San Pietro Island
San Pietro Island is an island 7 kilometres off the South western Coast of Sardinia, facing the Sulcis peninsula. With 51 square kilometres it is the sixth largest island of Italy by area; the 6,000 inhabitants are concentrated in the fishing town of Carloforte, the only comune in the island. It is included in the province of South Sardinia, it is named after Saint Peter. The island is connected by regular ferry service to Calasetta; the island is of volcanic origin. The rocks are of Cenozoic age, include basalt and rhyolite; the 18 kilometres of its coasts are rocky. The eastern coast, on which the port of Carloforte lies, is more protected sandy. Off the north-western coast are two small islands, the Isola dei Ratti and Isola Piana; the latter includes the remains of one of the largest tonnara in Italy, now turned into a tourist resort. The island streams, but features numerous ponds and marshes; the interior is hilly, the highest points being Bricco Tortoriso. The vegetation is that typical of the Mediterranean coast, with Cistus, strawberry tree, Aleppo pine and holm oak.
Here groves of oak and pine with clearings that are cultivated, populated with scattered houses. Cultivation, held in the eastern and more protected region, includes grape and Indian fig; the western part exposed to the prevailing wind, the mistral, is more arid, with low scrub vegetation and uninhabited. The climate is temperate-hot; the island is connected to the Sardinia, to the next island of Sant'Antioco by two ferry lines. The island has been known since ancient times; the Phoenicians called it Enosim or Inosim, while for the Greek it was Hieracon Nesos and for the Romans Accipitrum Insula. The latter is derived from the presence of the small Eleonora's falcon, still present on the island. San Pietro is home today to remains from the Phoenician and Sardinian civilizations. According to a legend, the island is so named because St. Peter visited the island in 46 AD. In 1739 century the then-uninhabited San Pietro was colonized by people of Ligurian language and ethnicity, they had fled the Republic of Genoa's colony on the small Tunisian island of Tabarka, established in 1542 for the purpose of coral fishing, after it had been taken over by the Bey of Tunisia.
Today most of the population has retained a variant of the Genoese dialect, called Tabarchino, spoken in Calasetta, in the northern part of the neighboring Sant'Antioco island, whose residents are of the same origin. The island is twinned with the Spanish island of Tabarca, settled by former residents of the Tabarkan colony; the town of Carloforte on the Island of San Pietro was dedicated to Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia, who had granted the island to the Tabarkan refugees. List of islands of Italy Genoese-Tabarka diaspora Tabarka Calasetta Tabarca Simone Baldo, The new continent. San Pietro island. Sardinia. 2015, Private Edition
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica. Sardinia is politically a region of Italy, whose official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna, enjoys some degree of domestic autonomy granted by a specific Statute, it is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city, with Cagliari being the region's capital and its largest city. Sardinia's indigenous language and the other minority languages spoken on the island are recognized by the regional law and enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian. Due to the variety of its ecosystems, which include mountains, plains uninhabited territories, rocky coasts and long sandy beaches, the island has been defined metaphorically as a micro-continent. In the modern era, many travelers and writers have extolled the beauty of its untouched landscape, which houses the vestiges of the Nuragic civilization; the name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *srd- romanised as sardus.
It makes its first appearance on the Nora Stone, where the word Šrdn testifies to the name's existence when the Phoenician merchants first arrived. According to Timaeus, one of Plato's dialogues and its people as well might have been named after a legendary woman going by Sardò, born in Sardis, capital of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia. There has been speculation that identifies the ancient Nuragic Sards with the Sherden, one of the Sea Peoples, it is suggested that the name had a religious connotation from its use as the adjective for the ancient Sardinian mythological hero-god Sardus Pater, as well as being the stem of the adjective "sardonic". In Classical antiquity, Sardinia was called a number of names besides Sardò or Sardinia, like Ichnusa and Argirofleps. Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 24,100 square kilometres, it is situated between 8 ° 8' and 9 ° 50' east longitude. To the west of Sardinia is the Sea of Sardinia, a unit of the Mediterranean Sea.
The nearest land masses are the island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Tunisia, the Balearic Islands, Provence. The Tyrrhenian Sea portion of the Mediterranean Sea is directly to the east of Sardinia between the Sardinian east coast and the west coast of the Italian mainland peninsula; the Strait of Bonifacio is directly north of Sardinia and separates Sardinia from the French island of Corsica. The coasts of Sardinia are high and rocky, with long straight stretches of coastline, many outstanding headlands, a few wide, deep bays, many inlets and with various smaller islands off the coast; the island has an ancient geoformation and, unlike Sicily and mainland Italy, is not earthquake-prone. Its rocks date in fact from the Palaeozoic Era. Due to long erosion processes, the island's highlands, formed of granite, trachyte, basalt and dolomite limestone, average at between 300 to 1,000 metres; the highest peak is part of the Gennargentu Ranges in the centre of the island. Other mountain chains are Monte Limbara in the northeast, the Chain of Marghine and Goceano running crosswise for 40 kilometres towards the north, the Monte Albo, the Sette Fratelli Range in the southeast, the Sulcis Mountains and the Monte Linas.
The island's ranges and plateaux are separated by wide alluvial valleys and flatlands, the main ones being the Campidano in the southwest between Oristano and Cagliari and the Nurra in the northwest. Sardinia has few major rivers, the largest being the Tirso, 151 km long, which flows into the Sea of Sardinia, the Coghinas and the Flumendosa. There are 54 artificial dams that supply water and electricity; the main ones are Lake Coghinas. The only natural freshwater lake is Lago di Baratz. A number of large, salt-water lagoons and pools are located along the 1,850 km of the coastline; the climate of the island is variable from area to area, due to several factors including the extension in latitude and the elevation. It can be classified in two different macrobioclimates, one macrobioclimatic variant, called Submediterranean, four classes of continentality, eight thermotypic horizons and seven ombrotypic horizons, resulting in a combination of 43 different isobioclimates. During the year there is a major concentration
Graham Island (Mediterranean Sea)
Graham Island is a submerged volcanic island in the Mediterranean Sea. It was discovered when it last appeared on 1 August 1831 by Humphrey Fleming Senhouse, the captain of the first rate Royal Navy ship of the line St Vincent and named after Sir James Graham, the First Lord of the Admiralty, it was claimed by the United Kingdom. It forms part of the underwater volcano Empedocles, 30 km south of Sicily, and, one of a number of submarine volcanoes known as the Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia. Seamount eruptions have raised it above sea level several times; when it last rose above sea level after erupting in 1831, a four-way dispute over its sovereignty began, still unresolved when it disappeared beneath the waves again in early 1832. During its brief life, French geologist Constant Prévost was on hand, accompanied by an artist, to witness it in July 1831; some observers at the time wondered if a chain of mountains would spring up, linking Sicily to Tunisia and thus upsetting the geopolitics of the region.
It showed signs of volcanic activity in 2002, forecasting a possible appearance. Graham Island lies in a volcanic area known as the Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia, in between Sicily and Tunisia in the Mediterranean Sea. Many submarine volcanoes exist in the region, as well as some volcanic islands such as Pantelleria. Volcanic activity at Graham Island was first reported during the First Punic War, the island has appeared and disappeared four or five times. Several eruptions have been reported since the 17th century. Graham Island's most recent appearance as an island was in July 1831; the first signs of an eruption was a period of high seismic activity spanning from 28 June to 10 July reported by the nearby town of Sciacca. On July 4, an odor of sulfur spread through the town in such quantities that it blackened silver. On 13 July, a column of smoke was seen from St. Domenico; the residents believed it to be a ferry on fire. On the same day, the brig Gustavo passed through the area, confirming a bubbling in the sea that the captain thought was a sea monster.
Another ship reported dead fish floating in the water. By 17 July, a grown islet had formed. On 1 August 1831, Humphrey Fleming Senhouse, the captain of the first rate Royal Navy ship of the line HMS St Vincent claimed the Island for the British Crown and named it after Sir James Graham, the First Lord of the Admiralty; the eruptions of 1831 resulted in the island increasing in size to about 4 km. However, it was composed of loose tephra eroded by wave action, when the eruptive episode ended it subsided, disappearing beneath the waves in January 1832, before the issue of its sovereignty could be resolved. Fresh eruptions in 1863 caused the island to reappear before again sinking below sea level. At its maximum, it was 63 m in height, it sported two small lakes, the larger of, 20 metres in circumference and 2 m in depth. Graham Island was subject to a four-way dispute over its sovereignty claimed for the United Kingdom and given the name Graham Island; the King of the Two Sicilies, Ferdinand II, after whom Sicilians named the island Ferdinandea, sent ships to the nascent island to claim it for the Bourbon crown.
The French Navy made a landing, called the island Julia. Spain declared its territorial ambitions; each wanted the island for its useful position in the Mediterranean trade route and its close position to Spain and Italy. In August 1831, the volcano had risen to above sea level, although still only a couple of rocks, but the Royal Navy thought it was suitable as a base to control the traffic in the Mediterranean, as it was closer to the European continent than the island of Malta; the small volcanic point was an important strategic point in the Mediterranean to the world's premier maritime power of the time, being closer to Spain and Italy than Malta, the next closest. The British fleet landed, named it Graham Island, after Sir James Graham, the First Lord of the Admiralty, planted their flag, the Union Jack; the King of Sicily realized its strategic significance, dispatched the corvette Etna to claim the new land and dub it Ferdinandea in honor of King Ferdinand II. Last on the scene was Constant Prévost, a co-founder of the French Geological Society, who compared the eruption to a bottle of champagne being uncorked.
He named the island Julia, because it was born in July, also in reference to France’s July Monarchy. Diplomatic disputes over the island’s status ensued. For five months, conflict raged in newspapers and elsewhere as the different nations fought over a 60-metre-high piece of basalt. Tourists traveled to the island to see its two small lakes. Sailors watched it when passing by, nobles of the House of Bourbon planned to set up a holiday resort on its beaches. None of these ideas came to fruition, however. By 17 December 1831, officials reported no trace of it; as dynamically as the seamount appeared, it disappeared. After 1863, the volcano lay dormant for its summit just 8 m below sea level. In 2000, renewed seismic activity around Graham Island led volcanologists to speculate that a new eruptive episode could be imminent, the seamount might once again become an island. To forest
Bergeggi is an island which lies in the Ligurian Sea off the coast near the village of Bergeggi in the Province of Savona, Italy. The island is around 8 hectares and its highest point is at 53 m. Punta Predani, a promontory on the mainland, is just a few hundreds metres from the island; the island bears evidences of a proto-historical Ligures' settlement. On its summit stands a watch tower and remains of a 4th-century church devoted to St. Eugenius. In 992 the bishop of Savona established a monastery on the island devoted to the saint, donated to Lérins Abbey's monks; the monastery's ruins are still visible on the island. The island with its surrounding marine area is protected as Riserva naturale regionale di Bergeggi, established in 1985 by the Legge Regionale Liguria n. 10 - Istituzione della riserva naturale regionale di Bergeggi. It is included in a SIC called Isola Bergeggi - Punta Predani. Among many interesting species living in the maquis shrubland covering most of the small island there are Campanula sabatia and Euphorbia dendroides.
Leali Rizzi, Tina. Penco, Adriano. Liguria in blu - Guida alle immersioni subacquee da Ventimiglia a La spezia. Le Mani-Microart'S, 2001. ISBN 88-8012-179-0. A. Maestri. Il culto di San Colombano in Italia. Archivio storico di Lodi. 1939 e segg. Archivum Bobiense Rivista annuale degli Archivi storici Bobiensi. Bobbio Mons. Antonio Giustiniani Annali della Repubblica di Genova Terza Edizione Genovese Vol.1 1854. Genova. Attilio Zuccagni-Orlandini Corografia fisica, storica e statistica dell'Italia e delle sue Isole Volume Duodecimo. 1842. Firenze. List of islands of Italy
Sant'Antioco is the name of both an island and a municipality in southwestern Sardinia, in the Province of South Sardinia, in Sulcis zone. With a population of 11,730, the municipality of Sant ` Antioco, it is the site of ancient Sulci, considered the second city of Sardinia in antiquity. Sant'Antioco is the second largest island of the Sardinian region, after Sardinia itself, with a surface of 109 square kilometres, it is located some 87 kilometres from Cagliari, to, connected through the SS126 state road, using a modern bridge. The island is divided between the two municipalities of Sant ` Calasetta. Other settlements are part of Calasetta; the coast of the island is in part rocky. The main beaches in the island are Maladroxia and Coaquaddus, in the municipality of Sant'Antioco, Sotto Torre, Le Saline and Spiaggia Grande in the municipality of Calasetta; the island of Sant'Antioco was settled at least from the 5th millennium BC, based on fishing and agriculture. Typical tombs and menhirs belonging to this culture have been found.
The island housed nuraghe civilizations: findings include the nuraghe of Su Niu de Su Crobu. In the 8th century BC the Phoenicians founded a new settlement, with the name of Sulky or Solki, of which a tophet necropolis has been excavated, it became a Carthaginian colony, to which another necropolis belongs. The Punic domination ended in the 2nd century BC, when Sulky was conquered by the Romans, who connected it to the mainland through an artificial isthmus. During the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey it sided with the latter, being punished after his defeat. During Roman times, it was called Plumbaria, after its lead deposits; the current city name derives from St. Antiochus, evangelizer of the area, martyred in 125 AD. After the decline and the end of the Western Roman Empire, Sant'Antioco was a fortified strong point of the Byzantines, it was attacked by the Saracens starting from the early 8th century, abandoned by the inhabitants who fled to the more protected inner area. A new settlement was established around 935 by the judge of Cagliari, but this was abandoned after the end of the giudicato.
The island was a territory of the Kingdom of Sardinia and was acquired by archbishopric of Cagliari and, in 1758, by the religious Order of SS. Maurizio and Lazzaro. In the 18th century the area began to be repopulated and toward the mid of the century there were 38 houses, 15 workshops, 164 huts, with some 450 inhabitants. In January–May 1793 the island was occupied by French troops under admiral Laurent Jean François Truguet, the citizens freed from ecclesiastical taxes; the last attack by North African pirates occurred in 1815. The Palaeo-Christian Basilica of Sant'Antioco, restored in 1089–1102 with its catacombs Roman bridge Roman fountain Ancient acropolis Phoenician and Punic necropolises Tophet Hypogeal village Ferruccio Barreca Archaeological Museum The Forte Su Pisu In the period from 15 May to 15 June a famous tuna "mattanza" is held, with fishing of Atlantic bluefin tuna. List of islands of Italy Sant'Antioco cultural site
Capetian House of Anjou
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty. It is one of three separate royal houses referred to meaning "from Anjou" in France. Founded by Charles I of Naples, the youngest son of Louis VIII of France, the Capetian king first ruled the Kingdom of Sicily during the 13th century; the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him out of the island of Sicily, leaving him with the southern half of the Italian Peninsula — the Kingdom of Naples. The house and its various branches would go on to influence much of the history of Southern and Central Europe during the Middle Ages, until becoming defunct in 1435; the House ruled the counties of Anjou, Touraine and Forcalquier, the principalities of Achaea and Taranto, the kingdoms of Sicily, Hungary, Croatia and Poland. A younger son of House of Capet king Louis VIII of France the Lion, Charles was first given a noble title by his brother Louis IX of France who succeeded to the French throne in 1226.
Charles was named Count of Maine. Charles married the heiress of the County of Provence named Beatrice of Provence, she was a member of the House of Barcelona. After fighting in the Seventh Crusade, Charles was offered by Pope Clement IV the Kingdom of Sicily — which at the time included not only the island of Sicily but the southern half of the Italian Peninsula; the reason for Charles being offered the kingdom was because of a conflict between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, the latter of whom were represented by the ruling House of Hohenstaufen. It was at the Battle of Benevento that the Guelph Capetians gained the Sicilian kingdom from the Ghibelline Swabians, this was cemented after victory at Tagliacozzo. In keeping with the political landscape of the period, Charles is described by scholars as shrewd and ambitious, he signed the Treaty of Viterbo in 1267 with Baldwin II of Courtenay and William II of Villehardouin, the political alliance gave many of the rights of the Latin Empire to Charles and a marriage alliance for his daughter Beatrice of Sicily.
The Byzantines had taken back the city of Constantinople in 1261 and this was a plan to take it back from Michael VIII Palaiologos. It recognised Charles' possession of Corfu and cities in the Balkans such as Durazzo, as well as giving him suzerainty over the Principality of Achaea and sovereignty of the Aegean islands aside from those held by the Republic of Venice. For a while Charles was preoccupied helping his French brother in the unsuccessful Eighth Crusade on Tunis. After this he once again focused on Constantinople, but his fleet was wrecked in a freak storm off the coast of Trapani. With the elevation of Pope Gregory X, there was a truce between Charles and Michael in the form of the Council of Lyons, as Christians focused on improving ecumenical relations, with hopes of regaining the Kingdom of Jerusalem back from the Muslims. Charles had solidified his rule over Durazzo by 1272, creating a small Kingdom of Albania for himself, out of Despotate of Epirus territory. Charles was driven out of Sicily in 1282, but his successors ruled Naples until 1435.
This House of Anjou included the branches of Anjou-Hungary, which ruled Hungary and Poland, Anjou-Taranto, which ruled the remnants of the Latin Empire and Anjou-Durazzo, which ruled Naples and Hungary. The senior line of the House of Anjou-Durazzo became extinct in the male line with the death of King Ladislaus of Naples in 1414, extinct with the death of his sister Joanna II in 1435. During Middle Ages, there were the House of Capet. Charles I, founder of the House of Anjou-Sicily, with his first wife, Beatrice of Provence fathered his eldest son, Charles II of Naples. In 1270, Charles II married Mary of Hungary, daughter of Stephen V of Hungary and Elizabeth the Cuman, they had fourteen children which provided the House of Anjou-Sicily with a secure position in Naples. The childless Ladislaus IV of Hungary, was succeeded by Andrew III as King of Hungary, he was the son of Stephen the Posthumous, considered by Stephen's much older half-brothers a bastard son of infidelity. For this reason, after the death of Ladislaus IV. some of the Árpád dynasty's cognates sought the family as extinct.
In Naples, Charles Martel of Anjou, the eldest son of Mary of Hungary announced his claim to the Hungarian crown, backed by his mother, the pope. He started to style himself king of Hungary, but he never managed to gain enough support from the Hungarian magnates to realize his claim. With Andrew III's childless death, the "last golden branch" of the tree of King Saint Stephen's family ended; the Hungarian diet was determined to keep the blood of Saint Stephen on the throne in the maternal line at least. In the upcoming years, a civil war followed between various claimants to the throne. After the short period of rule of Wenceslaus of Bohemia, Otto of Bavaria the civil war ended with Charles Robert's victory, the son of Charles Martel of Anjou, but he was forced to continue fighting against the powerful Hungarian l
Barbana is a small island located at the northern end of the Grado Lagoon, near Trieste in north-east Italy. It is the site of the Santuario di Barbana, an ancient Marian shrine, whose origins date back to 582 when Elia, the Patriarch of Aquileia, built a church near the hut of a hermit from Treviso named Barbanus; the island, which can be reached by ferry from nearby Grado, is populated by a small community of Franciscan friars. The foundation of the shrine originates from an image of the Virgin Mary carried in by the sea and found at the foot of an elm after a fierce storm. At that time the site was part of the mainland. From the foundation to around 1000, Barbana became an island and the shrine was served by a community of monks unique to the island, called the Barbitani; the original church was rebuilt. The image of Mary, was lost and in the 11th century was replaced by a wooden statue known as the Madonna mora; this Black Madonna is now housed in a chapel near the main church. In the 11th century, the care of the shrine was entrusted to Benedectine monks, who served there until the 15th century.
They were succeeded by a Franciscan community. The modern church was built in the Romanesque style at the beginning of the 20th century. Ancient remains include two Roman columns from the first church, a 10th-century relief portraying Jesus; the crowned statue of Mary dates from the 15th century, while the 17th century is represented by several altars and paintings, including one from the school of Tintoretto. In the wood near the church a small chapel was built in 1854 in the place where the original image of Mary was found; the baptismal font of the church is supported by a figure of the Devil, sculpted in red marble. It is the work of Claudio Granzotto, a Franciscan friar and noted religious artist of the mid-20th century, he is being considered for canonization. Barbana is the destination of many pilgrimages, the most famous being the Perdon de Barbana, held each July to celebrate the end of a visitation of the plague in Grado in 1237. List of islands of Italy Grado Shrines to the Virgin Mary ‘Barbana’, Frati Minori del Veneto e Friuli