Raden Ahmad Soebardjo Djojoadisoerjo was a diplomat, one of Indonesia's founding fathers, an Indonesian national hero. He was the first Foreign Minister of Indonesia. In 1933, he received the degree Meester in de Rechten from Leiden University, Netherlands. Ahmad Soebardjo was born in Teluk Jambe, Karawang Regency, West Java, on 23 March 1896, his father's name was an Acehnese patrician from Pidie. His paternal grandfather was an ulama and his father was the chief of police in Teluk Jambe, Karawang, his mother's name was Wardinah. She was of Javanese-Buginese descent, was daughter from Camat in Telukagung, Cirebon, his father gave him the name Teuku Abdul Manaf, but his mother gave him the name Ahmad Subardjo. Djojoadisoerjo was added by himself after he was arrested and imprisoned in Ponorogo Prison because of his involvement with the "July 3, 1946 Incident", he studied at Hogere Burger School, Jakarta in 1917. He continued to Leiden University and obtained the degree Meester in de Rechten title in the field of law in 1933.
As a student, he was active in the fight for Indonesian independence through several organizations such as Jong Java and the Indonesian Students Association in the Netherlands, the Perhimpoenan Indonesia. In February 1927, Mohammad Hatta, three other students represented Indonesia at the conferences of the League against Imperialism in Brussels and in Germany. At the founding congress in Brussels and the others met Jawaharlal Nehru and others nationalist leaders from Asia and Africa. Soebardjo spent a couple of months in Berlin and Moscow working for the International Secretariat of the League against Imperialism. Upon return to Indonesia, he became a member of the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence. On 19 August 1945, two days after the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence on 17 August 1945, Sukarno appointed Soebardjo as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Presidential Cabinet, Indonesia's first cabinet for 4 months and started the first Foreign Ministry office at his own residence in Jalan Cikini raya.
Subardjo served as Minister of Foreign Affairs once again from 1951 to 1952 in Sukiman's Cabinet. In addition, he became the Ambassador of the Republic of Indonesia to Switzerland from 1957 to 1961. Soebardjo died at the age of 82 at Kebayoran Baru, from influenza complications, he was buried at his vacation home in Bogor. In 2009 the government honoured him as a National Hero
Djuanda Kartawidjaja was an ethnic Sundanese noble from the court of Cirebon, an Indonesian politician and the 11th and the final Prime Minister of Indonesia. Raden Djuanda Kartawidjaja referred to as Djuanda, served as Minister of Communications in seven cabinets from 1946 to 1949 and 1950 to 1953. Djuanda was Indonesia's final Prime Minister in Sukarno "Karya" cabinets, the final cabinets of the Liberal Democracy Era and as First Minister from 1959 until his death in 1963. Djuanda's death and the abolition of the post of Prime Minister in the Indonesian Republican system allowed far greater power to be exercised by the President- now being given full ruling power with minimal oversight, as both Head of State and Head of Government; this had an enormous impact on Indonesian politics, allowing the constitutional legality of the autocracy of Sukarno and Suharto. Juanda International Airport, located in Surabaya, is named after him, who suggested development for the airport, he is depicted in the recent 2016 edition of Rp 50,000 Indonesian rupiah banknotes.
Malaya: Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia, Macmillan Southeast Asian reprint, ISBN 0-333-24380-3 Simanjuntak, P. H. H Kabinet-Kabinet Republik Indonesia: Dari Awal Kemerdekaan Sampai Reformasi, Penerbit Djambatan, Jakarta, ISBN 979-428-499-8
Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies
The Japanese Empire occupied the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of the war in September 1945. The period was one of the most critical in Indonesian history; the Dutch East Indies had been a colony of the Netherlands since 1819. However, the Netherlands itself had been occupied by Germany, thus had little ability to defend its colony against the Imperial Japanese Army, less than three months after the first attacks on Borneo, the Japanese navy and army overran Dutch and allied forces. Most Indonesians joyfully welcomed the Japanese as liberators from their Dutch colonial masters; the sentiment changed, however, as Indonesians realized that they were expected to endure more hardship for the Japanese war effort. In 1944–1945, Allied troops bypassed Indonesia and did not fight their way into the most populous parts such as Java and Sumatra; as such, most of Indonesia was still under Japanese occupation at the time of its surrender in August 1945.
The occupation was the first serious challenge to the Dutch in Indonesia and ended the Dutch colonial rule, and, by its end, changes were so numerous and extraordinary that the subsequent watershed, the Indonesian National Revolution, was possible in a manner unfeasible just three years earlier. Unlike the Dutch, the Japanese facilitated the politicisation of Indonesians down to the village level. In Java and, to a lesser extent, the Japanese educated and armed many young Indonesians and gave their nationalist leaders a political voice. Thus, through both the destruction of the Dutch colonial regime and the facilitation of Indonesian nationalism, the Japanese occupation created the conditions for the proclamation of Indonesian independence within days of the Japanese surrender in the Pacific. However, the Netherlands sought to reclaim the Indies, a bitter five-year diplomatic and social struggle ensued, resulting in the Netherlands recognising Indonesian sovereignty in December 1949; until 1942, Indonesia was known as the Dutch East Indies.
In 1929, during the Indonesian National Awakening, Indonesian nationalist leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, foresaw a Pacific War and that a Japanese advance on Indonesia might be advantageous for the independence cause. The Japanese spread the word that they were the'Light of Asia'. Japan was the only Asian nation that had transformed itself into a modern technological society at the end of the 19th century and it remained independent when most Asian countries had been under European or American power, had beaten a European power, Russia, in war. Following its military campaign in China, Japan turned its attention to Southeast Asia, advocating to other Asians a'Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere', which they described as a type of trade zone under Japanese leadership; the Japanese had spread their influence through Asia in the first half of the 20th century and during the 1920s and 1930s had established business links in the Indies. These ranged from small town barbers, photographic studios and salesmen, to large department stores and firms such as Suzuki and Mitsubishi becoming involved in the sugar trade.
The Japanese population peaked in 1931 with 6,949 residents before starting a gradual decrease due to economic tensions between Japan and the Netherlands Indies government. A number of Japanese had been sent by their government to establish links with Indonesian nationalists with Muslim parties, while Indonesian nationalists were sponsored to visit Japan; such encouragement of Indonesian nationalism was part of a broader Japanese plan for an'Asia for the Asians'. While most Indonesians were hopeful for the Japanese promise of an end to the Dutch racially based system, Chinese Indonesians, who enjoyed a privileged position under Dutch rule, were less optimistic. Concerned were members of the Indonesian communist underground who followed the Soviet Union's popular united front against fascism. Japanese aggression in Manchuria and China in the late 1930s caused anxiety amongst the Chinese in Indonesia who set up funds to support the anti-Japanese effort. Dutch intelligence services monitored Japanese living in Indonesia.
In November 1941, Madjlis Rakjat Indonesia, an Indonesian organisation of religious and trade union groups, submitted a memorandum to the Dutch East Indies Government requesting the mobilisation of the Indonesian people in the face of the war threat. The memorandum was refused because the Government did not consider the Madjlis Rakyat Indonesia to be representative of the people. Within only four months, the Japanese had occupied the archipelago. On 8 December 1941, the Dutch government-in-exile declared war on Japan. In January the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command was formed to co-ordinate Allied forces in South East Asia, under the command of General Archibald Wavell. In the weeks leading up to the invasion, senior Dutch government officials went into exile, taking political prisoners and personal staff to Australia. Before the arrival of Japanese troops, there were conflicts between rival Indonesian groups where people were killed, vanished or went into hiding. Chinese - and Dutch-owned properties were destroyed.
The invasion in early 1942 was complete. By January 1942, parts of Sulawesi and Kalimantan were under Japanese control. By February, the Japanese had landed on Sumatra where they had encouraged the Acehnese to rebel against the Dutch. On 19 February, having taken Ambon, the Japanese Eastern Task Force landed in Timor, dropping a special parachute unit into West Timor near Kupang, landing in the Dili area of Portuguese Timo
Lambertus Nicodemus Palar
Lambertus Nicodemus Palar known as Babe Palar, represented the Republic of Indonesia in various diplomatic positions most notably as the first Indonesian Representative to the United Nations. He held ambassadorships in India, East Germany, Soviet Union and the United States, he was the son of Jacoba Lumanauw. Palar attended middle school in Tondano, he moved to Java to attend high school in Yogyakarta. In 1922, Palar started his studies at the Technical University in Bandung, now known as the Bandung Institute of Technology. At this school, Palar became acquainted with Indonesian nationalists such as Sukarno. A severe illness forced Palar to return to Minahasa. Palar restarted his studies at faculty of law in Batavia where he joined the youth organization called Young Minahasa. In 1928, Palar moved to the Netherlands. In 1930, Palar became a member of the Social-Democratic Workers' Party shortly after the SDAP convened a Colonial Congress and voted on propositions that included unconditionally recognizing the right of national independence for the Dutch Indies.
Palar held the position of secretary of the Colonial Commission of the SDAP and the Netherlands' Trade Union Federation starting in October 1933. He was the director of Persbureau Indonesia, given the task of sending articles related to Dutch social democracy to the Dutch Indies. In 1938, Palar returned to his homeland with his wife, Johanna Petronella Volmers, whom he married in 1935, he gathered information on the current developments. He discovered that the Indonesian nationalist movement was much alive and returned to the Netherlands writing about his experience. During the German occupation of Holland, Palar couldn't work for the SDAP and instead was employed in the Van der Waals Laboratorium, he taught Malay language classes and was a guitarist in a Kroncong ensemble. During the war and his wife joined the anti-Nazi underground movement. After the war, Palar was voted into the Lower House representing the newly established Labor Party, which originated from the SDAP. After the Indonesian Declaration of Independence on August 17, 1945, Palar being sympathetic to the proclamation promoted contacts with the Indonesian nationalists.
This was not received well by the PvdA resulting in the party distancing itself from the original position of unconditionally recognizing the right of national independence for Indonesia, opposed by Palar. Being assigned by his party on a fact finding mission to Indonesia, Palar again met with the leaders of the Indonesian National Revolution including President Sukarno. Palar continued to urge non-violent resolution of the dispute between the Netherlands and the new Republic of Indonesia. However, on July 20, 1947, the parliament voted to commence Police Action in Indonesia. Palar resigned from the Labor Party the following day. Palar joined the effort for international recognition of Indonesian independence by becoming the Indonesian Representative to the United Nations in 1947, he remained in this position until 1953. This time period included such important events as the continued Dutch-Indonesian conflict, the transfer of sovereignty from the Dutch, the inclusion of Indonesia as a member of the United Nations.
During the Dutch-Indonesian conflict, Palar argued the case of Indonesian independence at the UN and the Security Council though his status was only as an "observer" because Indonesia was not a member of the UN at that time. After a second Police Action was unpopular and subsequently condemned by the Security Council, the Roem-van Roijen Agreement was signed, which led to the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference and the recognition of Indonesian sovereignty by the Dutch on December 27, 1949. Indonesia was admitted as the 60th Member State of the United Nations on September 28, 1950. Addressing the General Assembly as the first Indonesian Ambassador to the United Nations, Palar thanked those that supported the Indonesian cause and pledged that Indonesia would assume the responsibilities of being a member state. Palar continued his work at the UN until being assigned the Indonesian ambassadorship for India. In 1955, Palar was called back to Indonesia and was instrumental in planning the Asia-Africa Conference, which gathered Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent.
After the conference, Palar resumed his ambassadorial responsibilities by representing Indonesia in East Germany and the Soviet Union. From 1957 to 1962, he became the Ambassador to Canada and afterwards returned to the UN as Ambassador until 1965. Sukarno withdrew Indonesia's membership in the UN because of the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation and upon the election of Malaysia to the Security Council. Palar became the Ambassador to the United States. Under new leadership of Suharto in 1966, Indonesia requested the resumption of membership in the UN with a message to the Secretary General, delivered by Palar. Palar retired from foreign service in 1968 having served his country during its early struggles and conflicts and battled for its freedom in the diplomatic arena. Palar returned to Jakarta, but remained active through lectures
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general; the disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant. In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor. Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term. General de Brigada is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army.
See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is the equivalent of a naval flag officer; the major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead; the rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, it is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.
Major-generals are addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers. Major-generals are entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor; the Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, generalmajor in Swedish and Danish. The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces; the major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources and discipline, his role is analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff; the five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, the Major General of the Air Force.
In the French Army, Major General is a position and the major general is of the rank of corps general. The French army had some sergent-majors généraux called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle; these sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp, the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade in 1793; the rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ. In Georgia, the rank major-general has one star as for security forces; the army, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia. The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.
With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U. S. with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, the rank of Brigadegeneral added below them. The rank of Generaloberst was no longer used; the Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor, abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral. In the Magyar Honvédség, the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy. In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are sartip dovom, sarlashkar and arteshbod.
Army Military Police Corps (Indonesia)
Puspomad or Army Military Police Command, which all of its personnel are part of the Military Police Corps is one of the military general technical functions of the Indonesian Army which has the role for administering administrative assistance and as embodiment and guidance through the operation of Military Police functions. Its duties is to execute law enforcement towards the military which includes investigation activities and other policing duties within the scope of the army; the military police of Indonesia perform duties in the area of law enforcement involving members of the military, installation of security, escort protection of senior military officers and/or important government officials and supervising prisoners of war, controlling custody of military prisoners, managing military traffic control and marking and managing routes and resupply routes for military and civilian purposes. Indonesian Military Policemen are identifiable with their blue berets, in some occasions they wear white helmet printed PM and dark blue brassard worn on their upper left sleeve printed PM.
The Indonesian military police is not considered as a Gendarmerie, as it is only responsible to enforce discipline and law and order towards members of the armed forces of all ranks. The Army Military Police as well as other corps within the army, have their own distinctive historical background which includes its customs and pioneer which becomes the basic foundation of the corps; the Military Police Corps history can not be separated from the history of Indonesia's struggle of independence and victory. The birth of the Military Police Corps stems from the ideas of some TKR figures who have legal knowledge in Law and discipline background, they formed the Military police corps as a function to keep law and order within the TKR; when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat or TKR was formed on 5 October 1945, there was no legal or regulatory instrument that controlled an armed organization or an army. In addition, the members of the TKR were consisting of a variety of people originating from different backgrounds which did not, at that time, understand the nature of military law and discipline, save for only a few who served in the different sides during the Second World War.
Besides that, during that time there were some formed organizations consisting of Militias of armed fighters who were not bound to the Central Command. Therefore, the arrangement of armed groups became difficult at that time it was during under the power of the Dutch who preceded the British to re-occupy Indonesia. In such situations that arises, the idea of some TKR members to establish a body that regulates discipline among armed organizations were beginning to arise, in which the idea was founded by people of law enforcement background. So following the idea, some regions autonomously began forming Army Police forces such as in Aceh, based in Kutaraja consisting of 2 companies of troops, as well as in North Sumatera began establishing the "East Sumatera Army Police" and in Bengkulu began forming units of Army Police of the TKR Bengkulu regiment. While on the island of Java on September 26, 1945, an Army Police Battalion of the West Java division was formed, which in addition besides serving as policing duties in the Division, the battalion performed combat duties in accordance with the conditions of the struggle at that time.
Due to the urgent precariousness, the Supreme Headquarters of TKR deems it necessary to establish a provisional regulation in the field of Military Policing. For that purpose, on 8 December 1945, the Supreme Headquarters of TKR gave guidance, so that each Division has to form a Military Police unit, in charge of investigating and prosecuting cases within and of the Army, including division and regiments in Java and Sumatera. At the end of December 1945, the TKR Supreme Headquarters Task Force determined the formation of the Army Police Headquarters commanded by Colonel Prabu Sunarjo. Under the General Command of General Soedirman the MTPT was a major support command whose Provost Marshal reported to the Commander of the Armed Forces. In 1946 at Kopeng, Wonosobo, a joint meeting between the leaders of the People's General Public Investigators and the Military Police Corps was held; the joint meeting succeeded in formulating the main tasks and organization of the Military Police as well as by acclamation to choose Major General Santoso, Commander of PT Kediri, as the first Commander of the Military Police, with his deputy being Colonel Prabu Sunarjo.
Following this on 22 June 1946 held in the square of Yogyakarta, the President of Indonesia, Soekarno as the Supreme Commander of the armed forces inaugurated the Military Police with the honorific name of the legendarily and historic "Gajah Mada Division", named after Gajah Mada, the patron of the MP Corps. The Gajah Mada Division was organized into the following: Division HQ 1st MP Regiment which covers West Java and Jakarta 2nd MP Regiment which covered Central Java 3rd MP Regiment which covers East JavaEach MP Regiment was composed of one to four MP battalions and each battalion was subdivided into companies and platoons with an assignment area that resembles the administrative division of government. Besides the regiments it was formed the "Military Police Mobile Battalion". After the Gajah
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion