HMS Falmouth (1910)
HMS Falmouth was a Town-class light cruiser built for the Royal Navy during the 1910s. She was one of four ships of the Weymouth sub-class, the ship was initially assigned to the Atlantic Fleet upon completion in 1911, but was reduced to reserve in mid-1913. When the First World War began in 1914, Falmouth was transferred to the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron of the Grand Fleet and the 3rd Light Cruiser Squadron at the end of the year. The ship participated in most of the fleet actions, including the Battles of Heligoland Bight, Dogger Bank, and Jutland. She was torpedoed and sunk off Flamborough Head, Yorkshire by German submarines during the Action of 19 August 1916, the Weymouth sub-class were slightly larger and improved versions of the preceding Bristol sub-class with a more powerful armament. They were 453 feet long overall, with a beam of 47 feet 6 inches, displacement was 5,275 long tons normal and 5,800 long tons at full load. Twelve Yarrow boilers fed Falmouths Parsons steam turbines, driving two shafts, that were rated at 22,000 shaft horsepower for a design speed of 25 knots.
The ship reached 26.62 knots during her sea trials from 27,900 shp. The boilers used both fuel oil and coal, with 1,290 long tons of coal and 269 long tons tons of oil carried, the Weymouths replaced the ten 4-inch guns of the Bristol sub-class with an additional six BL 6-inch Mk XI guns. Two of these guns were mounted on the fore and aft of the superstructure. The remaining four guns were positioned on the deck in waist mountings. All these guns were fitted with gun shields, four Vickers 3-pounder saluting guns were fitted. Their armament was completed by two submerged 21-inch torpedo tubes, the Weymouth-class ships were considered protected cruisers, with an armoured deck providing protection for the ships vitals. The armoured deck was 2 inches thick over the magazines and machinery,1 inch over the gear and 0.75 inches elsewhere. The conning tower was protected by 4 inches of armour, with the gun shields having 3-inch armour, as the protective deck was at the waterline, the ships were given a large metacentric height so that they would remain stable in the event of flooding above the armoured deck.
This, resulted in the ships rolling badly making them poor gun platforms, Falmouth was the ninth ship in the Royal Navy to be named after the eponymous port. The ship was laid down on 21 February 1910 by William Beardmore and Company at their Dalmuir shipyard, by the end of the year, the ship had been transferred to the 5th Cruiser Squadron, of the Second Fleet. On the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Falmouth was not in range to engage before the squadron turned away to follow the battlecruisers
HMAS Brisbane (D 41)
HMAS Brisbane was one of three Perth-class guided missile destroyers to serve in the Royal Australian Navy. The United States-designed ship was laid down at Bay City, Michigan in 1965, launched in 1966 and she is named after the city of Brisbane, Queensland. Brisbane was decommissioned in 2001, and was sunk as a wreck off the Queensland coast in 2005. Brisbane was one of three Perth-class guided missile destroyers built for the RAN, based on the United States Navys Charles F. Propulsion was provided by two General Electric turbines, which provided 70,000 shaft horsepower to the destroyers two propeller shafts. Brisbane could achieve speeds of 35 knots, the ships company consisted of 24 officers and 312 sailors. As a guided missile destroyer, Brisbanes main armament consisted of a Mark 13 missile launcher firing Tartar missiles and this was supplemented by two 5/54 calibre Mark 42 guns and two Mark 32 triple torpedo tube sets. Over the course of the career, the Mark 13 launcher was modified to fire Standard missiles.
Brisbane was laid down by the Defoe Shipbuilding Company at Bay City, the ship was launched on 5 May 1966 by the wife of Fred Chaney, Sr. the Minister for the Navy. Brisbane was handed over to the RAN at Boston Navy Yard on 7 December 1967, the cost of the destroyer was approximately A$50 million. The ship was given the nicknames Steel Cat and Fighting Forty-One, during construction, the ship was assigned the United States Navy hull number DDG-27. Brisbane spent the first nine months of her career undergoing exercises in US waters, after visits to Pearl Harbor and Suva, Brisbane arrived in her namesake city on 17 October. On 14 December 1966, the Australian Cabinet approved the deployment of Hobart as part of increases to Australian military commitment to the conflict. Brisbane operated in one of three roles, Naval gunfire support operations to assist ground forces, particularly the United States Marine Corps units operating closest to the North Vietnam border, in this role, Brisbane operated under the callsign Flamboyant.
Escort of USN aircraft carriers involved in Operation Rolling Thunder airstrikes, after the invasion of Cambodia in 1970, RAN ships were prohibited from entering Cambodian waters. While deployed to Vietnam, the destroyers were placed under the control of Commander Australian Forces Vietnam in addition to that of the Flag Officer Commanding Australian Fleet. Operationally, the RAN vessels were under the command of the United States Seventh Fleet, arrangements were made to provide logistic support through the United States Pacific Fleet. A USN lieutenant was assigned to each ship during deployments to act as a liaison with the Seventh Fleet, the deployment of HMAS Hobart in March 1967 began a pattern of six-month deployments for RAN destroyers, with a constant RAN presence with the Seventh Fleet. Australia was the allied nation to provide naval support to the United States Navy during the Vietnam War
Herzogin Cecilie was a German-built four-mast barque, named after German Crown Princess Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, spouse of Crown Prince Wilhelm of Prussia. She sailed under German and Finnish flags, Herzogin Cecilie was built in 1902 by Rickmers Schiffbau AG in Bremerhaven. She was yard number 122 and was launched on 22 April 1902, completion was on 7 June that year. She was 334 feet 8 inches long, with a breadth of 46 feet 3 inches, Herzogin Cecilie was built for Norddeutscher Lloyd Bremen. Unlike other contemporary German merchant sailing ships, the black Flying-P-Liners or the ships of Rickmers. She was one of the fastest windjammers ever built, she logged 21 knots at Skagen, both routes required rounding Cape Horn routinely, and were not well suited for steamers, as coal was in short supply there. Herzogin Cecilie was one of the fastest merchant sailing ships of her time, the trip around Cape Horn from Portland to The Lizard was done in 1903 in only 106 days. At the outbreak of World War I, she was interned by Chile, returning to Germany in 1920, only to be given to France as reparation, as the freight rates for salpeter had dropped after the war, Gustaf Erikson sent her to bring grain from Australia.
In so-called grain races, several ships tried to arrive first in Europe, to sell their cargo for a higher price, as told, for example. The ship passed by Queensland where she was photographed, after winning four times prior to 1921, she again won the grain race four times in eleven trips from 1926 to 1936. In 1927, when Herzogin Cecilie covered Port Lincoln –Falmouth and won a race against the Swedish ship Beatrice. After parts of the cargo were unloaded, she was floating again, only to be towed in June 1936 to Starhole Bay at the mouth of the nearby Kingsbridge Estuary near Salcombe, on 18 January 1939, the ship capsized and sank. The remains of the ship sit at a depth of 7 metres at 50°12. 82′N 3°47. 02′W. The timber and brass portholes from the room were salvaged and used to construct a small room in the Cottage Hotel at Hope Cove. The room contains photographs and press cuttings of the wreck. There is a collection of items from the ship in a museum at Sven Erikssons family home at Pellas, in Lemland.
The ship and her last voyage was memorialized in a folksong by Ken Stephens, Official Numbers were a forerunner to IMO Numbers. Herzogin Cecilie had the Finnish Official Number 703 and used the Code Letters TPMK, the Tall Ships Races Peter Pedersen and Joseph Conrad
Quintana Roo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Quintana Roo, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into ten municipalities and its capital city is Chetumal and it is located in Southeastern Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. Quintana Roo has a coastline to the east with the Caribbean Sea and it claims territory which gives it a small border with Guatemala in the southwest of the state, although this disputed area is claimed by Campeche. The Sian Kaan biosphere reserve is located in the state. The statewide population is expanding at a rapid rate due to the construction of hotels, many immigrants come from Yucatán, Campeche and Veracruz. On February 1,2015, Quintana Roo officially adopted a new zone, which is five hours behind Coordinated Universal Time. Reasons cited for the change include coordination of air travel, banking operations, and more daylight hours, the area that makes up modern Quintana Roo was long part of Yucatán, sharing its history.
With the Caste War of Yucatán, which started in the 1840s, the independent Maya nation of Chan Santa Cruz was based on what is now the town of Felipe Carrillo Puerto. For decades it maintained independence, having separate trade and treaty relationships with British Honduras. Quintana Roo was made a territory of Mexico by decree of President Porfirio Díaz on November 24,1902 and it was named after an early patriot of the Mexican Republic, Andrés Quintana Roo. The Mexican army succeeded in defeating most of the Maya population of the region during the 1910s, in 1915 the area was again declared to be legally part of the state of Yucatán. Quintana Roo was granted statehood within the United Mexican States on October 8,1974 and it is the Mexican Republics youngest state. According to the Köppen climate classification, much of the state has a tropical wet, the mean annual temperature is 26 °C. The hottest months are April and August where the high is 33 °C while January is coldest month with an average low of 17 °C.
Extreme temperatures can range from low of 10 °C in the coldest months to 36 °C in the hottest months, Quintana Roo averages 1,300 mm of precipitation per year, which falls throughout the year, though June to October are the wetter months. Hurricanes can occasionally hit the areas during the hurricane season. The State of Quintana Roo is divided into 11 municipalities, each headed by a municipal president, Quintana Roo ranks sixth among Mexican states according to the United Nations Human Development index. The Yucatán Peninsula is one of the most forested areas of the world in terms of mass per hectare
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble
Whitefish Point Underwater Preserve
The formation of the Michigan Underwater Preserves helped stop controversy over artifact removal from shipwrecks of this area. The preserve is now known for deep, well preserved shipwrecks in clear water accessible to divers with technical skill. The preserve is one of the last places in the Great Lakes to observe shipwrecks without zebra mussel encrustation, every vessel entering or leaving Lake Superior must pass Whitefish Point. The Whitefish Point Light first established in 1849 is arguably the most important light on Lake Superior, more vessels have been lost in the Whitefish Point area than any other part of Lake Superior. Between the loss of the Invincible in 1816 and the sinking of the SS Edmund Fitzgerald in 1975, vessels are funneled through Whitefish Bay downbound and upbound from the Soo Locks. Poor visibility from forest fire smoke, snow squalls, and Lake Superior’s notorious fogs had deadly consequences with the traffic congestion, Lake Superior’s 160 miles of open water and storms from the northwest can build immense seas with offshore waves of 30 feet or more.
Such a storm sank the SS Edmund Fitzgerald 17 miles from Whitefish Point in 1975, sport diver Harrington reported that many of the shipwrecks of the Whitefish Point Underwater Preserve were stripped of important artifacts in the 1970s and early 1980s. The State of Michigan filed a lawsuit against the Great Lakes Shipwreck Historical Society for illegal removal of artifacts from Great Lakes bottomlands, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources obtained a search warrant in 1992 and raided on the GLSHS’s offices and Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum. The DNR found evidence the Shipwreck Society had. removed about 150 artifacts from wrecks located on state-claimed bottomlands, … Shipwreck Society official described the Society’s actions as a kind of “damned if you do, damned if you don’t” puzzle. By preserving the artifacts for display at the Whitefish Point Museum, DNR officer Carl TerHaar challenged Farnquist’s line of reasoning however. “The story we get is, ‘We’re taking stuff before somebody else does.
’ That’s a never-ending excuse … saying we’ll take it before the guy does. That’s like looting in the L. A. riots, ” TerHaar commented, many of the artifacts removed from shipwrecks by the GLSHS without permits are displayed at the Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum at Whitefish Point by a settlement agreement with the state of Michigan. To this day many sport divers boycott the Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum, scuba divers and history enthusiasts now help ensure the integrity of the preserve which is considered an underwater museum. Many of the twenty-three known shipwrecks lying in depths from 30 feet to 270 feet are moored to protect the wrecks, the preserve has good visibility and offers deep water diving on a variety of shipwrecks. The preserve is one of the last places in the Great Lakes to observe shipwrecks without zebra mussel encrustation, dry suits are recommended due to cold temperatures and unprotected coves or bays. Most of the sites are deep and divers must be certain of their ability.
Michigan Underwater Preserves Michigan Underwater Preserve Council – Whitefish Point Whitefish Point Underwater Preserve DEQ – Whitefish Point Underwater Preserve Michigan Shipwreck Site
Chuuk Lagoon, known as Truk Lagoon, is a sheltered body of water in the central Pacific. About 1,800 kilometres north-east of New Guinea, it is located mid-ocean at 7 degrees North latitude, the atoll consists of a protective reef,225 kilometres around, enclosing a natural harbour 79 by 50 kilometres, with an area of 2,130 square kilometres. It has an area of 93.07 square kilometres, with a population of 36,158 people. Weno city on Weno island functions as the capital and as the state capital and is the largest city in the FSM with its 12,000 people. Chuuk means mountain in the Chuukese language, the lagoon was known mainly as Truk, until 1990. Other names included Ruk, Torres, Chuuk Lagoon is part of the larger Caroline Islands group. It is not known when the islands of Chuuk were first settled, evidence indicates that widespread human settlements appeared in Chuuk during the 14th century AD. The first recorded sighting by Europeans was made by Spanish navigator Álvaro de Saavedra on board of the ship Florida during August or September 1528 and they were visited by Spaniard Alonso de Arellano on 15 January 1565 on board of galleon patache San Lucas.
As part of the territory of the Caroline Islands, Truk was part of the Spanish Empire. The Caroline Islands were sold to the German Empire in 1899 and it became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germanys defeat in World War I. During World War II, Truk Lagoon was the Empire of Japans main base in the South Pacific theatre, Truk was a heavily fortified base for Japanese operations against Allied forces in New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, serving as the forward anchorage for the Japanese Imperial Fleet. Truk Lagoon was considered the most formidable of all Japanese strongholds in the Pacific, on the various islands, the Japanese Civil Engineering Department and Naval Construction Department had built roads, trenches and caves. Five airstrips, seaplane bases, a boat station, submarine repair shops, a communications center. Protecting these various facilities were coastal defense guns and mortar emplacements, due to its heavy fortifications, both natural and manmade, the base at Truk was known to Allied forces as the Gibraltar of the Pacific.
A significant portion of the Japanese fleet was based at Truk, at anchor in the lagoon, were the Imperial Japanese Navys battleships, aircraft carriers, destroyers, cargo ships, gunboats, landing craft, and submarines. In particular and Musashi were stationed at Truk for months around 1943, some have described Truk as Japans equivalent of the Americans Pearl Harbor. In 1944, Truks capacity as a base was destroyed through naval air attack. Forewarned by intelligence a week before the US raid, the Japanese had withdrawn their larger warships to Palau, once the American forces captured the Marshall Islands, they used them as a base from which to launch an early morning attack on February 17,1944 against Truk Lagoon
HMAS Canberra (FFG 02)
HMAS Canberra was an Adelaide class guided missile frigate of the Royal Australian Navy. Based on the Oliver Hazard Perry class design, Canberra was one of four Adelaide class ships constructed in the United States of America, the frigate entered service in 1981. In 2005, Canberra became the first ship of her class to be decommissioned, the frigate was marked for conversion into a dive wreck and artificial reef off Barwon Heads and was scuttled on 4 October 2009. A third was ordered in 1977, followed by a fourth, with all four ships integrated into the USNs shipbuilding program, a further two ships were ordered in 1980, and were constructed in Australia. As designed, the ship had a load displacement of 3,605 tons, a length overall of 135.6 metres, a beam of 13.7 metres. Propulsion machinery consists of two General Electric LM2500 gas turbines, which provide a combined 41,000 horsepower to the propeller shaft. Top speed is 29 knots, with a range of 4,500 nautical miles at 20 knots, two 650-horsepower electric auxiliary propulsors are used for close manoeuvring, with a top speed of 4 knots.
Standard ships company is 184, including 15 officers, but excluding the flight crew for the embarked helicopters, for anti-submarine warfare, two Mark 32 torpedo tube sets are fitted, originally firing the Mark 44 torpedo, the Adelaides carried the Mark 46 torpedoes. Two helicopters can be embarked, either two S-70B Seahawk or one Seahawk and one AS350B Squirrel. Canberra was laid down as the first ship of the Perry classs Flight II design by Todd Pacific Shipyards at Seattle, Washington on 1 March 1978, Canberra was commissioned into the RAN on 21 March 1981. The ship received the United States Navy hull number FFG-18 during construction, canberras main weapon was the Mark 13 missile launcher located on the foredeck, this is used to fire both Harpoon and SM-2MR Standard missiles. A 76-millimetre Mark 75 OTO Melara gun is located on top of the superstructure, a triple-barrelled Mark 32 torpedo tube set is fitted to each side of the superstructure. For close defence, a 20-millimetre Mark 16 Mod 2 Phalanx CIWS sits at the aft end of the superstructure, the hangars housed two S-70B Seahawk helicopters.
After commissioning and Adelaide remained in the United States to work up, Canberra was assigned as escort to the Royal Yacht Britannia during Queen Elizabeth IIs visit to Australia during April and May 1988, as part of the Australian Bicentennary celebrations. On 16 May 1990, Canberra was one of six Australian warships, Canberra was deployed to the Red Sea from 13 November 1992 to 12 March 1993 following the Gulf War, as part of the enforcement of the United Nations sanctions against Iraq. In December 1993, Canberra and the destroyer HMAS Perth visited Langkawi, for the Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition. During this assignment, ships divers from Canberra assisted the Royal Malaysian Police in searching for, the frigates home base was changed from Fleet Base East in New South Wales to Fleet Base West in Western Australia in February 1996. On 17 May 1998, the frigate was one of four RAN ships placed on standby to help evacuate Australian citizens from Indonesia following riots, Canberra made at least one evacuation before the force was instructed to stand down a week later
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States, to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea, and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area, Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana, pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colonys Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by instability and many political changes.
The Mexican–American War led to the cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, the dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the countrys current political system. Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest by purchasing power parity, the Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners, especially the United States. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the fifth or seventh largest economy. The country is considered both a power and middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas.
Mexico is a country, ranking fourth in the world by biodiversity. In 2015 it was the 9th most visited country in the world, Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and the Pacific Alliance. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica and this became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence. It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital and this was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan
Arrecifes de Cozumel National Park
The Arrecifes de Cozumel National Park is off the coast of the island of Cozumel in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The Cozumel reef system is part of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, even though almost the entire island of Cozumel is surrounded by coral reefs, the park only encompasses the reefs on the south side of the island. It begins just south of the International Pier and continues down and around Punta Sur, the park is located in the municipality of Cozumel in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. It is about 20 kilometers off the east coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Caribbean Sea, on July 19,1996, under the direction of president Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León, Arrecifes de Cozumel was declared a National Marine Park. The park size is 120 square kilometres, Cozumel is home to the Cozumel Splendid toadfish which is listed as vulnerable by IUCN and is entirely endemic to the reefs surrounding the island. The park has several species that are under some degree of protection, including sea turtles, the Queen Conch, the park is most known for scuba diving and snorkeling.
Popular dive sites include Columbia Reef, Devils Throat at Punta Sur, Palancar Reef, Paradise Reef, Paso del Cedral, San Francisco and the shipwreck of the C-53 Felipe Xicoténcatl
MV Bianca C
The Bianca C was a passenger ship that sank on two occasions, the first time in France before being completed, and the second time after an explosion and fire off the island of Grenada. Built during World War II at Construction Navales La Ciotat, a shipyard on the southern coast of France, Construction had not yet been completed, so the ship was towed to Port de Bouc, near Marseille, where she was torpedoed by the Germans in August. When the hull was raised, it was renamed La Marseillaise, when the remodeling was completed in July 1949, she sailed to Yokohama. In 1957, the ship was given the name Arosa Sky after being sold to Panamas Arosa Line and she was refitted again and became the companys flagship. She was chartered by the exchange organization American Field Service to bring students between the U. S. and Europe, within two years Arosa Line was forced to sell the ship to Costa Line, an Italian company known as Linea C. After that 1959 sale, the ship was renamed the Bianca C for one of the owners daughters, the Bianca Cs main route ran from Italy to Venezuela, including stops in the Caribbean.
On Sunday October 22,1961, the Bianca C was ten days out of Naples, one crewman died immediately, and eight others were injured. Survivors were taken to the capital, where hospitals were hastily established to provide shelter. Because Grenada did not have the equipment to such a large fire. It took two days for the Londonderry to arrive, and by time the Bianca C had begun to sink. The burning ship was in the anchorage and would block the harbor if it sank there. The anchor lines of the Bianca C were burned, and today the anchors are still at the mouth of the St. Georges harbor, the Londonderry moved to tow the Bianca C, but the latter ship was listing to port. Thousands of Grenadians watched from the mountains as the tow progressed for six hours, the Bianca C sank quickly into 165 feet of water, about a mile from the popular tourist beach at Grand Anse. In the 1970s, a Trinidadian firm salvaged the Bianca Cs propellers, as the top of the ship is in only about 100 feet of water, scuba divers can reach it and in the late 1980s and early 1990s some removed parts of the boat for souvenirs.
In late 1992, the third of the ship was torn off. A bronze statue of Christ of the Abyss was given by the Costa Line to Grenada in appreciation of the hospitality. The Times named the Bianca C as one of the top ten wreck diving sites in the world, postcards Sculpture Christ of the Deep The Bianca C Story