Brittany is a cultural region in the north-west of France. Brittany has referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain. It is bordered by the English Channel to the north, the Celtic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and its land area is 34,023 km². Since reorganisation in 1956, the administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments. The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, at the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71% lived in the region of Brittany, while 29% lived in the Loire-Atlantique department, in 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes and Brest. Brittany is the homeland of the Breton people and is recognised by the Celtic League as one of the six Celtic nations. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic, the word Brittany, along with its French and Gallo equivalents Bretagne and Bertaèyn, derive from the Latin Britannia, which means Britons land.
This word had been used by the Romans since the 1st century to refer to Great Britain and this word derives from a Greek word, Πρεττανικη or Βρεττανίαι, used by Pytheas, an explorer from Massalia who visited the British Islands around 320 BC. This term probably comes from a Gallic word, which close to the sea. Another name, was used until the 12th century and it possibly means wide and flat or to expand and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany, Llydaw. Later, authors like Geoffrey of Monmouth used the terms Britannia minor, breton-speaking people may pronounce the word Breizh in two different ways, according to their region of origin. Breton can be divided into two dialects, the KLT and the dialect of Vannes. KLT speakers pronounce it and would write it Breiz, while the Vannetais speakers pronounce it, the official spelling is a compromise between both variants, with a z and an h together. In 1941, efforts to unify the dialects led to the creation of the so-called Breton zh, on its side, Gallo language has never had a widely accepted writing system and several ones coexist.
For instance, the name of the region in that language can be written Bertaèyn in ELG script, or Bertègn in MOGA, Brittany has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic. This population was scarce and very similar to the other Neanderthals found in the whole of Western Europe and their only original feature was a distinct culture, called Colombanian. One of the oldest hearths in the world has found in Plouhinec
Roman Catholic Diocese of Vannes
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Vannes is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. Erected in the 5th century, the Episcopal see is Vannes Cathedral, the diocese corresponds to the department of Morbihan, and is suffragan to the Archdiocese of Rennes and Saint-Malo. Raymond Michel René Centène is the current bishop, since his appointment in 2005, alexandre Dumas makes Aramis the local Ordinary of the Diocese of Vannes in The Vicomte of Bragelonne, Ten Years Later, the last book of his dArtagnan Romances. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo, Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. pp. 649–650. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii, Messagero di S. Antonio, hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Fastes épiscopaux de lancienne Gaule, II, gallia Christiana, In Provincias Ecclesiasticas Distributa. Les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusquà1801, histoire de Vannes et de sa région. Centre national des Archives de lÉglise de France, L’Épiscopat francais depuis 1919, retrieved, 2016-12-24
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Minehead is a coastal town and civil parish in Somerset, England. It lies on the bank of the Bristol Channel,21 miles north-west of the county town of Taunton,12 miles from the border with the county of Devon. The parish of Minehead has a population of approximately 11,981 making it the most populous town in the West Somerset local government district and this figure includes Alcombe and Woodcombe, suburban villages which have been subsumed into Minehead. There is evidence of occupation in the area since the Bronze. There was a port at Minehead by 1380, which grew into a major trading centre during the medieval period. Most trade transferred to larger ports during the 20th century, there was a marked increase in building during the early years of the 20th century, which resulted in the wide main shopping avenue and adjacent roads with Edwardian style architecture. The towns flood defences were improved after a storm in 1990 caused flooding, Minehead is governed by a town council, which was created in 1983 and has been part of the West Somerset local government district since 1974.
In addition to the church of St. Michael on the Hill in Minehead. Alcombe is home to the Spiritualist Church in Grove Place, since 1991, Minehead has been twinned with Saint-Berthevin, a small town close to the regional centre of Laval in the Mayenne département of France. Blenheim Gardens, which is Minehead’s largest park, was opened in 1925, the town is the home of a Butlins Holiday Park which increases Mineheads seasonal tourist population by several thousand. There are a variety of schools and religious and sporting facilities including sailing and wind surfing, the town is the starting point of the South West Coast Path National Trail, the nations longest long-distance countryside walking trail. The Minehead Railway was opened in 1874 and closed in 1971 but has since reopened as the West Somerset Railway. The town sits at the foot of a steeply rising outcrop of Exmoor known as North Hill, and the name of the town was mynydd. It has written as Mynheafdon, Maneheve and Menedun. Minehead was part of the hundred of Carhampton and it is mentioned as a manor belonging to William de Moyon in the Domesday Book in 1086, although it had previously been held by Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia.
William de Mohun of Dunster, 1st Earl of Somerset and his descendants administered the area from Dunster Castle, which was sold to Sir George Luttrell and his family. There was a port at Minehead by 1380, but it was not until 1420 that money given by Lady Margaret Luttrell enabled improvements to be made. During the reign of Elizabeth I, the town had its own Port Officer similar to the position at Bristol, vessels in the 15th century included the Trinite which traded between Ireland and Bristol, and others carrying salt and other cargo from La Rochelle in France
Pope Pius VII
Pope Pius VII, born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, reigned as Pope from 14 March 1800 to his death in 1823. Chiaramonti was a monk of the Order of Saint Benedict in addition to being a well known theologian, Chiaramonti was made Bishop of Tivoli in 1782, and resigned that position upon his appointment as Bishop of Imola in 1785. That same year, he was made a cardinal, in 1789, the French Revolution took place, and as a result a series of anti-clerical governments came into power in the country. In 1796, during the French Revolutionary Wars, French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Rome and he was taken as prisoner to France, where he died in 1799. The following year, after a sede vecante period lasting six months, Chiaramonti was elected to the papacy. Pius at first attempted to take an approach in dealing with Napoleon. In 1809, during the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon once again invaded the Papal States, Pius VII was taken prisoner and transported to France. He remained there until 1814 when, after the French were defeated, he was permitted to return to Rome, Pius lived the remainder of his life in relative peace.
His papacy saw a significant growth of the Catholic Church in the United States, Pius VII died in 1823 at age 81. In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI began the process towards canonizing him as a saint, Barnaba Chiaramonti was born in Cesena in 1742, the youngest son of Count Scipione Chiaramonti (30 April 1698 -13 September 1750. His mother, Giovanna Coronata, was the daughter of the Marquess Ghini, through her, though his family was of noble status, they were not wealthy but rather, were of middle-class stock. His maternal grandparents were Barnaba Eufrasio Ghini and Isabella de conti Aguselli and his paternal grandparents were Giacinto Chiaramonti and Ottavia Maria Altini, his paternal great-grandparents were Scipione Chiaramonti and Ottavia Maria Aldini. His paternal great-great grandparents were Chiaramonte Chiaramonti and Polissena Marescalchi and his siblings were Giacinto Ignazio and Ottavia. Two years after this on 20 August 1758, he became a professed member and he taught at Benedictine colleges in Parma and Rome, and was ordained a priest on 21 September 1765.
A series of promotions resulted after his relative, Giovanni Angelo Braschi was elected Pope Pius VI, a few years before this election occurred, in 1773, Chiaramonti became the personal confessor to Braschi. In 1776, Pius VI appointed the 34-year-old Dom Gregory, who had been teaching at the Monastery of SantAnselmo in Rome, as honorary abbot in commendam of his monastery. Although this was an ancient practice, it drew complaints from the monks of the community, in December 1782, the pope appointed Dom Gregory as the Bishop of Tivoli, near Rome. Pius VI soon named him, in February 1785, the Cardinal-Priest of San Callisto, and as the Bishop of Imola, when the French Revolutionary Army invaded Italy in 1797, Cardinal Chiaramonti counseled temperance and submission to the newly created Cisalpine Republic
Vannes is a commune in the Morbihan department in Brittany in north-western France. It was founded over 2000 years ago, Vannes is located on the Gulf of Morbihan at the mouth of two rivers, the Marle and the Vincin. It is around 100 kilometres northwest of Nantes and 450 km south west of Paris, Vannes is a market town and often linked to the sea. The name Vannes comes from the Veneti, a seafaring Celtic people who lived in the part of Armorica in Gaul before the Roman invasions. The region seems to have involved in a cross channel trade for thousands of years, probably using hide boats. Wheat that apparently was grown in the Middle East was part of this trade, at about 150 BC the evidence of trade with the Thames estuary area of Great Britain dramatically increased. The Veneti were defeated by Julius Caesars fleet in 56 BC in front of Locmariaquer, the Romans settled a town called Darioritum in a location previously belonging to the Veneti. From the 5th to the 7th century, the remaining Gauls were displaced or assimilated by waves of immigrant Britons fleeing the Saxon invasions of Britain, the diocese of Vannes was erected in the 5th century.
The Council of Vannes was held there in 461, the realm annexed Cornouaille for a time in the early 6th century but was permanently joined with Domnonia under its king and saint Judicaël around 635. In 1342, Vannes was besieged four times between forces from both sides of the Breton War of Succession, the citys defending commander, Olivier de Clisson IV was captured by the English, but finally released. The French eventually executed him on suspicion that the ransom was unusually low, in 1759 Vannes was used as the staging point for a planned French invasion of Britain. A large army was assembled there, but it was never able to sail following the French naval defeat at the Battle of Quiberon Bay in November 1759, in 1795, during the French Revolution, French forces based in Vannes successfully repelled a planned British-Royalist invasion. Inhabitants of Vannes are called Vannetais, the municipality launched a linguistic plan through Ya dar brezhoneg on 12 October 2007. In 2008,7. 71% of the attended the bilingual schools in primary education.
Train The Gare de Vannes railway station offers connections to Quimper, Nantes, with the fast train TGV, the journey takes, –30 minutes to Lorient, –1 hour to Nantes or Rennes, –3.5 to 4 hours to Paris. The Transport express régional or TRE is a train to join railway stations in the close neighborhood. There is no highway from Vannes to Saint-Brieuc, so the way to northern Brittany consists of small roads, the lack of highway or railway between Vannes and Saint-Brieuc cuts the communications between northern and southern Brittany, and limits Brittany economic performance. Airplanes Vannes has an airfield in the village of Monterblanc, called Vannes-Meucon airport