MSNBC is an American pay television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events. MSNBC is owned by the NBCUniversal News Group, a unit of the NBCUniversal Television Group division of NBCUniversal. MSNBC and its website were founded in 1996 under a partnership between Microsoft and General Electric's NBC unit, hence the network's naming. Although they had the same name, msnbc.com and MSNBC maintained separate corporate structures and news operations. Msnbc.com was headquartered on the Microsoft campus in Redmond, Washington while MSNBC operated out of NBC's headquarters in New York City. Microsoft divested its stakes in the MSNBC channel in 2005 and in msnbc.com in July 2012. The general news site was rebranded as NBCNews.com, a new msnbc.com was created as the online home of the cable channel. In the late summer of 2015, MSNBC revamped its programming. MSNBC sought to sharpen its news image by entering into a dual editorial relationship with its organizational parent NBC News.
MSNBC Live, the network's flagship daytime news platform, was expanded to cover over eight hours of the day. Phil Griffin is the president and director of day-to-day operations at MSNBC. Pat Burkey, Janelle Rodriguez, Jonathan Wald oversee programming and news operations, with Brian Williams serving as the channel's chief anchor of breaking news coverage; as of February 2015 94,531,000 households in the United States were receiving MSNBC. Commentators have described MSNBC as having a bias towards left-leaning politics and the Democratic Party. In November 2007, a New York Times article stated that MSNBC's prime-time lineup is tilting more to the left. Fox News media analyst Howard Kurtz, while in the same role at The Washington Post, stated that the channel's evening lineup "has gravitated to the left in recent years and seems to regard itself as the antithesis of Fox News". MSNBC was established under a strategic partnership between Microsoft. NBC executive Tom Rogers was instrumental in developing this partnership.
James Kinsella, a Microsoft executive, served as president of the online component, MSNBC.com, represented the tech company in the joint venture. Microsoft invested $221 million for a 50 percent share of the cable channel. MSNBC and Microsoft shared the cost of a $200 million newsroom in Secaucus, New Jersey, for msnbc.com. The network took over the channel space of NBC's 2-year-old America's Talking network, although in most cases cable carriage had to be negotiated with providers who had never carried AT. MSNBC was launched on July 15, 1996; the first show was anchored by Jodi Applegate and included news and commentary. During the day, rolling news coverage continued with The Contributors, a show that featured Ann Coulter and Laura Ingraham, as well as interactive programming coordinated by Applegate, John Gibson, John Seigenthaler. Stories were longer and more detailed than the stories CNN was running. NBC highlighted their broadcast connections by airing stories directly from NBC's network affiliates, along with breaking news coverage from the same sources.
MSNBC increased its emphasis on politics. After completing its seven-year survey of cable channels, the Project for Excellence in Journalism said in 2007 that, "MSNBC is moving to make politics a brand, with a large dose of opinion and personality."In January 2001, Mike Barnicle's MSNBC show started, but it was canceled in June 2001 because of high production costs. In June, Microsoft chief executive officer Steve Ballmer said that he would not have started MSNBC had he foreseen the difficulty of attracting viewers. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, NBC used MSNBC as an outlet for the up-to-the-minute coverage being provided by NBC News as a supplement to the longer stories on broadcast NBC. With little financial news to cover, CNBC and CNBC Europe ran MSNBC for many hours each day following the attacks; the year boosted the profile of Ashleigh Banfield, present during the collapse of Building 7 while covering the World Trade Center on September 11. Her Region In Conflict program capitalized on her newfound celebrity and showcased exclusive interviews from Afghanistan.
In the aftermath of September 11, MSNBC began calling itself "America’s NewsChannel" and hired opinionated hosts like Alan Keyes, Phil Donahue, Pat Buchanan, Tucker Carlson. On December 23, 2005, NBC Universal announced its acquisition of an additional 32 percent share of MSNBC from Microsoft, which solidified its control over television operations and allowed NBC to further consolidate MSNBC's backroom operations with NBC News and its other cable properties. NBC exercised its option to purchase Microsoft's remaining 18 percent interest in MSNBC. In late 2005, MSNBC began attracting liberal and progressive viewers as Keith Olbermann began critiquing and satirizing conservative media commentators during his Countdown With Keith Olbermann program, he focused his attention on the Fox News Channel and Bill O'Reilly, its principal primetime commentator. On June 7, 2006, Rick Kaplan resigned as president of MSNBC after holding the post for two years. Five days Dan Abrams, a nine-year veteran of MSNBC and NBC News, was named general manager of MSNBC with immediate effect.
NBC News senior vice president Phil Griffin would oversee MSNBC, while continuing to oversee NBC News’ Today program, with Abrams reporting to Griffin. On June 29, 2006, Abrams annou
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
BBC World Service
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news and discussions in more than 40 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays. In November 2016 the BBC announced again that it would start broadcasting in additional languages including Amharic and Igbo, in its biggest expansion since the 1940s. In 2015 World Service reached an average of 210 million people a week; the English-language service broadcasts 24 hours a day. The World Service is funded by the United Kingdom's television licence fee, limited advertising and the profits of BBC Worldwide Ltd; the service is guaranteed £289 million from the UK government. The World Service was funded for decades by grant-in-aid through the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the British Government until 1 April 2014. BBC World Service English maintains eight different regional feeds with several program variations, covering East and South Africa.
There are two separate online-only streams with one being more news-oriented, known as News Internet. The controller of BBC World Service English is Mary Hockaday; the BBC World Service began in 1932 as the BBC Empire Service, broadcasting on shortwave and aimed principally at English-speakers across the British Empire. In his first Christmas Message, King George V characterised the service as intended for "men and women, so cut off by the snow, the desert, or the sea, that only voices out of the air can reach them". First hopes; the Director General, Sir John Reith said in the opening programme:"Don't expect too much in the early days. The programmes will neither be interesting nor good." This address was read out five times. On 3 January 1938 the first foreign-language service was launched - in Arabic. Programmes in German started on 29 March 1938, by the end of 1942 the BBC had started broadcasts in all major European languages; as a result, the Empire Service was renamed the BBC Overseas Service in November 1939, supplemented by the addition of a dedicated BBC European Service from 1941.
Funding for these services - known administratively as the External Services of the BBC - came not from the domestic licence-fee but from government grant-in-aid. The External Services broadcast propaganda during the Second World War of 1939-1945, its French service Radio Londres sent coded messages to the French Resistance. George Orwell broadcast many news bulletins on the Eastern Service during World War II. By the end of the 1940s the number of broadcast languages had expanded and reception had improved, following the opening of a relay in modern-day Malaysia and of the Limassol relay in Cyprus in 1957. On 1 May 1965 the service took its current name of BBC World Service, it expanded its reach with the opening of the Ascension Island relay in 1966, serving African audiences with a stronger signal and better reception, with the relay on the Island of Masirah in Oman. In August 1985 the service went off-air for the first time when workers went on strike in protest at the British government's decision to ban a documentary featuring an interview with Martin McGuinness of Sinn Féin.
Subsequently, financial pressures decreased the number and the types of services offered by the BBC. Audiences in countries with wide access to Internet services have less need for terrestrial radio. Broadcasts in German ended in March 1999, after research showed that the majority of German listeners tuned into the English-language service. Broadcasts in Dutch, French, Italian and Malay stopped for similar reasons. On 25 October 2005, the BBC announced that broadcasts in Bulgarian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Slovak and Thai would end by March 2006, to finance the launch in 2007 of television news-services in Arabic and Persian. Additionally, Romanian broadcasts ceased on 1 August 2008. In January 2011 the closure of the Albanian, Portuguese for Africa and English for the Caribbean services was announced; this reflected the financial situation the Corporation faced following transfer of responsibility for the Service from the Foreign Office, so that it would in future have been funded from within licence-fee income.
The Russian, Mandarin Chinese, Vietnamese and Spanish for Cuba services ceased radio broadcasting, the Hindi, Kyrgyz, Swahili and Kirundi services ceased shortwave transmissions. The British government announced that the three Balkan countries had wide access to international information, so broadcasts in the local languages had become unnecessary. 650 jobs went as part of the 16% budget cut. The Service broadcasts from Broadcasting House in London, headquarters of the Corporation, it is located in the newer parts of the building, which contains radio and television studios for use by the various language services. The building contains an integrated newsroom used by the international World Service, the international television channel BBC World News, the domestic television and radio BBC News bulletins, the BBC News Channel and BBC Online. At its launch, the Service was located along with m
Public Radio Exchange
The Public Radio Exchange is a nonprofit web-based platform for digital distribution and licensing of radio programs. The organization claims to be the largest on-demand catalog of public radio programs available for broadcast and Internet use. According to PRX's site, its mission "is to build a fair market for creative audio content and an online community of increasing gains. PRX catalogs thousands of pieces and allows users to search by topic, format and time of the year; the site provides a community space open to public radio listeners and stations, where users can discover and review pieces. In addition to providing feedback, the rating system brings work to the attention of stations, who are able to sort pieces by their rating; when a piece is licensed by a station PRX provides the producer with a royalty. PRX provides stations and producers with tools to manage and monitor transactions, usage statistics and payments within their individual and group accounts; the PRX site and services launched in September 2003 after a two-year planning and development phase supported by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, the National Endowment for the Arts, the Ford Foundation.
Since PRX has received additional support from the NTIA Technology Opportunities Program, the MacArthur Foundation, the Open Society Institute, the Surdna Foundation, Google Grants. PRX offices are located in Cambridge, MA. On February 28, 2007 PRX and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting announced the Public Radio Talent Quest; this competition is an open search for new public radio talent, gives producers the chance to produce a pilot show for public radio. Finalists will be chosen after a five-round competition voted on by fans, public radio professionals and celebrity judges. On May 14, the first round of submissions ended with 1,452 entries; as of May 22, 2007, the Public Radio Talent Quest site had over 14,600 registered users. On April 9, 2008 The MacArthur Foundation selected PRX as one of its 2008 recipients of the MacArthur Award for Creative and Effective Institutions. In late November of that year, PRX soft launched PRX 3.0. The launch included their Remix Radio project which provides a sampling of the content available for licensing on the site.
On January 1, 2009, PRX, Inc became a Massachusetts 501c3 nonprofit corporation. PRX had been a project area of the Station Resource Group, a Maryland nonprofit. On January 28, PRX Remix was added to XM Satellite Radio on channel 136; that year, on July 19, PRX launched the Public Radio Player 2.0, an iPhone app for public radio developed by PRX, NPR and other public radio partners, funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. On August 11, PRX was included in CPB's agreement with SoundExchange through 2015 as a covered public radio entity for music webcasting royalties. In 2010 PRX launched two iPhone apps: the This American Life app on February 1 and the WBUR Boston app on July 7; that same year, PRX won a Peabody Award for The Moth Radio Hour Also, PRX was announced as a winner of the 2010 Knight News Challenge for Story Exchange, a crowdfunding journalism project, on June 16. On September 8, 2010 PRX announced $2.7M in new funding from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, the MacArthur Foundation, the Ford Foundation.
On December 8, 2011, PRX announced $2.5M in funding from Knight Foundation to create the Public Media Accelerator. In May 2014, PRX received a Peabody Award for the Reveal show "The VA's Opiate Overload". Known as Public Radio Remix; as of 2011, two radio stations, KPBZ in Spokane, Washington and WREM in Canton, New York, air a full-time schedule of programming from PRX, branded as Public Radio Remix. Both stations are owned by the same organizations as their markets' primary National Public Radio affiliates. PRX Remix airs on Sirius XM Channel 123. Several other public radio stations air some, but not all, Public Radio Exchange programming in their schedules; as of May 22, 2007 PRX has 12,167 available radio pieces, 28,149 members, including 445 radio stations, 2,782 individual producers Regular series distributed by PRX include: 12th Street Jump 99% Invisible American Parlor Songbook American Routes Bioneers Big Picture Science Exploring Music Folk Alley Global Village Hearts of Space HowSound Inside Europe from Deutsche Welle Ken Rudin's Political Junkie L.
A. Theatre Works Live Wire Radio Milk Street Radio The Moth Radio Hour New Letters on the Air On Being Open Source Ozark Highlands Radio Philosophy Talk Planetary Radio Reveal Weekly Says You! The Score with Edmund Stone Sea Change Radio Sound Opinions This American Life To the Best of Our Knowledge A Way with Words Zorba Paster on Your Health American Public Media National Public Radio Public Radio International Official website PRX animated 4-minute overview PRX's YouthCast podcast Public Radio Talent Quest Remix Radio Public Radio Player iPhone application developed by PRX and partners
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, commercial and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." A slogan has the attributes of being memorable concise and appealing to the audience. The word slogan is derived from slogorn, an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic and Irish sluagh-ghairm. Slogans vary from the visual to the chanted and the vulgar, their simple rhetorical nature leaves little room for detail and a chanted slogan may serve more as social expression of unified purpose than as communication to an intended audience. George E. Shankel's research states that, "English-speaking people began using the term by 1704." The term at that time meant "the distinctive note, phrase or cry of any person or body of persons." Slogans were common throughout the European continent during the Middle Ages.
Crimmins' research suggests that brands are an valuable corporate asset, can make up a lot of a business's total value. With this in mind, if we take into consideration Keller's research, which suggests that a brand is made up of three different components; these include, name and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way. Therefore, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand. Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the brand name to be likable and the slogan message clear and concise. Dass, Kohli, & Thomas' research suggests that there are certain factors that make up the likability of a slogan; the clarity of the message the brand is trying to encode within the slogan. The slogan emphasizes the benefit of the service it is portraying; the creativity of a slogan is another factor that had a positive effect on the likability of a slogan. Lastly, leaving the brand name out of the slogan will have a positive effect on the likability of the brand itself.
Advertisers must keep into consideration these factors when creating a slogan for a brand, as it shows a brand is a valuable asset to a company, with the slogan being one of the three main components to a brands' image. The original usage refers to the usage as a clan motto among Highland clans. Marketing slogans are called taglines in the United States or straplines in the United Kingdom. Europeans use the terms baselines, claims or pay-offs. "Sloganeering" is a derogatory term for activity which degrades discourse to the level of slogans. Slogans are used to convey a message about the service or cause that it is representing, it written as a song. Slogans are used to capture the attention of the audience it is trying to reach. If the slogan is used for commercial purposes it is written to be memorable/catchy in order for a consumer to associate the slogan with the product it is representing. A slogan is part of the production aspect that helps create an image for the product, service or cause it's representing.
A slogan can be a few simple words used to form a phrase. In commercial advertising, corporations will use a slogan as part of promotional activity. Slogans can become a global way of identifying good or service, for example Nike's slogan'Just Do It' helped establish Nike as an identifiable brand worldwide. Slogans should catch the audience's attention and influence the consumer's thoughts on what to purchase; the slogan is used by companies to affect the way consumers view their product compared to others. Slogans can provide information about the product, service or cause its advertising; the language used in the slogans is essential to the message. Current words used can trigger different emotions; the use of good adjectives makes for an effective slogan. When a slogan is used for advertising purposes its goal is to sell the product or service to as many consumers through the message and information a slogan provides. A slogan's message can include information about the quality of the product.
Examples of words that can be used to direct the consumer preference towards a current product and its qualities are: good, real, great, perfect and pure. Slogans can influence. Slogans offer information to consumers in an creative way. A slogan can be used for a powerful cause; the slogan can be used to raise awareness about a current cause. A slogan should be clear with a supporting message. Slogans, when combined with action, can provide an influential foundation for a cause to be seen by its intended audience. Slogans, whether used for advertising purpose or social causes, deliver a message to the public that shapes the audiences' opinion towards the subject of the slogan. "It is well known that the text a human hears or reads constitutes 7% of the received information. As a result, any slogan possesses a support
The NBA Finals is the championship series of the National Basketball Association. The Eastern and Western conference champions play a best-of-seven game series to determine the league champion; the winners of the Finals are awarded the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy, which replaced the Walter A. Brown Trophy in 1983; the series was known as the BAA Finals prior to the 1949–50 season when the Basketball Association of America merged with the National Basketball League to form the NBA. The competition oversaw further name changes to NBA World Championship Series from 1950 to 1985, as well as a brief stint as the Showdown, before settling on NBA Finals in 1986; the NBA Finals was structured to harbor a 2-2-1-1-1 format. In 1985, it was changed to a 2–3–2 format to ease the amount of cross country travel until 2013, where the first two and last two games of the series were played at the arena of the team who earned home-court advantage by having the better record during the regular season. In 2014, the 2–2–1–1–1 format was restored.
The first two are played at home for the higher-seeded team, the following two at the home of the lower-seeded team. The following three are played at each team's home arena alternately. A total of 18 franchises have won the NBA Finals, with the Golden State Warriors the current champion; the Boston Celtics hold the record for the most victories, having won the competition 17 times, as well as winning the competition the most times in a row, winning it eight times from 1959 to 1966. The Los Angeles Lakers have contested the NBA Finals the most times, with 31 appearances; the Eastern Conference has provided the most champions, with 38 wins from ten franchises. The Boston Celtics went 11–1 in the NBA Finals during 13 seasons, they won eight straight NBA championships from 1959 through 1966. This period marks the largest stretch of seasons that a single team made up over 65% of Finals appearances, includes the only time the NBA Finals was decided in double overtime. With the establishment of the Celtics dynasty in 1957 spearheaded by center Bill Russell, the team saw great success, only encountering difficulty when up against teams led by Wilt Chamberlain.
However, for most of the late 1950s and 1960s, the Celtics and Russell managed to have an upper hand on Chamberlain's teams. In 1964, who had moved to the state of California alongside his team, led the San Francisco Warriors to a Western Conference championship, but again failed to conquer the Celtics; the following season, he returned to the Eastern Conference to join the Philadelphia 76ers, who were the former Syracuse Nationals that had relocated to the city to cover the vacancy created with the departure of the Warriors. The first clash between the two stars in the playoffs was in 1966, with Boston winning the series 4–1. In the following season, Philadelphia coach Alex Hannum instructed Chamberlain to provide an increased focus on playing a team game, to avoid drawing the double-teams that troubled Chamberlain during the Finals; this tactical change brought the team to a new record of 68 wins the following season, as well as defeating the Celtics before winning the Finals. In 1968, Boston overcame a 3–1 deficit against Philadelphia to once again arrive in the Finals.
They went on to defeat the Los Angeles Lakers in the Finals to again become NBA Champions. In 1969, the Celtics faced great difficulty entering the postseason, as they had an aging team and multiple injuries to a number of players, they qualified for the playoffs as the fourth and final seed in the East, while the Lakers, who had added Chamberlain in the offseason to join stars Jerry West and Elgin Baylor. The Lakers won the West and were prohibitive favorites to become Champions for the first time since relocating to Los Angeles. Despite holding a 2-1 advantage going into Game 4, the Lakers led 87–86 and had the ball with 10 seconds to play, but after a turnover, Sam Jones scored tying the series. The series was tied 3-3 going into Game 7 in Los Angeles, with Lakers owner Jack Cooke hanging balloons in the arena in anticipation of a Lakers victory. West picked up injuries to his thigh and hamstring during the series, returned to play for the final game. Russell utilized this newly lacking mobility in West to organize fast breaks at every opportunity for the Celtics, which allowed them to gain an early lead.
They held off a furious Lakers comeback to win 108–106 and win the series, win their eleventh championship in 13 years. As many stars either declined or retired following this win, it is recognized as the last NBA Finals conducted by the Celtics dynasty; the 1970s saw. In 1970, a classic final featured the Knicks against the Lakers. In the waning moments of Game 3, with the series tied, Jerry West hit a basket from 60 feet to tie the game, a shot which became one of the most famous ever. However, the Knicks won in overtime and continued their momentum for a 4–3 win, becoming the first team after the Celtics dynasty to win an NBA championship; the Milwaukee Bucks won their first franchise title, defeating the Baltimore Bullets in 1971. Two seasons after losing in the Finals, the Lakers got a measure of revenge by winning 33 straight games, the longest such streak in NBA history. By season's end, they broke the record for most wins in a season with 69, one more than the 1966–67 Philadelphia 76ers, before taking home the championship for the first time since relocating to Los Angeles.
The Knicks returned to win the championship round again a season to record their second victorious season. Despite the rise of the Knicks, the
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T