A baronet or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess, is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour, not a peerage, with the exception of the Anglo-Irish Black Knight, White Knight and Green Knight. A baronet is addressed as "Sir" or "Dame" in the case of a baronetess but ranks above all knighthoods and damehoods in the order of precedence, except for the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Thistle, the dormant Order of St Patrick. Baronets are conventionally seen to belong to the lesser nobility though William Thoms claims that "The precise quality of this dignity is not yet determined, some holding it to be the head of the nobiles minores, while others, rank Baronets as the lowest of the nobiles majores, because their honour, like that of the higher nobility, is both hereditary and created by patent."Comparisons with continental titles and ranks are tenuous due to the British system of primogeniture and the fact that claims to baronetcies must be proven.
In practice this means that the UK Peerage and Baronetage consists of about 2000 families, 0.01% of UK families. In some continental countries the nobility consisted of about 5% of the population, in most countries titles are no longer recognised or regulated by the state; the term baronet has medieval origins. Sir Thomas de La More, describing the Battle of Boroughbridge, mentioned that baronets took part, along with barons and knights. Edward III is known to have created eight baronets in 1328. Present-day Baronets date from 1611 when James I granted Letters Patent to 200 gentlemen of good birth with an income of at least £1,000 a year. In 1619 James I established the Baronetage of Ireland; the new baronets were each required to pay 2,000 marks or to support six colonial settlers for two years. Over a hundred of these baronetcies, now familiarly known as Scottish baronetcies, survive to this day; as a result of the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, all future creations were styled baronets of Great Britain.
Following the Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, new creations were styled as baronets of the United Kingdom. Under royal warrants of 1612 and 1613, certain privileges were accorded to baronets. Firstly, no person or persons should have the younger sons of peers. Secondly, the right of knighthood was established for the eldest sons of baronets, thirdly, baronets were allowed to augment their armorial bearings with the Arms of Ulster on an inescutcheon: "in a field Argent, a Hand Geules"; these privileges were extended to baronets of Ireland, for baronets of Scotland the privilege of depicting the Arms of Nova Scotia as an augmentation of honour. The former applies to this day for all baronets of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom created subsequently; the title of baronet was conferred upon noblemen who lost the right of individual summons to Parliament, was used in this sense in a statute of Richard II. A similar title of lower rank was banneret. Since 1965 only one new baronetcy has been created, for Sir Denis Thatcher on 7 December 1990, husband of a former British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher.
Like knights, baronets are accorded the style "Sir" before their first name. Baronetesses in their own right use "Dame" before their first name, while wives of baronets use "Lady" followed by the husband's surname only, this by longstanding courtesy. Wives of baronets are not baronetesses. Unlike knighthoods – which apply to the recipient only – a baronetcy is hereditarily entailed; the eldest son of a baronet, born in wedlock succeeds to a baronetcy upon his father's death, but will not be recognised until his name is recognised by being placed on the Official Roll. With some exceptions granted with special remainder by letters patent, baronetcies descend through the male line. A full list of extant baronets appears in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, which published a record of extinct baronetcies. A baronetcy is not a peerage, so baronets like knights and junior members of peerage families are commoners and not peers of the realm. According to the Home Office there is a tangible benefit to the honour of baronet: according to law, a baronet is entitled to have "a pall supported by two men, a principal mourner and four others" assisting at his funeral.
Baronets had other rights, including the right to have the eldest son knighted on his 21st birthday. However, at the beginning of George IV's reign, these rights were eroded by Orders-in-Council on the grounds that Sovereigns should not be bound by acts made by their predecessors. Baronets although never having been automatically entitled to heraldic supporters, were allowed them in heredity in the first half of the 19th century where the title holder was a
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Thomas Goodwin, known as "the Elder", was an English Puritan theologian and preacher, an important leader of religious Independents. He served as chaplain to Oliver Cromwell, was imposed by Parliament as President of Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1650. Christopher Hill places Goodwin in the "main stream of Puritan thought", he studied at Cambridge from August 1613. He was an undergraduate of Christ's College, graduating with a B. A. in 1616. In 1619 he removed to Catharine Hall. At this time he was influenced by John Rogers of Dedham. Goodwin rode 35 miles from Cambridge to Dedham to hear this Puritan preacher. In 1625 he was licensed a preacher of the university. Worried by his bishop, a zealous adherent of William Laud, he resigned all his preferments and left the university in 1634, he lived for some time in London. In 1639 he fled to Holland to escape persecution. For some time was pastor of a small congregation of English refugees at Arnhem, he returned shortly after the inception of the Long Parliament.
He ministered for some years to the Independent congregation meeting at Paved Alley Church, Lime Street, in the parish of St Dunstans-in-the-East, rose to considerable eminence as a preacher. In 1643 he was chosen a member of the Westminster Assembly, at once identified himself with the Independent party referred to in contemporary documents as the "dissenting brethren" and was one of the authors of An Apologeticall Narration, he preached by appointment before the Commons, in January 1650 his talents and learning were rewarded by the House with the presidency of Magdalen College, Oxford, a post which he held until the Restoration of 1660. In December 1655 Goodwin attended the Whitehall Conference on the resettlement on the Jews, where he argued for readmittance on the grounds that England was being punished by God for not readmitting the Jews, necessary for their conversion, he was chaplain to Oliver Cromwell from 1656. He rose into high favour with the Protector, was one of his intimate advisers, attending him on his death-bed.
He was a commissioner for the inventory of the Westminster Assembly, 1650, for the approbation of preachers, 1653, together with John Owen led a committee of six that drew up the Savoy Declaration, an amended form of Westminster Confession in 1658. From 1660 until his death, he lived in London, in the parish of St Bartholomew-the-Great, devoted himself to theological study and to the pastoral charge of the Fetter Lane Independent Church. By the early 1670s he was in poor health, he died on 23 February 1680, he was buried in Bunhill Fields burial ground: the Latin epitaph for his tomb, composed by Thomas Gilbert, was censored. The works published by Goodwin during his lifetime consist chiefly of sermons printed by order of the House of Commons, he was associated with Philip Nye and others in the preparation of the Apologeticall Narration. In 1645 Goodwin published his treatise The Heart of Christ in Heaven towards Sinners on Earth, reprinted, translated into German; this work has been claimed to be an inspiration for the Roman Catholic devotion to the Sacred Heart.
Five volumes of his sermons and other works were published from 1682 to 1704. They have been reprinted at least 47 times, his collected writings, which include expositions of the Epistle to the Ephesians and of the Apocalypse, were published in five folio volumes between 1681 and 1704, were reprinted in twelve 8vo volumes. Edmund Calamy the Elder's estimated Goodwin's qualities as a considerable scholar and an eminent divine, had a happy faculty in descanting upon Scripture so as to bring forth surprising remarks, which yet tended to illustration. A memoir, derived from his own papers, by his son Thomas Goodwin the Younger, Independent minister at London and Pinner, author of the History of the Reign of Henry V) is prefixed to the fifth volume of his collected works; as a patriarch and Atlas of Independency he is noticed by Anthony Wood in the Athenae Oxonienses. An amusing sketch, from Joseph Addison's point of view, of the austere and somewhat fanatical president of Magdalen, is preserved in No. 494 of The Spectator.
Jones, Mark. Why Heaven Kissed Earth: The Christology of the Puritan Reformed Orthodox theologian, Thomas Goodwin. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 352556905X. Lawrence, T. M.. "Goodwin, Thomas". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/10996. Works by Thomas Goodwin at Post-Reformation Digital Library Sermons by Thomas Goodwin Biography from puritansermons.com A blog devoted to Thomas Goodwin's writings and thought An index to literature by and about Goodwin from newble.co.uk This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Goodwin, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 239–240
Philip Nye was a leading English Independent theologian and a member of the Westminster Assembly of Divines He was the key adviser to Oliver Cromwell on matters of religion and regulation of the Church. Philip Nye was born into a middle class family in Sussex in England, in 1596, he entered Oxford as a commoner of Brazen-noze College, July 21, 1615. Afterwards he went to Oxford where he studied under a Puritanical tutor, he graduated from Magdalen Hall, Oxford with an Arts degree in 1619 and with M. A. in 1622. Afterwards he entered holy orders and became curate of St. Michael's Church in Cornhill, near London, he fled to Holland, spending the years 1633 to 1640 in exile. He had the parish of Acton, he was employed by Parliament, on a mission to the imprisoned Charles I. He was one of the Five Dissenting Brethren in the Westminster Assembly, a leader of the group alongside Thomas Goodwin. With support from Lord Kimbolton he had influential connections with the Parliamentary Army, had the living of Kimbolton in Huntingdonshire.
According to Ivan Roots, the eventual ecclesiastical settlement under the Protectorate followed proposals from 1652, outlined by Nye with John Owen and others. Nye promoted the Solemn League and Covenant. Nye along with Stephen Marshall "were sent with the commissioners who went from the English Parliament into Scotland, in order to obtain and establish an agreement with the Scottish nation, to desire their assistance."In 1647, he was one of the preachers who went from the Parliament to King Charles I on the isle of Wight, in order to save his soul and build a political settlement. Samuel Butler wrote the poem Upon Philip Nye's Thanksgiving Beard about him and mentioned him in Hudibras; when the monarchy was restored, Nye was excluded from the general pardon. That should have meant being hung and quartered; however he was included afterwards in the Bill of Indemnity on the condition that he did not accept any ecclesiastical, military or public office. Instead he worked for an independent church as a Doctor of theology, until his death in 1672.
With Goodwin, he was a co-author of the Apologeticall Narration, pleading for toleration of Calvinist congregations outside a proposed Presbyterian national church. The presented the text to parliament on 3 January 1644, they argued that the congregational churches were closer to the practice of the early Christians and that they were more suited to the changeability of contemporary times. This tactic meant they could avoid having their views debated at the Westminster Assembly, where they would have been outnumbered, outvoted. In the Whitehall Debates of 1648, however, he supported Henry Ireton's view that toleration should be limited by the state, he was one of those agitating against the Racovian Catechism. Nye was famous for supporting religious independence. In this view he opposed "a presbytery with a civil state", but otherwise liked Presbyterianism for its staunch scriptural views. He, along with Thomas Goodwin, advocated allowing Jews to return to England and forcefully plead for their readmission.
In this plea they were acting with Cromwell's direct encouragement. However wild anti-Semitic rumours and general public antipathy made readmission politically impossible, he was strong an opponent of superstition in general. Philip Nye, Two speeches delivered before the subscribing of the Covenant, the 25. of September, at St. Margarets in Westminster, Edinburgh: Printed by Robert Bryson Philip Nye, An exhortation to the taking of the Solemne League and Covenant for reformation and defence of religion, the honour and happinesse of the King, the peace and safety of the three kingdomes of England and Ireland, London: s.n. Philip Nye, An exhortation to the taking of the Solemne league and covenant for reformation and defence of religion, the hononr [sic] and happinesse of the king, the peace and safety of the three kingdomes of England and Ireland, Printed at London: For Ralph Smith... Philip Nye, The Excellency and Lawfulnesse of the Solemne League and Covenant, London: Printed by W. Wilson Philip Nye, A declaration of the faith and order owned and practised in the Congregational Churches of England.
1658, London: Printed by John Field Philip Nye, Beames of former light, discovering how evil it is to impose doubtfull and disputable formes or practises, upon ministers, London: Printed by R. I. for A. Byfield Philip Nye, The lawfulnes of the oath of supremacy and power of the civil magistrate in ecclesiastical affairs: and subordination of churches thereunto, London: printed by Peter Cole at the Printing-press in Cornhil neer the Royal Exchange Philip Nye, A case of great and present use, London: Philip Nye, The lawfulnes of hearing the publick ministers of the Church of England proved, London: Printed for Jonathan Robinson... Philip Nye, The lawfulnes of the oath of supremacy, power of the King in ecclesiastical affairs, London: Printed for Jonathan Robinson... and Samuel Crowch... Philip Nye, The King's authority in dispensing with ecclesiastical laws asserted and vindicated, London: Printed for H. N. and Nathanael Ranew
Flamborough is a village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is situated 4 miles north-east of Bridlington town centre on the prominent coastal feature of Flamborough Head; the most prominent man-made feature of the area is Flamborough Head Lighthouse. The headland extends into the North Sea by 6 miles. To the north, the chalk cliffs stand at up to 400 feet high. For information about its founding, see Thorgils Skarthi. According to the 2011 UK Census, Flamborough parish had a population of 2,161, an increase on the 2001 UK Census figure of 2,121; the church of St Oswald stands in the village and was designated a Grade II* listed building in 1966 and is now recorded in the National Heritage List for England, maintained by Historic England. The village centre contains a number of public houses; the Old Dog and Duck is at Duck Square. In the village are the fragmentary remains of Flamborough Castle, a medieval fortified manor house. In 1823 the village was a parish in the Wapentake of Dickering.
Flamborough was recorded as "merely a fishing village" with a "very ancient station of some note". The population at the time was 917. Occupations included eleven farmers, two blacksmiths, two butchers, two grocers, seven carpenters, four shoemakers, three tailors, a stone mason & flour dealer, a bacon & flour dealer, a weaver, a corn miller, a straw hat manufacturer, the landlords of the Sloop, the Board and the Dog and Duck public houses. Listed was a schoolmaster and a gentlewoman. Four carriers operated in the village, destinations being Hull and York twice a week, Bridlington, daily. With St Oswald's Church was a Primitive Methodist chapel. According to local legend, the village is haunted by the ghost of a suicide known as Jenny Gallows. Flamborough, with its holiday camps and a caravan park, is a holiday destination during the summer months; the village holds an annual Fire Festival on New Year's Eve. In 2018 the beach at Flamborough was used in the filming of the ITV drama Victoria. Flamborough Lifeboat Station Media related to Flamborough at Wikimedia Commons Flamborough in the Domesday Book Flamborough Parish Council Website East Riding website Local Author Flamborough Information
High Court of Justice for the trial of King Charles I
For the modern court, see High Court of Justice. The High Court of Justice was the court established by the Rump Parliament to try King Charles I of England; this was an ad hoc tribunal created for the purpose of trying the king, although the name was used for subsequent courts. After the first English Civil War, the parliamentarians accepted the premise that the King, although wrong, had been able to justify his fight, that he would still be entitled to limited powers as King under a new constitutional settlement. By provoking the second Civil War while defeated and in captivity, Charles was held responsible for unjustifiable bloodshed; the secret "Engagement" treaty with the Scots was considered unpardonable. Cromwell up to this point had supported negotiations with the king but now rejected further negotiations. In making war against Parliament, the king had caused the deaths of thousands. Estimated deaths from the first two English civil wars has been reported as 84,830 killed with estimates of another 100,000 dying from war-related disease."
The population of England in 1650 was estimated at only 5.1 million, meaning that the war deaths totalled 3.6 percent of the population. Following the second civil war, the New Model Army and the Independents in Parliament were determined that the King should be punished, but they did not command a majority. Parliament debated whether to return the King to power and those who still supported Charles's place on the throne Presbyterians, tried once more to negotiate with him. Furious that Parliament continued to countenance Charles as King, troops of the New Model Army marched on Parliament and purged the House of Commons in an act known as "Pride's Purge" after the commanding officer of the operation. On Wednesday, 6 December 1648, Colonel Thomas Pride's Regiment of Foot took up position on the stairs leading to the House, while Nathaniel Rich’s Regiment of Horse provided backup. Pride himself stood at the top of the stairs; as Members of Parliament arrived, he checked them against the list provided to him.
Troops kept 146 out of parliament. Only 75 were allowed in, only at the army's bidding. On 13 December, the "Rump Parliament", as the purged House of Commons came to be known, broke off negotiations with the King. Two days the Council of Officers of the New Model Army voted that the King be moved to Windsor "in order to the bringing of him speedily to justice". In the middle of December, the King was moved from Windsor to London. Neither the involvement of Parliament in ending a reign, nor the idea of trying a monarch was novel. Parliament had asked for the abdication of Edward II, charged with incompetence. Parliament accepted the resignation of Richard II. However, in both these cases, Parliament acted at the behest of the new monarch. Parliament had established a regency council for Henry VI, although this was at the instigation of senior noblemen and parliament claimed to be acting in the King's name. In the case of Lady Jane Grey, Parliament rescinded her proclamation as queen, she was subsequently tried and executed for high treason, but she was not brought to trial while still a reigning monarch.
After the King had been moved to London, the Rump Parliament passed a Bill setting up what was described as a High Court of Justice in order to try Charles I for high treason in the name of the people of England. The bill nominated 3 judges and 150 commissioners, but following opposition in the House of Lords, the judges and members of the Lords were removed; when the trial began, there were 135 commissioners who were empowered to try the King although only 68 would sit in judgement. The Solicitor General John Cook was appointed prosecutor. Charles was accused of treason against England by using his power to pursue his personal interest rather than the good of England; the charge against Charles I stated that the king, "for accomplishment of such his designs, for the protecting of himself and his adherents in his and their wicked practices, to the same ends hath traitorously and maliciously levied war against the present Parliament, the people therein represented...", that the "wicked designs and evil practices of him, the said Charles Stuart, have been, are carried on for the advancement and upholding of a personal interest of will and pretended prerogative to himself and his family, against the public interest, common right, liberty and peace of the people of this nation."
The indictment held him "guilty of all the treasons, rapines, spoils, desolations and mischiefs to this nation and committed in the said wars, or occasioned thereby."Although the House of Lords refused to pass the bill and the Royal Assent was lacking, the Rump Parliament referred to the ordinance as an "Act" and pressed on with the trial anyway. The intention to place the King on trial was re-affirmed on 6 January by a vote of 29 to 26 with An Act of the Commons Assembled in Parliament. At the same time, the number of commissioners was reduced to 135 – any twenty of whom would form a quorum – when the judges, members of the House of Lords and others who might be sympathetic to the King were removed; the commissioners met to make arrangements for the trial on 8 January when well under half were present - a pattern, to be repeated at subsequent sessions. On 10 January, John Bradshaw was chosen as President of the Court. During the following ten days, arrangements for the trial were completed.
Baron Stafford, referring to the town of Stafford, is a title, created several times in the Peerage of England. In the 14th century, the barons of the first creation were made earls; those of the fifth creation, in the 17th century, became first viscounts and earls. Since 1913, the title has been held by the Fitzherbert family; the first creation was by writ in 1299 for Edmond de Stafford. His successor, the second baron, was made Earl of Stafford in 1351, the sixth earl was made Duke of Buckingham in 1444; the sixth earl was the son of Anne of Gloucester, Countess of Buckingham, daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, Earl of Buckingham, youngest son of King Edward III of England. Stafford was an important supporter of the House of Lancaster in the Wars of the Roses, was killed at the Battle of Northampton in July 1460; the 1st Duke of Buckingham was succeeded in his titles by his grandson Henry, who aided Richard III in his claiming the throne in 1483, but who led a revolt against Richard. He was executed for treason in 1483 and his titles were declared forfeit.
His son Edward was restored as 3rd Duke upon Henry VII's accession to the throne in 1485, but he was executed in 1521 due to his opposition to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Henry VIII's chief advisor. When he was executed for treason, his titles were declared forfeit. A second creation, again by writ, was for Richard Stafford, created Baron Stafford of Clifton. At the death of the fourth baron, that title fell into abeyance; the third creation was in 1411 for a son of Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford. Hugh was summoned to Parliament as Baron Stafford. At his death, this title became extinct; the fourth creation was in 1547 for Henry Stafford. In 1558, his title was recognized as carrying precedence from 1299, so he is in fact the 10th Baron; the fifth creation of the title came in 1640 in favour of William Howard. He was the third and youngest son of Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, grandson of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, he married Mary Stafford, only sister of Henry Stafford, 5th Baron de Stafford.
On 12 September 1640 William Howard was created Baron Stafford, with remainder, in default of heirs male of the body, to the heirs of his body by his wife Mary and with the precedence of the 1547 barony. The same day Mary was made Baroness Stafford in her own right; this title was for life only. Two months on 11 November, William Howard was created Viscount Stafford, with remainder to his issue male. Lord Stafford became implicated in the Titus Oates plot, where fabricated evidence was used to prove an alleged Catholic plot against Charles II, he was attainted with his titles forfeited. In 1680, he was executed. After the accession of the Catholic James II, Baroness Stafford, was created Countess of Stafford for life in 1688. On the same day, her eldest son by Lord Stafford, Henry Stafford-Howard, was created Earl of Stafford, with remainder to his brothers John and Francis. However, he was not allowed to succeed in the barony or viscountcy of Stafford as these titles were still under attainder.
Henry was succeeded according to the special remainder by the second Earl. He was succeeded by the third Earl; when he died childless, the title passed to the fourth Earl. He was childless and on his death in 1762 the earldom became extinct; the claim to the barony of Stafford passed to the late Earl's niece, the de jure sixth Baroness Stafford. She was the daughter of the second Earl of Stafford. However, Anastasia was childless and on her death in 1807 the claim passed to her first cousin once removed, Sir William Jerningham, 6th Baronet, of Cossey, he was the son of Sir George Jerningham, 5th Baronet, his wife Mary, Lady Jerningham, only daughter of Mary Plowden, sister of the fourth Earl of Stafford. Jerningham died in 1809, when the claim passed to his son Sir George William Jerningham, 7th Baronet, he petioned the House of Lords for a writ of summons Parliament. In 1824 the attainder of the first Baron was reversed, on 6 July 1825 the House of Lords decided that Jerningham had been successful in his claim to the barony.
He was summoned to Parliament the same year as the eighth Baron Stafford. In 1826 he assumed by arms of Stafford, he was succeeded by the ninth Baron. He had earlier represented Pontefract in the House of Commons; when he died the titles passed to his nephew, the tenth Baron, to the latter's brother, the eleventh Baron. On the eleventh Baron's death in 1913 the barony and baronetcy separated; the baronetcy was passed on to 11th Baronet. The barony, which could be inherited through female lines, was passed on to the late Baron's nephew Francis Edward Fitzherbert, the twelfth Baron, he was the son of Emily Charlotte and her husband, Basi