmental Sciences; the medal was founded in 1827 as a result of a bequest by Alexander Keith of Dunnottar, the first Treasurer of the Society.
The Makdougall Brisbane Prize has been awarded biennially, preferably to people working in Scotland, with no more than fifteen years post-doctoral experience, for particular distinction in the promotion of scientific research and is awarded sequentially to research workers in the Physical Sciences, Engineering Sciences and Biological Sciences. The prize was founded in 1855 by Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, the long-serving fourth President of the Society. The'Gunning Victoria Jubilee Prize Lectureship' is a quadrennial award to re
Sir Robert Arbuthnot, 4th Baronet
Rear-Admiral Sir Robert Keith Arbuthnot, 4th Baronet, was a British Royal Navy officer during World War I. He was killed at the Battle of Jutland, when the cruiser squadron he commanded came under heavy fire after a bold but ill-judged attack on the German battle fleet. Born in Alderminster to Major Sir William Arbuthnot, 3rd Baronet and Alice Margaret Thompson, he succeeded to his father's baronetcy on 5 June 1889. In 1904, he became a Member of the Royal Victorian Order. Arbuthnot had been a rugby three-quarter back who captained the United Service team and played for Hampshire, he was a boxing champion, who after dinner might spar with his guests. On one occasion when two sailors were found to be seeking revenge for a punishment, he issued them with boxing gloves and proceeded to take on and knock down the pair. On another occasion when three of his men launched a surprise attack against him while ashore, two had to be taken away to hospital, he was'almost the only who could be seen on the quarterdeck of the flagship doing three grand circles in succession on the horizontal bar'.
An interfleet crosscountry race was called "The Arbuthnot Trophy". He competed with it in the 1904 Bexhill Speed Trials. An enthusiastic member of the Motor Cycling Club, he kept his motorbike in his day cabin and engaged in long distance endurance races. In 1908, he came third in the single-cylinder class of the Isle of Man TT, an annual rally in the Isle of Man and a TT trophy for service members are named after him, he had been a member of the M. C. C. since 1898, had played for the Club, United Services, the Navy. There is a hamlet and post office named after him in Saskatchewan, he was married on 11 December 1897, to Lina MacLeay, daughter of Colonel Alexander Caldcleugh MacLeay. They had one daughter. Arbuthnot entered the navy in 1877 as a cadet in the training ship Britannia. Upon acquiring command rank, Arbuthnot developed a reputation as a dedicated but inflexible and detail-obsessed martinet, with a passion for "the highest authoritarian standard of discipline, mercilessly enforced." By the strict disciplinary standards of the Royal Navy, Arbuthnot's zeal was unusual.
While the book remains a valuable source of historical information on details of life aboard a battleship at this time, it made Arbuthnot the butt of so many jokes from his contemporaries that he allegedly requested it not be mentioned in his biographical entry in Who's Who in the Navy. Aside from his love of discipline, he continued his obsession with physical and spiritual fitness, spending several hours each day performing strenuous exercises on deck, rain or shine, attending daily church services and lecturing his crew on Christian virtue. Although regarded with bemused admiration by his superiors and respectful fear by his subordinates, his extreme nature caused some to consider him a fanatic. Following recovery, he was promoted to captain on 26 June 1902. In January 1910, while commanding officer of the battleship HMS Lord Nelson, Arbuthnot made a speech at the Auto-Cycle Union, at the time considered inflammatory considering that British flag officers were under standing orders to avoid political intrigues.
He spoke boldly of the German menace and insisted that urgent preparations against it were essential. He said that since the German Emperor came to the throne, he had been preparing for the invasion of the country. A General election was in progress and he urged that "to prevent that, the first thing to do was to keep the Liberals out of power". Arbuthnot's remarks caused consternation within the Royal Navy and a minor diplomatic incident with Germany, he was relieved of his command and placed on half-pay. However, shortly thereafter he was appointed to the submarine committee, appointed Commodore commanding the First Destroyer Flotilla at Harwich, where he remained 1910-1912, he was aide-de-camp to King George V from 1911 to 1912, was promoted to Rear-Admiral in July 1912. In 1913 he was appointed second-in-command of the Second Battle Squadron commanded by Vice-Admiral Sir George Warrender, flying his own flag from the dreadnought Orion. Following the outbreak of war in 1914, Arbuthnot's slavishly doctrinaire nature proved harmful to his command abilities during the German raid on Scarborough when he allowed a group of German light cruisers and destroyers to escape without resistance because he had not yet received official orders from Warrender to open fire.
Orion's captain, Frederic Charles Dreyer, had his 13.5 inch guns trained on the enemy ships and claimed that he requested permission to fire, but despite the battle having been joined for several hours, Arbuthnot refused to allow Dreyer to fire before receiving Warrender's explicit order to do so. By the time Warrender realized the ca
Court of the Lord Lyon
The Court of the Lord Lyon is a standing court of law which regulates heraldry in Scotland. The Lyon Court maintains the register of grants of arms, known as the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland, as well as records of genealogies; the Lyon Court is a public body, the fees for grants of arms are paid to HM Treasury. It is headed by the Lord Lyon King of Arms, who must be qualified, as he has criminal jurisdiction in heraldic matters, the court is integrated into the Scottish legal system, including having a dedicated prosecutor, known in Scotland as a procurator fiscal, its equivalent in England and Northern Ireland, in terms of awarding arms is the College of Arms, a royal corporation and not a court of law. The High Court of Chivalry is a civil court in England and Wales with jurisdiction over cases dealing with heraldry; the Lyon Court is directly responsible for the establishment of the rights to arms and pedigree. These can include the granting and regranting of armorial bearings by Letters Patent and various Birthbrieves, such as Diplomas of Nobility or of the Chiefship.
All of these actions must begin with a formal petition to the Court. When sufficient evidence is attested to these rights, a judicial'Interlocutor' or warrant will be issued by the Lord Lyon; this power of the Lord Lyon is derived from the monarch's royal prerogatives, delegated to the office by law. The warrant will authorise the Lyon Clerk and Keeper of the Records to prepare Letters Patent of the particular coat of arms or genealogy to be recorded in the: Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland or in the Public Register of All Genealogies and Birthbrieves in Scotland; the fees on all of these procedures are payable to the Exchequer. This is in contrast to the College of Arms in London, an independent corporate body and not a government department, therefore all fees are reinvested into the corporation; the Court does not have universal jurisdiction and cannot accept applications from abroad. According to the Court's official publication on its website, "the governing factor in the case of an original Grant of Arms is the domicile of the petitioner or the ownership of property in Scotland."
In the second case, when the petitioner is not able to reside on the land, e.g. forestry land, the land is not able to bring the owner into the Lord Lyon’s jurisdiction. One major exception from this principle applies to Commonwealth citizens if their local jurisdiction does not have its own heraldic office. "Commonwealth citizens, in particular those of Scottish descent - save for Canada and South Africa which have their own heraldic authorities - can apply to the Lord Lyon King of Arms." The penal aspect of the Court is concerned with the protection of the rights of both private individuals and of the Crown in Scottish armorial bearings. The Lord Lyon has control over messengers-at-arms, judicial officers responsible for serving documents and enforcing legal orders throughout Scotland; the protection of the rights to arms is of signal importance because of the fact that persons and corporation have paid fees to the Crown in return for exclusive rights to use those armorial bearings. A coat of arms can only belong to one particular person at a time.
Without such protection, a coat of arms would be useless as a form of identification and worthless as a piece of private property. Furthermore, a misappropriation or unauthorised use of a man's coat of arms is still considered a'real injury' under Scottish common law. Accordingly, an owner of a Scottish coat of arms may obtain a judicial order in the Court against anybody using his arms; the Crown and the public have an interest in these cases: the Crown has such an interest because, in Scotland, all fees on the registration of armorial bearings and pedigrees are payable to HM Treasury. Individual coats of arms are considered legal evidence, which means that they could be used in legal cases concerning the establishment of succession or identity; the Lyon Court, like all Scottish courts has a public prosecutor. He raises proceedings, when necessary, against those; the punishment for this offence is set out in several Scottish statutes acts. The court has the power to fine and to ensure items bearing the offending Arms are removed, destroyed or forfeited.
In lieu of the financial interests of the Treasury, the High Court of Justiciary, will therefore sometimes regard cases brought by the Procurator Fiscal to those of the Inland Revenue prosecution. Accordingly, an armorial offender was viewed as sternly as any other evading national taxation; this is in contrast to the Court of Chivalry in England, which has similar powers to the Lyon Court, but is a civil court, has met only once in the last 230 years, in 1954, is unlikely to sit again unless for a substantial cause. The punishment for the usurpation of arms were severe. In Acts dated 1592 and 1672, the Court was given the full power to imprison offenders. In 1669 the Court was given the power to issue letters of horning; as well as the full power: to erase unwarranted arms, to'dash them furth of' stained-glass windows and to break unwarranted seals. Where the cases involve forfeiture, the Court could grant a warrant for the seizure of movable goods and gear where unwarranted arms are found; the only judge of the Lyon Court is the Lord Lyon King of Arms.
The Lord Lyon is part of the judiciary of Scotland but is not s
Charles George Arbuthnot
Lieutenant General Sir Charles George Arbuthnot was a British Army officer. He served in the Royal Artillery in the Crimean War and rose to become a senior officer in British India. Arbuthnot was born on 19 May 1824 and was a twin, the son of Alexander Arbuthnot, Bishop of Killaloe, his older brother, Alexander John Arbuthnot, became a senior civil servant in India. His half-brother, George Bingham Arbuthnot, was an honorary major general and Colonel of the Madras Light Cavalry in India, he was educated at Rugby and attended the Royal Military Academy Arbuthnot was commissioned as second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery on 17 June 1843. He served in the Crimean War as a captain in the 10th Battalion of the Royal Artillery, he was wounded in minor actions near Sevastopol on 17 June 1855 and received a severe wound on 23 August 1855. He was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath advanced to become a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath and made Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in May 1894.
Arbuthnot went to India in 1868, was employed in the Anglo-Afghan War. In his personal life, he married Caroline Charlotte Clarke on 27 October 1868, she had been born in Barbados in 1845-6, where William Clarke, was a doctor. On his return to England in 1880, Arbuthnot was appointed deputy adjutant-general of artillery inspector-general of artillery, president of the ordinance committee. According to his article in the Dictionary of National Biography "his firmness and justice made him a respected administrator" Arbuthnot returned to India in 1886, to serve from February as Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army and from December as Commander-in-Chief of the Madras Army, he served as senior military adviser for the Madras Presidency until 1890. He was appointed Colonel Commandant, Royal Artillery in 1893. Arbuthnot died on 14 April 1899, survived by his children. One of his children, Alexander George Arbuthnot, would go on to enter the military himself, rising to the rank of brigadier general while serving with the Field Artillery.
A grandson, Charles Crombie, was a decorated flying ace of the Second World War. London Gazette, as cited in DNB J. R. J. Jocelyn, History of the Royal Artillery as cited in DNB The Times as cited in DNB Mrs P S-M Arbuthnot Memories of the Arbuthnots. George Allen & Unwin Ltd. Arbuthnot family tree
Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state granting an office, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation. Letters patent can be used for the creation of corporations or government offices, or for the granting of city status or a coat of arms. Letters patent are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown, such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms, as well as appointing a Royal Commission. In the United Kingdom they are issued for the creation of peers of the realm. A particular form of letters patent has evolved into the modern patent granting exclusive rights in an invention. In this case it is essential that the written grant should be in the form of a public document so other inventors can consult it to avoid infringement and to understand how to "practice" the invention, i.e. put it into practical use. In the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, imperial patent was the highest form of binding legal regulations, e. g.
Patent of Toleration, Serfdom Patent etc. The opposite of letters patent are letters close, which are personal in nature and sealed so that only the recipient can read their contents. Letters patent are thus comparable to other kinds of open letter, it is not clear how the contents of letters patent became published before collection by the addressee, for example whether they were left after sealing by the king for inspection during a certain period by courtiers in a royal palace, who would disseminate the contents back to the gentry in the shires through normal conversation and social intercourse. Today, for example, it is a convention for the British prime minister to announce that they have left a document they wish to enter the public domain "in the library of the House of Commons", where it may be perused by all members of parliament. Letters patent are so named from the Latin verb pateo, to lie open, accessible; the originator's seal was attached pendent from the document, so that it did not have to be broken in order for the document to be read.
Litterae in Latin meant "that, written" or "writing", in the sense of letters of the alphabet placed together in meaningful sequence on a writing surface, not a specific format of composition as the modern word "letter" suggests. Thus letters patent do not equate to an open letter but rather to any form of document, contract, despatch, decree, epistle etc. made public. They are called "letters" from their Latin name litterae patentes, used by medieval and scribes when the documents were written in Latin; this loanword preserves the collective plural "letters" Latin language uses to denote a message as opposed to a single alphabet letter. Letters patent are a form of open or public proclamation and a vestigial exercise of extra-parliamentary power by a monarch or president. Prior to the establishment of Parliament, the monarch ruled by the issuing of his personal written orders, open or closed, they can thus be contrasted with the Act of Parliament, in effect a written order by Parliament, approved by the monarch whose signature gives it force.
No explicit government approval is contained within letters patent, only the seal or signature of the monarch. Parliament today tolerates only a narrow exercise of the royal prerogative by issuance of letters patent, such documents are issued with prior informal government approval, or indeed are now generated by government itself with the monarch's seal affixed as a mere formality. In their original form they were written instructions or orders from the sovereign, whose order was law, which were made public to reinforce their effect. For the sake of good governance, it is of little use if the sovereign appoints a person to a position of authority but does not at the same time inform those over whom such authority is to be exercised of the validity of the appointment. According to the United Kingdom Ministry of Justice, there are 92 different types of letters patent; the Patent Rolls are made up of office copies of English royal letters patent, which run in an unbroken series from 1201 to the present day, with most of those to 1625 having been published.
The form of letters patent for creating peerages has been fixed by the Crown Office Order 1992. Part III of the schedule lays down nine pro forma texts for creating various ranks of the peerage, lords of appeal in ordinary, baronets; the following table organises the text from the letters patent by columns for each rank, with common text spanning multiple columns, depicting some of the similarities and differences among the proclamations. Gender-specific differences are highlighted in italics; the words "may have hold and possess" to "his heirs male aforesaid successively" and "have heretofore used and enjoyed or as they" were deleted for Dukes and Duchesses and Marchionesses, Earls and Countesses and hereditary Barons by the Crown Office Order 2000. In Commonwealth realms, letters patent are issued under the prerogative powers of the head of state, as an executive or royal prerogative, they are a rare, though significant, form of legislation which does not require the consent of parliament.
Letters patent may be used to grant royal assent to legislation. The primary source of letters patent in the United States are intelle
A baronet or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess, is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour, not a peerage, with the exception of the Anglo-Irish Black Knight, White Knight and Green Knight. A baronet is addressed as "Sir" or "Dame" in the case of a baronetess but ranks above all knighthoods and damehoods in the order of precedence, except for the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Thistle, the dormant Order of St Patrick. Baronets are conventionally seen to belong to the lesser nobility though William Thoms claims that "The precise quality of this dignity is not yet determined, some holding it to be the head of the nobiles minores, while others, rank Baronets as the lowest of the nobiles majores, because their honour, like that of the higher nobility, is both hereditary and created by patent."Comparisons with continental titles and ranks are tenuous due to the British system of primogeniture and the fact that claims to baronetcies must be proven.
In practice this means that the UK Peerage and Baronetage consists of about 2000 families, 0.01% of UK families. In some continental countries the nobility consisted of about 5% of the population, in most countries titles are no longer recognised or regulated by the state; the term baronet has medieval origins. Sir Thomas de La More, describing the Battle of Boroughbridge, mentioned that baronets took part, along with barons and knights. Edward III is known to have created eight baronets in 1328. Present-day Baronets date from 1611 when James I granted Letters Patent to 200 gentlemen of good birth with an income of at least £1,000 a year. In 1619 James I established the Baronetage of Ireland; the new baronets were each required to pay 2,000 marks or to support six colonial settlers for two years. Over a hundred of these baronetcies, now familiarly known as Scottish baronetcies, survive to this day; as a result of the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, all future creations were styled baronets of Great Britain.
Following the Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, new creations were styled as baronets of the United Kingdom. Under royal warrants of 1612 and 1613, certain privileges were accorded to baronets. Firstly, no person or persons should have the younger sons of peers. Secondly, the right of knighthood was established for the eldest sons of baronets, thirdly, baronets were allowed to augment their armorial bearings with the Arms of Ulster on an inescutcheon: "in a field Argent, a Hand Geules"; these privileges were extended to baronets of Ireland, for baronets of Scotland the privilege of depicting the Arms of Nova Scotia as an augmentation of honour. The former applies to this day for all baronets of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom created subsequently; the title of baronet was conferred upon noblemen who lost the right of individual summons to Parliament, was used in this sense in a statute of Richard II. A similar title of lower rank was banneret. Since 1965 only one new baronetcy has been created, for Sir Denis Thatcher on 7 December 1990, husband of a former British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher.
Like knights, baronets are accorded the style "Sir" before their first name. Baronetesses in their own right use "Dame" before their first name, while wives of baronets use "Lady" followed by the husband's surname only, this by longstanding courtesy. Wives of baronets are not baronetesses. Unlike knighthoods – which apply to the recipient only – a baronetcy is hereditarily entailed; the eldest son of a baronet, born in wedlock succeeds to a baronetcy upon his father's death, but will not be recognised until his name is recognised by being placed on the Official Roll. With some exceptions granted with special remainder by letters patent, baronetcies descend through the male line. A full list of extant baronets appears in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, which published a record of extinct baronetcies. A baronetcy is not a peerage, so baronets like knights and junior members of peerage families are commoners and not peers of the realm. According to the Home Office there is a tangible benefit to the honour of baronet: according to law, a baronet is entitled to have "a pall supported by two men, a principal mourner and four others" assisting at his funeral.
Baronets had other rights, including the right to have the eldest son knighted on his 21st birthday. However, at the beginning of George IV's reign, these rights were eroded by Orders-in-Council on the grounds that Sovereigns should not be bound by acts made by their predecessors. Baronets although never having been automatically entitled to heraldic supporters, were allowed them in heredity in the first half of the 19th century where the title holder was a