Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin; the miraculous conception took place when she was betrothed to Joseph. She accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem; the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to Catholic and Orthodox teachings, at the end of her earthly life her body was raised directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion, she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God.
There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, her Assumption into heaven. Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the relative brevity of biblical references. Mary has a revered position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים, translit. Maryam or Mariam; the English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament. In Christianity, Mary is referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Mary, the Mother of God, the Theotokos, Our Lady, Queen of Heaven, although the title "Queen of Heaven" was a name for a pagan goddess being worshipped during the prophet Jeremiah's lifetime.
Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Catholics, Protestants and other Christians. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Panagia. Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà; the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei, with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons; the Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis.
For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Other titles have arisen from special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description. In Islam, she is known as mother of Isa, she is referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady". A related term of endearment is Siddiqah, meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam, she is called "Tahira", meaning "one, purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation to not be touched by Satan at any point. The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative.
The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name six times, five of these in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative. The Gospel of Mark names her once and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in 3:31 and 3:32; the Gospel of John never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances, she is first seen at the wedding at Cana. The second reference, listed only in this gospel, has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas
Joseph is a figure in the Gospels, married to Mary, Jesus' mother, was Jesus' legal father. Joseph is venerated as Saint Joseph in the Catholic Church, Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, Anglicanism and Methodism, is known as Joseph the carpenter; some differing views are due to theological interpretations versus historical views. In both Catholic and Protestant traditions, Joseph is regarded as the patron saint of workers and is associated with various feast days. Pope Pius IX declared him to be both the patron and the protector of the Catholic Church, in addition to his patronages of the sick and of a happy death, due to the belief that he died in the presence of Jesus and Mary. In popular piety, Joseph is regarded as a model for fathers and has become patron of various dioceses and places. Several venerated images of Saint Joseph have been granted a canonical coronation by a Pope. In popular religious iconography he is associated with a spikenard. With the present-day growth of Mariology, the theological field of Josephology has grown and since the 1950s centers for studying it have been formed.
In the Apocrypha, Joseph was the father of James, Jude, at least two daughters. According to Epiphanius and the apocryphal History of Joseph the Carpenter, these children were from a marriage which predated the one with Mary, a belief, accepted by some select Christian denominations; the Pauline epistles make no reference to Jesus' father. The first appearance of Joseph is in the gospels of Luke; each contains a genealogy of Jesus showing ancestry from King David, but through different sons. All the names between David and Joseph are different; some scholars such as Harry A. Ironside reconcile the genealogies by viewing the Solomonic lineage in Matthew as Joseph's major royal line, the Nathanic lineage in Luke to be Mary's minor line; the epistles of Paul are regarded as the oldest extant Christian writings. These do not refer to his father; the Book of Mark, believed to be the first gospel to be written and with a date about two decades after Paul does not mention Jesus' father. Joseph first appears in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, both dating from around 80–90 AD.
The issue of reconciling the two accounts has been the subject of debate. Like the two differing genealogies, the infancy narratives appear only in Matthew and Luke and take different approaches to reconciling the requirement that the Messiah be born in Bethlehem with the tradition that Jesus in fact came from Nazareth. In Matthew, Joseph obeys the direction of an angel to marry Mary. Following the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem, Joseph is told by an angel in a dream to take the family to Egypt to escape the massacre of the children of Bethlehem planned by Herod, the ruler of the Roman province of Judea. Once Herod has died, an angel tells Joseph to return, but to avoid Herod's son he takes his wife and the child to Nazareth in Galilee and settles there, thus in Matthew, the infant Jesus, like Moses, is in peril from a cruel king, like Moses he has a father named Joseph who goes down to Egypt, like the Old Testament Joseph this Joseph has a father named Jacob, both Josephs receive important dreams foretelling their future.
In the Gospel book of Luke, Joseph lives in Nazareth, Jesus is born in Bethlehem because Joseph and Mary have to travel there to be counted in a census. Subsequently, Jesus was born there. Luke's account makes no mention of him being visited by angels, the Massacre of the Innocents, or of a visit to Egypt; the last time Joseph appears in person in any Gospel book is in the story of the Passover visit to the Temple in Jerusalem when Jesus is 12 years old, found only in Luke. No mention is made of him thereafter; the story emphasizes Jesus' awareness of his coming mission: here Jesus speaks to his parents of "my father," meaning God, but they fail to understand.. Christian tradition represents Mary as a widow during the adult ministry of her son. Joseph is not mentioned as being present at the Wedding at Cana at the beginning of Jesus' mission, nor at the Passion at the end. If he had been present at the Crucifixion, he would under Jewish custom have been expected to take charge of Jesus' body, but this role is instead performed by Joseph of Arimathea.
Nor would Jesus have entrusted his mother to the care of John the Apostle if her husband had been alive. While none of the Gospels mentions Joseph as present at any event during Jesus' adult ministry, the synoptic Gospels share a scene in which the people of Nazareth, Jesus' hometown, doubt Jesus' status as a prophet because they know his family. In Mark 6:3, they call Jesus "Mary's son" instead of naming his father. In Matthew, the townspeople call Jesus "the carpenter's son," again without naming his father. In Luke 3:23 "And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being the son of Joseph, of Heli." In Luke the tone is positive, whereas in Matthew it is disparaging. This incident does not appear at all in John, but in a parallel story the disbelieving neighbors refer to "Jesus the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know". Joseph appears in Luke as the father of Jesus and in a "variant reading in Matthew". Matthew and Luke both contain a genealogy of Jesus showing his ancestry from David, but through different sons.
Beyond Therapy is a play by Christopher Durang. This farcical comedy focuses on Prudence and Bruce, two Manhattanites who are seeking stable romantic relationships with the help of their psychiatrists, each of whom suggests their patient place a personal ad in the newspaper. Bruce is a emotional bisexual who tends to cry a trait Prudence sees as a weakness, their first meeting proves to be disastrous and the two report back to their respective therapists—libidinous Stuart, who once seduced Prudence, eccentric Charlotte, who stumbles over the simplest of words, who references the play Equus as a good source of advice, who interacts with her patients with the help of a stuffed Snoopy doll. The two therapists are more troubled than their patients. Charlotte suggests a revised ad, which once again attracts Prudence, but this time Prudence and Bruce manage to get past their initial loathing and discover they like each other. Complications ensue when Bruce's jealous live-in lover Bob decides to assert himself and do everything possible to maintain his status quo.
An off-Broadway production directed by Jerry Zaks opened on January 1, 1981 at the Phoenix Theatre in New York, where it ran for 30 performances. The cast included Sigourney Weaver as Prudence, Stephen Collins as Bruce, Jim Borrelli as Stuart, Kate McGregor-Stewart as Charlotte, Jack Gilpin as Bob; the sets were designed by Karen Schultz, costumes by Jennifer von Mayrhauser, lighting by Richard Nelson. Beyond Therapy premiered on Broadway on May 26, 1982, it was directed by John Madden, sets were designed by Andrew Jackness, costumes by Jennifer von Mayrhauser, lighting by Paul Gallo. The cast included Dianne Wiest as Prudence, John Lithgow as Bruce, Jack Gilpin as Bob, Kate McGregor-Stewart as Charlotte, Peter Michael Goetz as Stuart. David Hyde Pierce made his Broadway debut in the role of a waiter. McGregor-Stewart was nominated for the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Featured Actress in a Play. In 1987, Durang adapted his play for a screenplay, rewritten by director Robert Altman. Although the two shared a screenwriting credit, Durang described the project as "a unhappy experience and outcome."Beyond Therapy is one of Durang's most produced plays.
A recording of the play, featuring Catherine O'Hara as Prudence and David Hyde Pierce as Bruce, has been released on CD by the Fynsworth Alley label. Beyond Therapy at the Internet Broadway Database Beyond Therapy at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Full Length Plays at Christopher Durang.com New York Times article New York Times review
A nun is a member of a religious community of women living under vows of poverty and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery. Communities of nuns exist in numerous religious traditions, including Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism. In the Buddhist tradition, female monastics are known as Bhikkhuni, take several additional vows compared to male monastics. Nuns are most common in Mahayana Buddhism, but have more become more prevalent in other traditions. Within Christianity, women religious, known as nuns or religious sisters, are found in Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran traditions among others. Though the terms are used interchangeably, nuns take solemn vows and live a life of prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent, while sisters take simple vows and live an active vocation of prayer and charitable works in areas such as education and healthcare. Examples include the monastic Order of Saint Clare founded in 1212 in the Franciscan tradition, or the Missionaries of Charity founded in 1950 by Mother Teresa to care for people living in grave poverty.
All Buddhist traditions have nuns. The Buddha is reported to have allowed women into the sangha only with great reluctance, predicting that the move would lead to Buddhism's collapse after 500 years, rather than the 1,000 years it would have enjoyed otherwise. Ordained Buddhist nuns have more Patimokkha rules than the monks; the important vows are the same, however. As with monks, there is quite a lot of variation in nuns' dress and social conventions between Buddhist cultures in Asia. Chinese nuns possess the full bhikkuni ordination, Tibetan nuns do not. In Theravada countries it is believed that the full ordination lineage of bhikkunis died out, though in many places they wear the "saffron" colored robes, observing only ten precepts like novices. In Thailand, a country which never had a tradition of ordained nuns, there developed a separate order of non-ordained female renunciates called mae ji. However, some of them have played an important role in dhamma-practitioners' community. There are in Thai Forest Tradition foremost nuns such as Mae Ji Kaew Sianglam, the founder of the Nunnery of Baan Huai Saai, believed by some to be enlightened as well as Upasika Kee Nanayon.
At the beginning of the 21st century, some Buddhist women in Thailand have started to introduce the bhikkhuni sangha in their country as well if public acceptance is still lacking. Dhammananda Bhikkhuni the successful academic scholar Dr. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, established a controversial monastery for the training of Buddhist nuns in Thailand; the active roles of Taiwanese nuns were noted by some studies. Researcher Charles Brewer Jones estimates that from 1952 to 1999, when the Buddhist Association of the ROC organized public ordination, female applicants outnumbered males by about three to one, he adds: "All my informants in the areas of Taipei and Sanhsia considered nuns at least as respectable as monks, or more so. In contrast, Shiu-kuen Tsung found in Taipei county that female clergy were viewed with some suspicion by society, she reports that while outsiders did not regard their vocation as unworthy of respect, they still tended to view the nuns as social misfits."Wei-yi Cheng studied the Luminary order in southern Taiwan.
Cheng reviewed earlier studies which suggest that Taiwan's Zhaijiao tradition has a history of more female participation, that the economic growth and loosening of family restriction have allowed more women to become nuns. Based on studies of the Luminary order, Cheng concluded that the monastic order in Taiwan was still young and gave nuns more room for development, more mobile believers helped the order; the August 2007 International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha, with the support of H. H. XIVth Dalai Lama, reinstated the Gelongma lineage, having been lost, in India and Tibet, for centuries. Gelongma ordination requires the presence of ten ordained people keeping the same vows; because ten nuns are required to ordain a new one, the effort to establish the Dharmaguptaka bhikkhu tradition has taken a long time. It is permissible for a Tibetan nun to receive bhikkhuni ordination from another living tradition, e.g. in Vietnam. Based on this, Western nuns ordained in Tibetan tradition, like Thubten Chodron, took full ordination in another tradition.
The ordination of monks and nuns in Tibetan Buddhism distinguishes three stages: rabjung-ma, getshül-ma and gelong-ma. The clothes of the nuns in Tibet are the same as those of monks, but there are differences between novice and gelong robes. Hokke-ji in 747 was established by the consort of the Emperor, it took charge of provincial convents, performed ceremonies for the protection of the state, became the site of pilgrimages. Aristocratic Japanese women became Buddhist nuns in the premodern period, it was thought they could not gain salvation because of the Five Hindrances, which said women could not attain Buddhahood until they changed into men. However, in 1249, 12 women received full ordination as priests. In the Roman Catholic tradition, there are a large number of religious institutes of nuns and sisters, each with its own charism or special character. Traditionally, nuns are members of enclosed religious orders and take solemn religious vows, while sisters do not live in the papal enclosu
The Obie Awards or Off-Broadway Theater Awards are annual awards given by The Village Voice newspaper to theatre artists and groups in New York City. In September 2014, the awards were jointly presented and administered with the American Theatre Wing; as the Tony Awards cover Broadway productions, the Obie Awards cover Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway productions. The Obie Awards were initiated by Edwin Fancher, publisher of The Village Voice, who handled the financing and business side of the project, they were first given in 1956 under the direction of theater critic Jerry Tallmer. Only Off-Broadway productions were eligible; the first Obie Awards ceremony was held at Helen Gee's cafe. With the exception of the Lifetime Achievement and Best New American Play awards, there are no fixed categories at the Obie Awards, the winning actors and actresses are all in a single category titled "Performance." There are no announced nominations. Awards in the past have included performance, best production, special citations, sustained achievement.
Not every category is awarded every year. The Village Voice awards annual Obie grants to selected companies. There is a Ross Wetzsteon Grant, named after its former theater editor, in the amount of $2,000, for a theatre that nurtures innovative new plays; the first awards in 1955-1956 for plays and musicals were given to Absalom as Best New Play, Uncle Vanya, Best All-Around Production and The Threepenny Opera as Best Musical. Other awards for Off-Broadway theatre are the Lucille Lortel Awards, the Drama Desk Awards, the Drama League Award, the Outer Critics Circle Awards; as of September 2014, the Obie Awards are jointly presented by the American Theatre Wing and the Village Voice, with the Wing having "overall responsibility for running" the Awards. Obie Award for Distinguished Performance by an Actress Obie Award for Distinguished Performance by an Actor Obie Award for Distinguished Performance by an Ensemble Sustained Achievement Award Best New American Theatre Work Award Playwriting Award Design Award Special Citations Obie Grants The Ross Wetzsteon Award Obie Award ceremonies have been held at Webster Hall in Manhattan's East Village since the 2010-2011 season.
Winners from Infoplease.com "OBIE winners, 2011–2012", playbill.com "OBIE winners, 2012–2013", playbill.com "OBIE winners, 2013–2014", playbill.com "OBIE winners, 2014–2015", playbill.com "OBIE winners, 2015–2016", playbill.com OBIE winners, 2017 OBIE winners, 20182010s 2000s Obie Grants are awarded each year to select theatre companies. Previous recipients include: Ross Wetzsteon Award is a $2,000 grant awarded to a theatre that nurture innovative new plays. Previous recipients include: Official website
Baby with the Bathwater
Baby with the Bathwater is a play by Christopher Durang about a boy named Daisy, his influences, his eventual outcome. Two parents who are unprepared for parenthood bring home their newborn baby; the two cannot seem to name the baby. John thinks the baby is a boy; when the baby cries, the two can not quite decide. To their rescue comes Nanny – who enters their apartment as if by magic, is full of abrupt shifts of mood, first cooing at the baby soothingly screaming at it. In subsequent scenes and Nanny have an affair, Helen takes baby and leaves, only to come back a moment rain-soaked and unhappy. By the time the baby is a toddler, Daisy has been named. At this age Daisy has a penchant for running in front of buses and for lying, depressed, in piles of laundry; the audience hears an alarming essay Daisy has written in school, the principal, the terrifying Miss Willoughby, is oblivious to the essay’s cry for help, instead gleefully awards it an "A" for style. Years Daisy enters dressed as a girl, but a young man.
The audience follows his years of therapy, where he alternates between feelings of depression and anger, is unable to complete his freshman essay on Gulliver’s Travels despite having been in college for five years. In a scene reminiscent of the beginning of the play and his young bride fondly regard their own baby, determined not to repeat their parents' calamitous mistakes. "Mr. Durang is one of our theater’s brightest hopes – he knows how to write funny plays, which makes him a rarity. In Baby with the Bathwater, he manages to combine all three modes farce, good-humored wackiness … Durang keeps laughter bubbling... We laugh and gasp at the same time." Sylviane Gold, The Wall Street Journal "Christopher Durang is one of the funniest dramatists alive, one of the most satiric. This time, parenthood is the target. Keith Reddin, as the former Daisy, is the perfect Durang leading man and gravely polite, until he asserts himself." Edith Oliver, The New Yorker "Nanny – a warped Mary Poppins as played by Dana Ivey – believes that cuddling children only spoils them.
She gives the baby a rattle made of asbestos and Red Dye No. 2. ... Daisy proves a fuller creation. Watching the character undergo therapy, we feel the pain that leads him to have more than 1,700 sexual partners, that makes it impossible for him to find an identity or a name. A playwright who shares Swift’s bleak view of humanity, conquers bitterness and finds a way to turn rage into comedy, redemptive as well as funny." Frank Rich, The New York Times Premiere, March 31, 1983 by American Repertory Theatre in Cambridge, directed by Mark Linn-Baker Off-Broadway, November 9, 1983 by Playwrights Horizons in New York City, directed by Jerry Zaks Tap Gallery, 2000 by Mustardseed Theatre Co in Sydney, starring Jose Element, Rebecca Hamilton, Julian Garner, directed by Felicity Jurd Off-off-Broadway, June 15, 2002 by Rising Sun Performance Company in New York City, directed by Jason Tyne Off-off-Broadway, August 8, 2009 by Threshold Theatre Company in Melbourne, directed by TBA October 2012 by Ghost Light Projects in Vancouver, BC, directed by Randie Parliament & Greg Bishop February/March 2015 by Fury Theater at Indian Boundary Park in Chicago, directed by Kaitlin Taylor January 16, 2016 by Brisbane Arts Theatre in Brisbane, directed by John Boyce November 4, 2017 by Blood and Rhetoric at Divadlo D21 in Prague, directed by Abigail Rice
Beyond Therapy (film)
Beyond Therapy is a 1987 American comedy film written and directed by Robert Altman, based on the play of the same name by Christopher Durang. It stars Julie Hagerty, Jeff Goldblum, Glenda Jackson, Tom Conti, Christopher Guest; the film focuses on Prudence and Bruce, two Manhattanites who are seeking stable romantic relationships with the help of their respective psychiatrists, lecherous Stuart and scatterbrained Charlotte, each of whom suggests the patient place a personal ad. Their first meeting proves to be a disaster. Complications ensue when bisexual Bruce's jealous live-in lover Bob decides to assert himself and do everything possible to maintain his status quo. Julie Hagerty as Prudence Jeff Goldblum as Bruce Glenda Jackson as Charlotte Tom Conti as Stuart Christopher Guest as Bob Geneviève Page as Zizi Cris Campion as Andrew Sandrine Dumas as Cindy Bertrand Bonvoisin as Le Gérant Nicole Evans as The Cashier Louis-Marie Taillefer as Le Chef Matthew Leonard-Lesniak as Mr. Bean Laure Killing as Charlie According to Durang, both he and Altman wrote separate screenplays.
Durang's script was rewritten by Altman with Durang describing the project as "a unhappy experience and outcome."Despite its New York City setting, the film was made in Paris, where director Robert Altman was living at the time. Siskel & Ebert gave the film "two thumbs down" on their TV program. Ebert, in his print review, gave it one star out of four and called it a film "killed by terminal whimsy. It's a movie in which every scene must have seemed like a lot of fun at the time, when they're edited together, there's no pattern to the movie, nothing to build toward, no reason for us to care. It's all behavior." Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote that the film lacked "the kind of inexorable logic, the fuel of any farce and makes its loony characters so funny... The performances are good, but the film has been assembled without an overriding sense of humor and style, it remains in bits and pieces." Variety called it "a mediocre film version of Christopher Durang's mediocre play. The difference is that this comedy somehow won a good measure of popular success onstage, whereas the screen version is headed nowhere."
Dave Kehr of the Chicago Tribune gave the film one star out of four and wrote, "When Altman goes wrong, he goes spectacularly wrong—as in'Quintet' and'Health'—but this time he has just gone glumly, crushingly wrong.'Beyond Therapy' never builds up any genuine energy, direction or swing: It just huffs and puffs and hyperventilates." Sheila Benson of the Los Angeles Times was positive, praising "three great comic performances" from "the juiciest cast imaginable." Tom Milne of The Monthly Film Bulletin wrote, "Beyond Therapy is a scattershot film more so than usual with Altman, offering a firework display of one-liners and their visual equivalents, some brilliantly funny, some less successful."The film presently holds a score of 25% on Rotten Tomatoes based on eight reviews. Beyond Therapy on IMDb Beyond Therapy at AllMovie Beyond Therapy at Rotten Tomatoes Beyond Therapy at Box Office Mojo