YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Gold in the Street
Gold in the Street is a 1934 French comedy film directed by Curtis Bernhardt, written by Henry Koster and Henri Decoin, starring Danielle Darrieux. The film's sets were designed by the art director Robert Gys. Albert bets his friend Pierre; the working girl Gaby happens to be the chosen. When Albert gets to know her he falls in love with her. At the same time he attempts to make a fortune by participating in a swindle about alleged "synthetic gold", but at the day when the scheme ought to be accomplished, everything goes awry and he is debunked. After that he has scarcely enough money left to buy a ticket to the United States for himself and his fiancée Gaby. Albert Préjean as Albert Perret Danielle Darrieux as Gaby Raymond Cordy as Pierre Pierre Larquey as Tourbier Jean Worms as De Varville Vanda Gréville as Miss Bruce Alice Tissot as Mme Tourbier Suzy Delair as Madeleine Pierre Finaly as Achille Gabrielle Fontan as Pierre's mother Lucien Callamand as the clerk Georges Paulais as the customer Robert Dalban as the man at the railway station Dayna Oscherwitz & MaryEllen Higgins.
The A to Z of French Cinema. Scarecrow Press, 2009. Gold in the Street on IMDb L'Or dans la rue at Gaumont.fr L'Or dans la rue at Dvdtoile
My Love Came Back
My Love Came Back is a 1940 American comedy-drama film directed by Curtis Bernhardt and starring Olivia de Havilland, Jeffrey Lynn, Eddie Albert, Jane Wyman. Based on the 1935 Austrian film Episode written and directed by Walter Reisch, the film is about a gifted young violinist who considers leaving a prestigious music academy to play in a jazz band to earn money; the academy's new president—a distinguished wealthy patron of the arts—convinces her to stay after secretly arranging a scholarship for her out of his own pocket, the two begin attending concerts together. Complications arise when he asks his young business manager to take his place at one of the concerts; the film is notable for Heinz Eric Roemheld's musical direction and Ray Heindorf's unique swing orchestral arrangements of classical pieces. My Love Came Back was released by Warner Bros. Pictures in the United States on July 13, 1940. A beautiful young violinist named Amelia Cornell is a student at the prestigious Brissac Academy of Music in New York City.
Unable to support her mother on her meager scholarship stipend, she is forced to provide music lessons in her spare time—something forbidden by the school and enforced zealously by the dean of the school, Dr. Kobbe. Frustrated by her financial constraints and at being treated like a child by the dean, Amelia decides to leave the academy and join a jazz group led by her fellow student and swing bandleader Dusty Rhodes. Meanwhile, after seeing Amelia perform at a concert, a distinguished wealthy patron of the arts, Julius Malette accepts the academy's offer to make him president of the school—an offer inspired by Julius' wealth and influence; when he learns that Amelia is planning to leave the academy for financial reasons, Julius—who has a crush on the much younger violinist—secretly arranges for a second scholarship that will allow her to continue her studies. After Amelia meets her patron, the kind and gentlemanly president sends her a phonograph player and records, escorts her to concerts to broaden her musical experience.
One evening, Julius is unable to attend a concert with Amelia and sends his young business manager, Tony Baldwin, to the concert hall to explain his absence. In the coming days and Amelia begin to fall in love, but Tony does not reveal his feelings, believing that Amelia is his boss's mistress; the budding relationship between Tony and Amelia is further complicated when Julius' brash son Paul discovers that Tony has been mailing company checks to Amelia, unaware that these "scholarship" checks were mailed at his father's request. When Paul accuses Tony of misappropriating company funds, Tony protects his boss with his silence. Paul sees his Julius entering Amelia's apartment, he believes that his father is being unfaithful to his mother, he thanks him for trying to shield his family from the sordid news. When Paul tells Tony that Julius is with Amelia, Tony decides not to see Amelia again, nor answer her calls, his distrust is reinforced when he learns that the checks sent to Amelia have been cashed—he doesn't know that her friend Dusty "borrowed" the money.
Soon after and his wife organize a party and hire Amelia's roommate, Joy O'Keefe, her boyfriend, Dusty Rhodes, to provide an evening of innovative classical and swing music. At the party, Amelia confesses everything to Mrs. Malette, plays swing violin with the band, shocking Julius and her teacher; the music critic at the party, however, is impressed. When Amelia learns that Dusty "borrowed" her check, how that must have looked to Tony, she demands that Dusty explain to Tony what had been going on. Afterwards, Tony approaches Amelia in the garden, apologizes for his suspicions, kisses her passionately. Olivia de Havilland as Amelia Cornell Jeffrey Lynn as Anthony'Tony' Baldwin Eddie Albert as Dusty Rhodes Jane Wyman as Joy O'Keefe Charles Winninger as Julius Malette Spring Byington as Mrs. Clara Malette Grant Mitchell as Dr. Kobbe William T. Orr as Paul Malette Ann Gillis as Valerie Malette S. Z. Sakall as Geza Peyer Charles Trowbridge as Dr. Downey, the music critic Mabel Taliaferro as Dowager William B.
Davidson as Music Agent Nanette Vallon as Sophie, Malette's maid Sidney Bracey as Ransom, Malette's butler My Love Came Back is based on the Austrian film Episode, directed by Walter Reisch and starred Paula Wessely and Karl Ludwig Diehl. Episode was in fact a sequel to another Austrian film, Maskerade—which was remade by MGM in 1935 under the title Escapade; the working titles for My Love Came Back were Episode, Men on Her Mind, Two Loves Have I. "Overture" from Orpheus in the Underworld performed by the student orchestra "Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 in C Sharp Minor" played on a record, swing version performed by Dusty and Amelia "Long, Long Ago" played when Julius tells Clara he has to go out "Wedding March" from A Midsummer Night's Dream, Op. 61 played on piano by Valerie and Paul "An der schönen, blauen Donau, Op. 314" played at the Beaux Arts Ballroom, played by Clara and Valerie and Paul "Pizzicato Polka" played at the Beaux Arts Ballroom "Geschichten aus dem Wienerwald, Op. 325" played at the Beaux Arts Ballroom "Mazurka in G" played at the Beaux Arts Ballroom "Romantic Waltz" played at the Beaux Arts Ballroom "Ein Herz, ein Sinn, Op. 323" played at the Beaux Arts Ballroom "Wein, weib und Gesan
The Beloved Vagabond (1936 film)
The Beloved Vagabond is a 1936 British musical drama film directed by Curtis Bernhardt and starring Maurice Chevalier, Betty Stockfeld, Margaret Lockwood and Austin Trevor. The film was made at Ealing Studios by the independent producer Ludovico Toeplitz. In 1900, a poor but promising French architect living in London woos the daughter of a gentleman facing economic ruin through exposure of his financial wrongdoing. A rival for the hand of Joanne promises to resolve the father’s economic problems in return for the hand of Joanne. Gaston feels obliged to agree and returns to France taking with him Asticot, a young boy living in the boarding house. During their meanderings in rural France and Asticot meet a young woman, trying to support herself through music, they get together and become a musical partnership moving to Paris where in a bar Gaston bumps into the Count de Verneuil – Gaston’s old rival –, now married to Joanne. Shortly after the meeting, the Count dies and Joanne is once more a free woman.
Joanne meets with Gaston and they re-establish the warm relationship of old, a painful process for Blanquette who, by this time, has fallen in love with Gaston. Gaston and Joanne return to London to make plans for their wedding. Gaston invites Blanquette and Asticot to the wedding and they bring with them the spirit of life on the road; this is fascinating for the other conservative guests but annoying for Joanne who relegates the two to the kitchen to be fed away from the other guests. This proves too much for Gaston; when Joanne reveals to Gaston the obvious – that Blanquette is in love with him—he races off to find his two friends. But they have departed for the train to Dover and the ferry to France. Gaston requires the help of a horseless carriage to get to Dover to join Asticot. On the boat, he surprises tells her that he wants to be with his wife, she is puzzled and looks around for another woman before realising that she is the wife Gaston is referring to. A happy ending is guaranteed. Maurice Chevalier as Gaston de Nerac'Paragot' Betty Stockfeld as Joanna Rushworth Margaret Lockwood as Blanquette Desmond Tester as Asticot Austin Trevor as Count de Verneuil Peter Haddon as Major Walters Charles Carson as Charles Rushworth Cathleen Nesbitt as Mme.
Boin Barbara Gott as Concierge Amy Veness as Cafe Owner D. J. Williams as Undertaker C. Denier Warren as Railway Clerk The film was shot in English and French versions with different supporting casts. Low, Rachael. Filmmaking in 1930s Britain. George Allen & Unwin, 1985. Perry, George. Forever Ealing. Pavilion Books, 1994. Wood, Linda. British Films, 1927-1939. British Film Institute, 1986; the Beloved Vagabond on IMDb Beloved Vagabond at TCMDB
Ludwig Donath, was an Austrian actor who appeared in many American films. Born to a Jewish family Donath graduated from Vienna's Academy of Dramatic Art and became a prominent actor on the stage in Berlin; when Hitler came to power in 1933, he returned to Vienna and was active there in theater and film until the Anschluss in 1938. He began his American film career with Lady from Chungking and went on to appear in dozens of films, including Gilda, The Jolson Story, Jolson Sings Again, The Great Caruso, My Pal Gus and Torn Curtain. Donath played the father of entertainer Al Jolson in the two biopics The Jolson Story and Jolson Sings Again, although he was less than 15 years older than Parks as Jolson, he appeared on television and on Broadway. He died of leukemia in 1967. Decoy: "The Gentle Gun-Man" - "Knish" Bonanza: "The Way of Aaron" – Aaron Kaufman The Twilight Zone: "He's Alive" – Ernst Ganz Branded: "A Proud Town" - Julius Perrin The Fugitive: "Blessings of Liberty" – Dr. Josef Karac Ludwig Donath on IMDb Ludwig Donath at the Internet Broadway Database Ludwig Donath at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
The Woman One Longs For
The Woman One Longs For is a 1929 German silent drama film directed by Curtis Bernhardt and starring Marlene Dietrich, Fritz Kortner and Frida Richard. Made at the Babelsberg Studios, it premiered on 29 April 1929 at the Mozartsaal in Berlin; the film's art direction was by Robert Neppach. It is known by the alternative title The Three Lovers; the film was silent with a scored orchestra accompaniment by Giuseppe Becce. In 1931 a synchronised soundtrack was added with music by Edward Kilenyi. Marlene Dietrich as Stascha Fritz Kortner as Dr. Karoff Frida Richard as Mme. Leblanc Oskar Sima as Charles Leblanc Uno Henning as Henry Leblanc Karl Etlinger as Poitrier Bruno Ziener as Diener Edith Edwards as Angela Poitrier Bach, Steven. Marlene Dietrich: Life and Legend. University of Minnesota Press, 2011. Kreimeier, Klaus; the Ufa Story: A History of Germany's Greatest Film Company, 1918-1945. University of California Press, 1999. Spoto, Donald. Blue Angel: The Life of Marlene Dietrich. Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.
The Woman One Longs For on IMDb
Joseph Kessel was a French journalist and novelist. He was Grand officer of the Legion of Honour. Kessel was born in Villa Clara, Entre Ríos, because of the constant journeys of his father, a Litvak physician. From 1905 to 1908, Joseph Kessel lived the first years of his childhood in Orenburg, before the family moved to France in 1908, he studied in lycée Masséna, Nice and lycée Louis-le-Grand and took part in the First World War as an aviator. He was an aviator during the Second World War, assigned to the Free French 342 "Lorraine" Bomber Squadron of the Royal Air Force, with Romain Gary, a talented French novelist. Kessel wrote several novels and books that were represented in the cinema, notably Belle de Jour. In 1943 he and his nephew Maurice Druon translated Anna Marly's song Chant des Partisans into French from its original Russian; the song became one of the anthems of Free French Forces during the Second World War. He was elected at the Académie française in 1962. Joseph Kessel died on 23 July 1979 in Val-d'Oise.
He is buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris. On his deathbed he was quoted as saying that his greatest accomplishment was the birth of his son, Joseph Kessel, born just a few months prior on February 24 of the same year; the Joseph-Kessel Prize is a prestigious prize in French language literature, given to "a book of a high literary value written in French". The jury counts or has counted among its members Tahar Ben Jelloun, Jean-Marie Drot, Michèle Kahn, Pierre Haski, Gilles Lapouge, Michel Le Bris, Érik Orsenna, Patrick Rambaud, Jean-Christophe Rufin, André Velter and Olivier Weber. La steppe rouge L'Équipage Au camp des vaincus ou la critique du 11 mai Mary de Cork Les captifs Nuits de princes Belle de Jour Vent de sable Fortune carrée Le coup de grâce La Passante du Sans-Souci Hollywood, Ville mirage L'Armée des ombres Le Bataillon du ciel,: Free French SAS paratroopers in Brittany in Summer 1944 Le tour du malheur Les Amants du Tage La Vallée des Rubis Le lion Les mains du miracle.
Les cavaliers Partout un ami Des hommes Les temps sauvages The escape The Crew, directed by Maurice Tourneur Nuits de princes, directed by Marcel L'Herbier L'Équipage, directed by Anatole Litvak The Woman I Love, directed by Anatole Litvak Nuits de princes, directed by Vladimir Strizhevsky Le Bataillon du ciel, directed by Alexander Esway Sirocco, directed by Curtis Bernhardt The Lovers of Lisbon, directed by Henri Verneuil Fortune carrée, directed by Bernard Borderie The Lion, directed by Jack Cardiff Belle de Jour, directed by Luis Buñuel Army of Shadows, directed by Jean-Pierre Melville The Horsemen, directed by John Frankenheimer The Passerby, directed by Jacques Rouffio Cessez le feu Mayerling Les Bateliers de la Volga La Peur Les Secrets de la mer Rouge The Man from Niger Au grand balcon Le Grand Cirque Act of Love Oasis La Passe du diable The Night of the Generals Joseph Kessel on IMDb Biography at the Académie française Plaisir Litteraire: an interesting contribution about the youth of Joseph Kessel's father http://www.rts.ch/archives/tv/culture/preface/3467832-joseph-kessel.html