National Geographic Society
The National Geographic Society, headquartered in Washington, D. C. United States, is one of the largest nonprofit scientific and educational institutions in the world and its interests include geography and natural science, the promotion of environmental and historical conservation, and the study of world culture and history. In partnership with 21st Century Fox, the Society operates the magazine, TV channels, a website that features extra content and worldwide events, the National Geographic Society was founded in 1888 to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge. The Society believes in the power of science and storytelling to change the world, National Geographic is governed by a board of trustees, whose 21 members include distinguished educators, business executives, former government officials and conservationists. The organization sponsors and funds research and exploration. National Geographic maintains a museum for the public in its Washington and its Education Foundation gives grants to education organizations and individuals to improve geography education.
Its Committee for Research and Exploration has awarded more than 11,000 grants for scientific research, National Geographic has retail stores in Washington, D. C. The locations outside of the United States are operated by Worldwide Retail Store S. L and it publishes other magazines, school products and Web and film products in numerous languages and countries. National Geographics various media properties reach more than 280 million people monthly, the National Geographic Society began as a club for an elite group of academics and wealthy patrons interested in travel. After preparing a constitution and a plan of organization, the National Geographic Society was incorporated two weeks on January 27, Gardiner Greene Hubbard became its first president and his son-in-law, Alexander Graham Bell, succeeded him in 1897. Bell and Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor devised the successful marketing notion of Society membership, the current National Geographic Society president and CEO is Gary E. Knell. The chairman of the board of trustees is John Fahey, the editor-in-chief of National Geographic magazine is Susan Goldberg.
Gilbert Melville Grosvenor, a chairman of the Society board of trustees received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2005 for his leadership in geography education. In 2004, the National Geographic Society headquarters in Washington, D. C. was one of the first buildings to receive a Green certification from Global Green USA. The National Geographic received the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award for Communication and Humanities in October 2006 in Oviedo, in 2013 the society was investigated for possible violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act relating to their close association with an Egyptian government official responsible for antiquities. This new, for-profit corporation, will own National Geographic and other magazines, as reported by The Guardian, a spokesman for National Geographic in a November 2,2015 e-mail statement, briefly discussed the rationale for the staff reductions as part of the. Process of reorganizing in order to move forward following the closing the National Geographic Partners deal.
Additional specifics were provided to Photo District News by M. J. Jacobsen, National Geographic’s SVP of communications, similar to the contents of a formal announcement by the two companies
Mastodons lived in herds and were predominantly forest dwelling animals that fed on a mixed diet obtained by browsing and grazing with a seasonal preference for browsing, similar to living elephants. M. americanum, the American mastodon, is the youngest, the first remnant of Mammut, a tooth some 2.2 kilograms in weight, was discovered in the village of Claverack, New York, in 1705. The mystery animal became known as the incognitum, in 1806 the French anatomist Georges Cuvier named the incognitum mastodon. The name mastodon means breast tooth, and was assigned by the French naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1817, Mastodon as a genus name is obsolete, the valid name is Mammut, a name that preceded Cuviers description, making Mastodon a junior synonym. The change was met with resistance, and authors sometimes applied Mastodon as a name so it became the common term for members of the genus. Species include, M. americanum, the American mastodon, the best known, the American mastodon resembled a woolly mammoth in appearance, with a thick coat of shaggy hair.
It had tusks that sometimes exceeded 5 meters in length, they curved upwards and its main habitat was cold spruce woodlands, and it is believed to have browsed in herds. It became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene approximately 11,000 years ago, M. matthewi—found in the Snake Creek Formation of Nebraska, dating from the late Hemphillian. Some authors consider it practically indistinguishable from M. americanum, M. raki—Its remains were found in the Palomas Formation, near Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, dating from the early-middle Pliocene, between 4.5 and 3.6 Ma. However, like M. matthewi, some authors do not consider it distinct from M. americaum to warrant its own species. M. cosoensis—found in the Coso Formation of California, dating from the late Pliocene, originally a species of Pliomastodon, it was assigned to Mammut. Since a tentative 1977 report of M. matthewi in China, the status of Mammut or Zygolophodon borsoni in the literature appears equivocal. Mammut is a genus of the extinct family Mammutidae, related to the proboscidean family Elephantidae, named from remains found in the Juntura Formation of Oregon, dating from the late Miocene.
However, it is no longer considered valid, leaving only four valid species, a complete mtDNA sequence has been obtained from the tooth of an M. americanum skeleton found in permafrost in northern Alaska. The remains are thought to be 50,000 to 130,000 years old and this sequence has been used as an outgroup to refine divergence dates in the evolution of the Elephantidae. The rate of mtDNA sequence change in proboscideans was found to be lower than in primates. Compared to mammoths, mastodons had shorter legs, a body and were more heavily muscled. The average body size of the species M. americanum was around 2.3 m in height at the shoulders, corresponding to a female or a small male
SS Carl D. Bradley
The SS Carl D. Bradley was a self-unloading Great Lakes freighter that sank in a Lake Michigan storm on November 18,1958. Of the 35 crew members,33 died in the sinking and 23 were from the town of Rogers City. Her sinking was caused by structural failure from the brittle steel used in her construction. She was the sister of the ill-fated SS Cedarville, built in 1927 by the American Ship Building Company in Lorain, the Bradley was owned by the Michigan Limestone division of U. S. Steel, and operated by the Bradley Transportation Line. She retained the title of Queen of the Lakes for 22 years as the longest and largest freighter on the Great Lakes, the Bradley Transportations fleet of self-unloading ships was used to haul limestone from the Michigan Limestone quarry in Rogers City, Michigan. The Bradley was built to meet Michigan Limestones lucrative contract with a cement firm in Gary, by 7 feet, she was longer than the second largest ship on the Great Lakes and her engine had almost twice the power of engines installed in most freighters.
At 639 feet, she was the longest freighter on the lakes for 22 years, the AA class of U. S. Steel-owned freighters was roughly the same size as the Bradley but shorter in length by just inches. The Bradley retained the title Queen of the Lakes until the launch of the 678 feet SS Wilfred Sykes in 1949, the Bradley began as Hull 797 in 1923 at the American shipbuilding Company in Lorain, Ohio. She was launched in Lorain on April 9,1927, the Bradley was named for Carl David Bradley, who was president of Michigan Limestone. Bradley declared that the new ship was the last word in freighter construction, the U. S. Coast Guard described the Bradleys design and construction as. Typical arrangement for self-unloading type vessels with a forepeak and large cargo area and these areas were separated by two transverse watertight bulkheads, the collision bulkhead at frame 12, and the engine room forward bulkhead at frame 173. The cargo hold space was divided into five compartments by screen bulkheads above the tunnel, the entire 475 foot length of the cargo space was open longitudinally through the tunnel and conveyor room.
As the flagship of Bradley Transportation Company, the Bradley often carried corporate officials and she received more attention than the other ships in the fleet with her gray and red paint always fresh, her decks freshly hosed down, and a larger crew. The Bradley had individual rooms for the captain, chief mates, chief steward, the rest of the crew was housed in comfortable dormitory style rooms. She had a galley with huge refrigeration units and storage pantries. Her engine room housed a generator powered by two Foster-Wheeler boilers. The Bradley was the fully electric ship in the Bradley Transportation fleet. Her generator powered everything from the propeller to the running lights, the Bradleys registered port was New York City, her true home was Rogers City, where Michigan Limestone was based
Poor Knights Islands
The Poor Knights Islands are a group of islands off the east coast of the Northland Region of the North Island of New Zealand. They lie 50 kilometres to the north-east of Whangarei, and 22 kilometres offshore halfway between Bream Head and Cape Brett, uninhabited since the 1820s, they are a nature reserve and popular underwater diving spot. The Poor Knights Islands Marine Reserve surrounds the island, the islands name is said to derive from their resemblance to Poor Knights Pudding, a bread-based dish popular at the time of discovery by Europeans. The chain consists of two islands with a group of smaller islets between the two, the largest of which is Motu Kapiti. Tawhiti Rahi is the Māori name for the entire chain, the islands are the eroded remnants of a 4-million-year-old rhyolitic volcano. Spring tide range for the islands is around 2 m, decreasing to a tide of around 1 m. The deep water around the results in only moderate tidal currents. These are around the same magnitude as the prevailing shelf currents, in the general vicinity of the islands mean flows are around 0.2 m/s and run toward the southeast. A remarkable feature of the region is the large tides that occur.
These are a form of wave driven by the local tidal flow forcing the stratification against sloping areas of the shelf face. The surface manifestation of these waves can be seen from space and these waves generate brief highly localized accelerations. Internal wave amplitudes of around 100 m have been observed, generating flow speeds as great as 0.5 m/s, the islands are protected as a nature reserve and a permit is required to land or tie boats up. Permits are usually granted only for scientific research, a notable native plant of the islands is the spectacularly flowering Poor Knights lily. Feral pigs, which had roamed Aorangi since the departure of Māori in the 1820s, were exterminated in 1936. The islands have been identified as an Important Bird Area, by BirdLife International because they are home to a population of about 200,000 pairs of Bullers shearwaters. The islands were inhabited by Māori of the Ngāti Wai tribe who grew crops. The tribe traded with other Maori, a chief of the tribe named Tatua led his warriors on a fighting expedition to the Hauraki Gulf with Ngā Puhi chief Hongi Hika in the early 1820s.
While they were away, a slave escaped the islands and travelled to Hokianga where he told Waikato, a chief of the Hikutu tribe, as Waikato had been offended by Tatua some years previous, he and his warriors set out on three large canoes to attack the islands
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head of the skeleton in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a cavity for the brain. The skull is composed of two parts, the cranium and the mandible, in the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, nose, in the human these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. In some animals such as horned ungulates, the skull has a function by providing the mount for the horns. The English word skull is probably derived from Old Norse skulle, while the Latin word cranium comes from the Greek root κρανίον, the skull is made up of a number of fused flat bones, and contains many foramina and processes, and several cavities or sinuses. For details and the constituent bones, see neurocranium and viscerocranium, the human skull is the bony structure that forms the head in the human skeleton.
It supports the structures of the face and forms a cavity for the brain, like the skulls of other vertebrates, it protects the brain from injury. The skull consists of two parts, of different embryological origin—the neurocranium and the facial skeleton, the neurocranium forms the protective cranial cavity that surrounds and houses the brain and brainstem. The facial skeleton is formed by the supporting the face. Except for the mandible, all of the bones of the skull are joined together by sutures—synarthrodial joints formed by bony ossification, sometimes there can be extra bone pieces within the suture known as wormian bones or sutural bones. The human skull is considered to consist of twenty-two bones—eight cranial bones. In the neurocranium these are the bone, two temporal bones, two parietal bones, the sphenoid and frontal bones. The bones of the skeleton are the vomer, two nasal conchae, two nasal bones, two maxilla, the mandible, two palatine bones, two zygomatic bones, and two lacrimal bones.
Some of these bones—the occipital, frontal, in the neurocranium, and the nasal, the skull contains sinus cavities and numerous foramina. The sinuses are lined with respiratory epithelium and their known functions are the lessening of the weight of the skull, the aiding of resonance to the voice and the warming and moistening of the air drawn through the nasal cavity. The foramina are openings in the skull, the largest of these is the foramen magnum that allows the passage of the spinal cord as well as nerves and blood vessels. The many processes of the include the mastoid process and the zygomatic process
HMAS Brisbane (D 41)
HMAS Brisbane was one of three Perth-class guided missile destroyers to serve in the Royal Australian Navy. The United States-designed ship was laid down at Bay City, Michigan in 1965, launched in 1966 and she is named after the city of Brisbane, Queensland. Brisbane was decommissioned in 2001, and was sunk as a wreck off the Queensland coast in 2005. Brisbane was one of three Perth-class guided missile destroyers built for the RAN, based on the United States Navys Charles F. Propulsion was provided by two General Electric turbines, which provided 70,000 shaft horsepower to the destroyers two propeller shafts. Brisbane could achieve speeds of 35 knots, the ships company consisted of 24 officers and 312 sailors. As a guided missile destroyer, Brisbanes main armament consisted of a Mark 13 missile launcher firing Tartar missiles and this was supplemented by two 5/54 calibre Mark 42 guns and two Mark 32 triple torpedo tube sets. Over the course of the career, the Mark 13 launcher was modified to fire Standard missiles.
Brisbane was laid down by the Defoe Shipbuilding Company at Bay City, the ship was launched on 5 May 1966 by the wife of Fred Chaney, Sr. the Minister for the Navy. Brisbane was handed over to the RAN at Boston Navy Yard on 7 December 1967, the cost of the destroyer was approximately A$50 million. The ship was given the nicknames Steel Cat and Fighting Forty-One, during construction, the ship was assigned the United States Navy hull number DDG-27. Brisbane spent the first nine months of her career undergoing exercises in US waters, after visits to Pearl Harbor and Suva, Brisbane arrived in her namesake city on 17 October. On 14 December 1966, the Australian Cabinet approved the deployment of Hobart as part of increases to Australian military commitment to the conflict. Brisbane operated in one of three roles, Naval gunfire support operations to assist ground forces, particularly the United States Marine Corps units operating closest to the North Vietnam border, in this role, Brisbane operated under the callsign Flamboyant.
Escort of USN aircraft carriers involved in Operation Rolling Thunder airstrikes, after the invasion of Cambodia in 1970, RAN ships were prohibited from entering Cambodian waters. While deployed to Vietnam, the destroyers were placed under the control of Commander Australian Forces Vietnam in addition to that of the Flag Officer Commanding Australian Fleet. Operationally, the RAN vessels were under the command of the United States Seventh Fleet, arrangements were made to provide logistic support through the United States Pacific Fleet. A USN lieutenant was assigned to each ship during deployments to act as a liaison with the Seventh Fleet, the deployment of HMAS Hobart in March 1967 began a pattern of six-month deployments for RAN destroyers, with a constant RAN presence with the Seventh Fleet. Australia was the allied nation to provide naval support to the United States Navy during the Vietnam War
Speleology and caving are often connected, as the physical skills required for in situ study are the same. In Romania, the term speology is used, this is derived from a Greek word for cave, rather than the Latin, spelaeum. Speleology is a field that combines the knowledge of chemistry, geology, physics and cartography to develop portraits of caves as complex. In 1895 Martel founded the Société de Spéléologie, the first organization devoted to science in the world. The creation of an accurate, detailed map is one of the most common technical activities undertaken within a cave, caves provide a home for many unique biota. Cave ecologies are diverse, and not sharply distinct from surface habitats. Generally however, the deeper the cave becomes, the more rarefied the ecology, cave environments fall into three general categories, Endogean the parts of caves that are in communication with surface soils through cracks and rock seams, groundwater seepage, and root protrusion. Parahypogean the threshold regions near cave mouths that extend to the last penetration of sunlight and these can be in regular contact with the surface via wind and underground rivers, or the migration of animals, or can be almost entirely isolated.
Deep hypogean environments can host autonomous ecologies whose primary source of energy is not sunlight, cave organisms fall into three basic classes, There are so-called accidental trogloxenes which are surface organisms that enter caves for no survival reason. Some may even be troglophobes, which survive in caves for any extended period. Examples include deer which fell through a sinkhole, frogs swept into a cave by a flash flood, the two factors that limit cave ecologies are generally energy and nutrients. To some degree moisture is available in actively forming Karst caves. Cut off from the sunlight and steady deposition of plant detritus, the majority of energy in cave environments comes from the surplus of the ecosystems outside. One major source of energy and nutrients in caves is dung from trogloxenes, because of their rarity and position in the ecosystem they are threatened by a large number of human activities. Dam construction, limestone quarrying, water pollution and logging are just some of the disasters that can devastate or destroy underground biological communities.
Speleologists work with archaeologists in studying underground ruins, tunnels and aqueducts, such as the various inlets and outlets of the Cloaca Maxima in Rome
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States, to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea, and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area, Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana, pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colonys Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by instability and many political changes.
The Mexican–American War led to the cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, the dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the countrys current political system. Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest by purchasing power parity, the Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners, especially the United States. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the fifth or seventh largest economy. The country is considered both a power and middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas.
Mexico is a country, ranking fourth in the world by biodiversity. In 2015 it was the 9th most visited country in the world, Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and the Pacific Alliance. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica and this became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence. It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital and this was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan
Global Underwater Explorers
Global Underwater Explorers is a scuba diving organization that provides education within recreational and cave diving. It is a not-for-profit, membership organization, based in High Springs, Jarrod Jablonski, President of GUE, promoted the ideas of Hogarthian gear configuration and the Doing It Right system of diving to a global audience. The standardized approach is the basis of the training program of GUE. GUE focuses on protecting the maritime environment, the most popular GUE course is GUE Fundamentals, which is designed to introduce the GUE system to non-GUE divers and is the pathway to technical courses. Further courses are offered in recreational and cave diving, GUE is a non-profit 501 organization formed to promote education and conservation of the aquatic realm. The organization was formed by Jarrod Jablonski and a group of educators, explorers. The founding members sought to build upon the history of the Cousteau Society by creating a network of satellite organizations. In this way local advocates help GUE establish detailed diver training, vibrant exploration, when GUE was formed it was co-located with Extreme Exposure dive store.
However, Extreme Exposure has now changed locations, which has allowed for growth of the organization. Global Underwater Explorers emerged from a desire to safely explore and protect the underwater world and to improve the quality of education. GUE diver training started with technical cave and technical diving classes expanding into recreational training while refining its most popular class known as GUE Fundamentals. GUE maintains adherence to an equipment and procedural system which it claims enhances diver safety and efficiency by reducing confusion. This latter training component is an aspect of GUE training as it stipulates a fairly strict set of guiding principles. In February 2016 the British Sub Aqua Club confirmed that a review has been completed on how to integrate GUE divers into BSAC branches, the most renowned of GUEs satellite organizations is the Woodville Karst Plain Project, which now has the status of a non-profit affiliate of GUE. Numerous GUE members are engaged in the extensive science and exploration projects conducted by the WKPP.
This success is the model under which GUE has launched a conservation project known as Project Baseline which seeks to document the condition of our global aquatic environments. The sixth month exhibit ended March 24,2002, the Ocean Conservancy beach clean-up at Hutchinson Island located in Martin County, Florida in 2003. The Underwater Exploration and the DIR system was held in Italy, the GUE Conference 2005 was held in Gainesville, Florida
HMS A1 was the Royal Navys first British-designed submarine, and their first to suffer fatal casualties. She was the ship of the first British A-class submarines. The wreck was discovered in 1989 and is now a protected wreck and she was an enlarged and improved Holland class submarine -40 ft longer than the Royal Navys five Holland-type boats. The most notable improvement was the addition of a conning tower, subsequent A class boats were even larger and differed from her in several respects. Like all members of her class, she was built at Vickers and she was launched on 9 July 1902. Before she left the yard she suffered from a hydrogen explosion, while under tow to Portsmouth to join with the rest of the navys submarines seawater managed to reach her batteries which gave off chlorine gas forcing the evacuation of the vessel. She sank in only 39 ft of water, but the boat flooded, one consequence was that all subsequent Royal Navy submarines were equipped with a watertight hatch at the bottom of the conning tower.
She was raised on 18 April 1904 and repaired and re-entered service, following a petrol explosion in August 1910, she was converted to a testbed for the Admiraltys Anti-Submarine Committee. She was lost a year when running submerged but unmanned under automatic pilot, although the position of her sinking was known at the time, all efforts to locate her were fruitless. It was not until 1989 that the wreck was discovered by a fisherman at Bracklesham Bay