Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Dame Malvina Lorraine Major is a New Zealand opera singer. Major was born in New Zealand into a large musical family; as a child she performed at various concerts, singing country and western pop and music from the shows. She received her first classical training in 1955, from Sister Mary Magdalen at Ngaruawahia, north of Hamilton. Sister Febronie continued with her voice training and Sister Liguori gave her piano tuition; as her potential blossomed, Major began travelling weekly to Ponsonby in Auckland, where she received further tuition from Dame Sister Mary Leo at St Mary's College Music School. Sister Mary Leo was internationally recognised as one of the great music teachers, she taught another famous New Zealand soprano, Dame Kiri Te Kanawa. Major moved to England for further study at the London Opera Centre under the guidance of renowned teacher Ruth Packer, her successes include winning the 1963 New Zealand Mobil Song Quest beating Te Kanawa who placed second. She won the Australian Melbourne Sun-Aria in 1965, the prestigious London based Kathleen Ferrier Award in 1966.
Malvina performed in international concerts including a BBC concert broadcast in London, an outdoor concert at the pyramids in Egypt with the Cairo Symphony Orchestra, a charity concert for Vera Lynn in London. She has performed more than 30 opera roles in their original languages, she has recorded numerous CDs. Major was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1991 in recognition of her contributions to music, a Principal Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit in the 2008 New Year Honours for services to opera; this was exchanged for Dame Grand Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit. In 1998, Major received the Benny Award from the Variety Artists Club of New Zealand Inc. In 2008, Major performed a solo and duet with Hayley Westenra on the ChristChurch Cathedral Choir 2008 UK Tour. On 18 March 2011, Major performed in the national Christchurch memorial service at Hagley Park of Christchurch in the presence of Prince William, Prime Minister John Key, Bob Parker, Hayley Westenra, ChristChurch Cathedral Choir, international rescue teams and tens of thousands of New Zealanders.
On 25 February 2012, Major performed with soprano Amina Edris and tenor Chase Douglas in the Waikato Times Hamilton Gardens Arts Festival. In The Queen's Birthday and Diamond Jubilee Honours List 2012 Dame Malvina Major was appointed to the Order of New Zealand; this is the highest honour awarded by the Queen of New Zealand, entitles members of use the post-nominal letters ONZ. Major is Professor of Voice at the University of Waikato in Hamilton, New Zealand. In 1992 she established a foundation to promote education through awards and provide training for young New Zealanders in the performing arts. One such recipient of her personal training is Hayley Westenra. Official website http://www.damemalvinamajorfoundation.org/
Jan Hellriegel is a singer/songwriter based in Auckland, New Zealand. Her first recorded appearances were in Dunedin band Working With Walt in the mid-1980s when Jan studied at the University of Otago in Dunedin, she formed all-woman band Cassandra's Ears, moving back to Auckland and going solo in the early 90s. Hellriegel has released three solo studio albums, "It's My Sin" in 1992, "Tremble" in 1995 and "All Grown Up" in 2009, she has toured with and supported many international acts including The Cure, Jeff Buckley, David Byrne and Ron Sexsmith. She has performed as a guest vocalist for many bands such as Straitjacket Fits, The Verlaines and The Mutton Birds, notably on the latter's hit single Nature. Jan Hellriegel was born and raised in West Auckland with her three brothers and attended Henderson High School, she famously worked in her father's panel beating shop, though only in the office. Nonetheless, the combination of her birthplace and early employment led to her being branded a "Westie" by the New Zealand media.
Jan took vocal training in singing at St. Mary's College, Auckland under Sister Mary Leo, she moved to Dunedin in the 1980s to attend the University of Otago, where she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts. While in Dunedin, she joined her brother Rob Hellriegel's band, Working With Walt, she performed backing vocals and guitar on their 1984 7" LP The Prophet and wrote and performed the song "Christina" on the band’s 1985 LP 4 Sides. In 1988, Jan performed backing vocals on the Leonard Cohen song "So Long Marianne", performed by Straitjacket Fits. In the late 1980s Jan formed the band Cassandra's Ears with Dunedin bandmates Flick Rhind, Zan Wright, Vanessa Anich and Leanne Ibell. Jan wrote music and lyrics and performed vocals and keyboards, their first release was the song "Replacements" for the National Student Radio 1986 compilation, Weird Culture Weird Custom. The band played local gigs, toured New Zealand, wrote more material, released two EPs, Private Wasteland in 1988 and Your Estimation in 1990.
Cassandra's Ears reformed in November 2010 for a one-off show in Auckland to support the release of "The Cassandra's Ears Story". By 1991, Jan had signed a deal with Warner Records New Zealand to record solo material, her first album, It’s My Sin, was recorded between December 1991 and January 1992 at Mountain Studios, Airforce Studios, Mandrill Studios, Helen Young Studios and Auckland Audio. The album was released in 1992, along with singles for the songs "The Way I Feel", "It’s My Sin" and "No Idea". There was a promotional EP for "All the Best Thoughts", the songs "Westy Gals" and "Wings of Steel" were released as radio-only singles. In 1992, Jan recorded backing vocals for the hit song "Nature" by The Mutton Birds. In 1995, Jan recorded a television advertisement for Coca-Cola before completing her second album, Tremble, at Sing Sing and Studios 301 in 1995; the album was released the same year along with singles for the songs "Manic ", "Geraldine" and "Pure Pleasure". In 1996 Jan was awarded Most Promising Female Vocalist at the New Zealand Music Awards, Top Female Vocalist and Single of the Year at the Music and Entertainer Awards of New Zealand.
In 1997, Jan recorded a television advertisement for Ford, a cover version of the Gordon Mills song "10 Guitars" for a Television New Zealand documentary of the same name, the song "Unravelled" for the short film "My Geraldine" by former Cassandra's Ears band mate Flick Rhind. She recorded a new single, "Sentimental Fool", at York Street A&B Studios for release that year. Jan subsequently parted ways with Warner Records, her last single, "Melusine", recorded at Beaver Studios was released by Universal Records in 1998; that year, Jan was nominated for the Fox of the Year award on the Mikey Havoc show. In 1999, Jan joined the Alan Duff Charitable Foundation Duffy Books in Homes programme as a celebrity spokesperson, she co-wrote the theme song "Read About It" with Dave Dobbyn and Toi Iti, still performed by 100,000 children annually. During that year she played a non-musical acting role on Shortland Street, playing Jackie, an abused wife. In 2000, Jan appeared in the New Zealand television Street Legal and in 2001 she became involved in a collaboration with Tom Blaxland called Project Runway.
In 2002, she recorded the song "Star Baby" for children's clothing label Pumpkin Patch. In early 2009 Jan went into Roundhead Studios in Auckland to record a third album with a line-up of musicians including producer Wayne Bell, Nick Gaffaney on drums, Brett Adams and Ben Fulton on guitars, Eddie Rayner and Michael Larsen on piano/keyboards, Mark Hughes on bass. Special guests included Callie Blood and Jackie Clarke on backing vocals; the album was engineered and mixed by Neil Baldock and was mastered by Greg Calbi at Stirling Sound in New York. Jan released the new album "All Grown Up" on her own record label, Blind Date Records, in October 2009 to critical acclaim from New Zealand music reviewers. In May 2010 Jan joined Native Tongue Music Publishing as their New Zealand General Manager. In June 2010 "Melusine" was re-released by Blind Date Records. In October 2010 Jan announced she had signed an agreement with Warner Music Australia that would allow her to re-release her earlier albums, "It's My Sin" and "Tremble" through Blind Date Records.
The album "Lost Songs" was released in April 2013. A collection of unreleased material - demos, live sessions and studio work from 1990 - 2000 which Hellriegel had remastered from DAT and cassette recordings; the Cassandra's Ears Story Other than interview or performance appearances, Jan Hellr
The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
Religious sister (Catholic)
A religious sister in the Catholic Church is a woman who has taken public vows in a religious institute dedicated to apostolic works, as distinguished from a nun who lives a cloistered monastic life dedicated to prayer. Both nuns and sisters use the term "sister" as a form of address; the HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism defines as "congregations of sisters institutes of women who profess the simple vows of poverty and obedience, live a common life, are engaged in ministering to the needs of society." As William Saunders writes: "When bound by simple vows, a woman is a sister, not a nun, thereby called'sister'. Nuns recite the Liturgy of the Hours or Divine Office in common... live a contemplative, cloistered life in a monastery... behind the'papal enclosure'. Nuns are permitted to leave the cloister only under special circumstances and with the proper permission." Until the 16th century, religious orders in the Western world made vows that were perpetual and solemn. In 1521, Pope Leo X allowed tertiaries of religious orders to take simple vows and live a more active life dedicated to charitable works.
This provision was rejected by Pope Pius V in 1566 and 1568. Early efforts by women such as Angela Merici, founder of the Ursulines, Jane Frances de Chantal, founder with Francis de Sales of the Visitation Sisters, were halted as the cloister was imposed by Church authorities. Into the 17th century, Church custom did not allow women to leave the cloister if they had taken religious vows. Female members of the mendicant orders continued to observe the same enclosed life as members of the monastic orders; the work of religious women was confined to what could be carried on within the walls of a monastery, either teaching boarding students within the cloister or nursing the sick in hospitals attached to the monastery. Mary Ward was an early proponent of women with religious vows living an active life outside the cloister, based on the apostolic life of the Jesuits. There was to be no enclosure, no common recitation of the Liturgy of the Hours, no religious habit. In 1609 she opened schools for girls.
Her efforts led to the founding of Sisters of Loreto. Her congregation continued to exist in some countries in various forms. Other women's congregations with simple vows continued to be founded, at times with the approval of local bishops. Vincent de Paul insisted that the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, which he founded, would have no convent but the hospital, no chapel but the parish church, no cloister but the streets, they renew their vows annually. The 19th century saw the proliferation of women's congregations engaged in education, religious instruction, medical and social works, along with missionary work in Africa and Asia. After nearly three centuries, in 1900 Pope Leo XIII by his constitution Conditae a Christo gave his approval to these congregations with simple vows; the 1917 Code of Canon Law reserved the term "nun" for women religious who took solemn vows or who, while being allowed in some places to take simple vows, belonged to institutes whose vows were solemn.
They lived under cloister, "papal enclosure", recited the Liturgy of the Hours in common. The Code used the word "sister" for members of institutes for women that it classified as "congregations"; the bishops at Vatican II, in their document Perfectae Caritatis on the religious life, asked all religious to examine their charism as defined by their rule and founder, in light of the needs of the modern world. Some religious who had led a more contemplative life responded to modern needs of the apostolate outside the monastic walls. Throughout the post-Vatican II document Ecclesiae Sanctae, Pope Paul VI used the word "nun" to refer to women with solemn vows; the 1983 Code of Canon Law uses the expression "monastery of nuns". The new code did not force traditional orders that were taking on works outside the monastery into uniformity. In response to Vatican II there has been "vigorous discussion among monastics as regards what kinds of work and life-styles are genuinely compatible with monastic life".
Catholic sisters and nuns in the United States This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wooden body, it is highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments exist, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are unused; the violin has four strings tuned in perfect fifths, is most played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can be played by plucking the strings with the fingers and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow. Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres, they are most prominent in the Western classical tradition, both in ensembles and as solo instruments and in many varieties of folk music, including country music, bluegrass music and in jazz. Electric violins with solid bodies and piezoelectric pickups are used in some forms of rock music and jazz fusion, with the pickups plugged into instrument amplifiers and speakers to produce sound. Further, the violin has come to be played in many non-Western music cultures, including Indian music and Iranian music.
The name fiddle is used regardless of the type of music played on it. The violin was first known in 16th-century Italy, with some further modifications occurring in the 18th and 19th centuries to give the instrument a more powerful sound and projection. In Europe, it served as the basis for the development of other stringed instruments used in Western classical music, such as the viola. Violinists and collectors prize the fine historical instruments made by the Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati families from the 16th to the 18th century in Brescia and Cremona and by Jacob Stainer in Austria. According to their reputation, the quality of their sound has defied attempts to explain or equal it, though this belief is disputed. Great numbers of instruments have come from the hands of less famous makers, as well as still greater numbers of mass-produced commercial "trade violins" coming from cottage industries in places such as Saxony and Mirecourt. Many of these trade instruments were sold by Sears, Roebuck and Co. and other mass merchandisers.
The parts of a violin are made from different types of wood. Violins can be strung with Perlon or other synthetic, or steel strings. A person who makes or repairs violins is called a violinmaker. One who makes or repairs bows is called an bowmaker; the word "violin" was first used in English in the 1570s. The word "violin" comes from "Italian violino, diminutive of viola"; the term "viola" comes from the expression for "tenor violin" in 1797, from Italian viola, from Old Provençal viola, Medieval Latin vitula" as a term which means "stringed instrument," from Vitula, Roman goddess of joy... or from related Latin verb vitulari, "to exult, be joyful." The related term "Viola da gamba" means "bass viol" is from Italian "a viola for the leg"." A violin is the "modern form of the smaller, medieval viola da braccio." The violin is called a fiddle, either when used in a folk music context, or in Classical music scenes, as an informal nickname for the instrument. The word "fiddle" was first used in English in the late 14th century.
The word "fiddle" comes from "fedele, fidel, earlier fithele, from Old English fiðele "fiddle,", related to Old Norse fiðla, Middle Dutch vedele, Dutch vedel, Old High German fidula, German Fiedel, "a fiddle. As to the origin of the word "fiddle", the "...usual suggestion, based on resemblance in sound and sense, is that it is from Medieval Latin vitula." The earliest stringed instruments were plucked. Two-stringed, bowed instruments, played upright and strung and bowed with horsehair, may have originated in the nomadic equestrian cultures of Central Asia, in forms resembling the modern-day Mongolian Morin huur and the Kazakh Kobyz. Similar and variant types were disseminated along East-West trading routes from Asia into the Middle East, the Byzantine Empire; the direct ancestor of all European bowed instruments is the Arabic rebab, which developed into the Byzantine lyra by the 9th century and the European rebec. The first makers of violins borrowed from various developments of the Byzantine lyra.
These included the lira da braccio. The violin in its present form emerged in early 16th-century northern Italy; the earliest pictures of violins, albeit with three strings, are seen in northern Italy around 1530, at around the same time as the words "violino" and "vyollon" are seen in Italian and French documents. One of the earliest explicit descriptions of the instrument, including its tuning, is from the Epitome musical by Jambe de Fer, published in Lyon in 1556. By this time, the violin had begun to spread throughout Europe; the violin proved popular, both among street musicians and the nobility. One of these "noble" instruments, the Charles IX, is the oldest surviving violin; the finest Renaissance carved and decorated violin in the world is the Gasparo da Salò owned by Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and from 1841, by the Norwegian virtuoso Ole Bull, who used it for forty years and thousands of concerts, for i