International Theatre Festival of Kerala
International Theatre Festival of Kerala is an international theatre festival held every year in December in Thrissur city of Kerala State, India. The festival is organised by Kerala Sangeetha Nataka Akademi and Cultural Department of Government of Kerala; the festival was started in 2008. The International Theatre Festival of Kerala began in 2008 by Kerala Sangeetha Nataka Akademi under the leadership of late Murali in Thrissur city. From world over independent and contemporary theatre groups participate in this festival; the festival is held in G. Sankara Pillai Cultural Complex in Thrissur city over eight days; the main stages are K. T. Muhammed Regional Theatre. List of theatre festivals
Thekkinkadu Maidan is situated in the middle of Thrissur city of Kerala state in India. This hillock which seats the Vadakkumnathan Temple, is an open ground in the centre of the Thrissur city, under the custody of the Cochin Devaswom Board, it hosts the spectacular cultural festival Thrissur Pooram, considered the Mother of all Poorams in Kerala. Thekkinkadu Maidan was a dense forest in olden days. All kinds of wild animals used to roam in the forest where wanted criminals of Thrissur were executed; the soldiers used to push the criminals to dense forest from one the Vadakkumnatha Temple gates. Maharaja of Cochin, Rama Varma Sakthan Thampuran cleared the Thekkinkadu Maidan despite the resistance of Brahmin priests and other orthodox section of people. Till 1970, there were no teaks in the Maidan. In the 1970s Cochin Devaswom Board planted. Till 1928, the Thekkinkadu Maidan was with the Sanitary Board. In 1928 it was handed over to Thrissur Municipality. In 1934, Diwan Paruvakad Narayanan Nair gave the Maidan to Cochin Devaswom Board.
The only condition for the transfer was that any organisation can organise meeting or festival without any problem. The Thekkinkadu Maidan is encircled by Swaraj Round, Thrissur to all sides, it houses Vadakkunnathan Temple, Nehru Park, Kerala Water Authority office and water storage tanks and seven wells. The whole of the city branches from Thekkinkadu Maidan through nine roads, including most of the important roads like the M. G road and the M. O road; these roads further form junctions to make the spread of the city a circular one. This is the only place; the Maidan is full of card players and chess players in the evening. Political debates take place here every day. Students Corner, Labour Corner and Nehru Mandapam are the famous spots where historical events had taken place. Famous people like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, E. M. S. Namboodiripad etc. had given speech in Students Corner. Joseph Vadakkan, a political activist priest held the controversial Holy Mass in Maidan, which led to suspension from the church.
It is a major spot for gatherings and fests in the district which include pooram fest, Thrissur Motor Show etc... Nehru Mandapam was named after India's first Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru when he visited Thrissur city in 1952, made a speech in Thekkinkadu Maidan. In 1982, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, another Prime Minister of India given his speech in Thekkinkadu Maidan. Jawaharlal Nehru Indira Gandhi Rajiv Gandhi Atal Bihari Vajpayee Manmohan Singh Narendra Modi
Paramekkavu Bagavathi Temple
Paramekkavu Bagavathi Temple is one of the largest Bagavathi temples in Kerala located in Thrissur City. Thiruvambadi Sri Krishna Temple is one of the two rival groups participating in Thrissur Pooram, the biggest festival in South India and Kerala; the Paramekkavu temple devaswom have a school known as Paramekkavu Vidya Mandir at MLA road near Kutoor and one KG section near to the temple itself
Padinjarechira is one of the four oldest ponds in Thrissur city of Kerala in India. It is one of Thrissur's famous landmarks, it is owned by Vadakke Madhom. Sakthan Thampuran, Maharaja of Cochin, built four ponds in Thrissur city for water management and irrigation purpose in his regime, they are Vadakkechira, Padinjarechira and Kizakechira. Among these, the latter two have been ceased to exist
Thrissur Kole Wetlands
Thrissur Kole Wetlands is a wetland lying in Thrissur District in Kerala, India. It gives 40 per cent of the Kerala’s rice requirement and acts as a natural drainage system for Thrissur city and Thrissur District; the Kole Wetlands is one of largest productive and threatened wetlands in Kerala and it comes in Central Asian Flyway of migratory birds. From 18th century onwards, rice cultivation in Kole lands is said to have been started, but the Thrissur Kole lands recorded rice cultivation dates back to 1916 only. The word Kole is a Malayalam word, means that a bumper yield, it is a particular cultivation method adopted in wastelands in Thrissur District from December to May which otherwise is submerged from June to November, half of the year. The Kole wetlands lies between 10° 20' and 10° 40' N latitudes and 75° 58' and between 76° 11' E longitudes; the Kole wetlands are low lying tracts located 0.5 to 1m below Mean Sea Level and remain submerges for about six months in a year. Kole lands in Thrissur are spread over eight blocks.
The average annual rainfall is 3,200 mm and temperature varied from 28°C to 31°5°C. The Kole Wetlands cover an area of about 13,632 hectares spread over Thrissur district and Malappuram district; the area extends from Chalakudy River in South to Bharathappuzha River in the North, to Ponnani Taluk. The Kole Wetlands acts as natural drainage system for Thrissur city and Thrissur district through a network of canals and ponds which connects different parts of Kole Wastelands to river and to the Arabian sea, it is fertile with Alluvium soil, deposited Kechery and Karuvannoor river in the monsoon. In terms of the number of birds, the Thrissur Kole Wetlands is the third largest in India after Chilika Lake in Orissa and Amipur Tank in Gujarat, it has been recognised as one of India's Important Bird Areas by BirdLife International. According to studies, there are 241 species of birds like spot-billed pelican, Oriental darter, black-headed ibis, painted stork, black-bellied tern, cinereous vulture and greater spotted eagle.
Fishes like Caranx, mangrove red snapper, Megalops cyprinoides and barramundi are found in Kole Wetland. The main threat to Kole Wetlands is expansion of towns like city of Thrissur; the boom in construction industry the real estate business in Central Kerala, has rung the alarm bell for the Kole wetlands. Coconut cultivation, construction of buildings and houses, conversion of fields for sand and clay mining and brick kilns, hunting of wetland birds are the main threats for the Kole wetlands. Fresh water shortage and quality of water due to water intrusion from the Canoly Canal has been reported from various parts of Kole wetlands in Thrissur district; the Government of India has approved Rs 425-crore project for the comprehensive development of Thrissur Kole fields. The fund will be used for infrastructure development, construction of bunds, roads, farm mechanisation in Kole fields. At the Rs 15 crore a research centre would be set up to study the Kole land development; the Government of Kerala has formed a Special Purpose Vehicle for the implementation of the Kole development project and the District Collector of Thrissur is designated as special officer to coordinate implementation of the package.
For the implementation of the project, Government of Kerala has opened an agency known as Kole Development Agency in Thrissur City on June 30 for the development of Kole farming. Thrissur District Collector is the special officer to implement the project
Vilangan Hills is a hillock located in Adat Panchayat, near Thrissur city of Kerala state in India. The hill gives a panoramic view of Thrissur city and Thrissur Kole Wetlands from the top; the hill was referred as a Oxygen Jar of Thrissur city. The name'Vilangan Kunnu' is a misnomer because'Vilangan'. There is no need of adding'Kunnu' after'Vilangan', it is an ancient Malayalam word derived from proto-Dravidian language. Till the 1970s the word ` Kunnu' was not used by revenue locals, it is a recent addition. In Tamil too'Vilangan' means hill; the Vilangan is a laterite hill. The top of the hill is around 5 acres and the height is 80 metres from the sea level; the hill earlier was a military base and an observation camp during World War II. The hill has an open-air theatre, children’s park, Kudumbashree canteen, Vilangan Trekkers Club and Asokavanam Samiti; the hill has a medicinal garden called Asokavanam maintained by Vilangan Trekkers Club and Asokavanam Samiti in association with Department of Tourism and Oushadhi.
The foot of the hill opens at the highway near Amala Hospital and the road to the apex of the hill starts from here. The hill remains open from 07.00 AM to 07.00 PM in the evening
Vadakkunnathan Temple is an ancient Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva at city of Thrissur, of Kerala state in India. This temple is a classic example of the architectural style of Kerala and has monumental towers on all four sides and a kuttambalam. Mural paintings depicting various episodes from Mahabharata can be seen inside the temple.. The shrines and the Kuttambalam display vignettes carved in wood; the temple, along with the mural paintings, has been declared as a National Monument by India under the AMASR Act. According to popular local lore, this is the first temple built by Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu. Thekkinkadu maidan, encircling the Vadakkunnathan Temple, is the main venue of the Thrissur Pooram. In the year 2012 the Archaeological Survey of India has recommended 14 sites, including Vadakkumnathan Temple and palaces, from Kerala to include in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the story of the origin of the Vadakkunnathan Temple is narrated in Brahmanda Purana and there are references to it in some other works also.
Though there are differences between these accounts on the details, all agree on the central fact, that the temple was founded by Parashurama. Parashurama exterminated Kshatriyas twenty one times. In order to cleanse himself and balance his karma he performed a yajna at the end of which he gave away all the land to Brahmins as dakshina, he wanted to retire to some new land to perform tapasya and so he requested the Lord of the seas and oceans Varuna to throw up a new piece of land from the sea. According to another version, some sages approached him at the end of the yajna and requested him to give them some secluded land. Parashurama made the request to Varuna for their sake. Varuna gave him a winnow and asked him to hurl it into the sea, as he did a large territory of land was at once thrown up by the sea, it was known by the name "Surparaka", from the word, "Surpa" meaning winnow. According to some other accounts, Varuna asked Parashurama to hurl his axe into the sea. Parashurama now wanted to consecrate this new land.
So he went to Mount Kailash to his guru, Lord Shiva and requested him to take abode in Kerala and thereby bless the region. Shri Shiva accompanied by his wife Parvati, his sons Ganesha and Subrahmanya and his parashadas went along with Parashurama, to satisfy the desire of his disciple. Shiva stopped at a spot, now Thrissur, for his seat and he and his party disappeared and Parashurama saw a bright and radiant Shiva linga at the foot of a huge banyan tree; this place where Shiva first manifested his presence through the linga is in Smskrth known as the Sri Moola Sthana. For sometime, the linga remained at Sri Mula Sthana at the foot of a huge banyan tree; the ruler of Cochin Kingdom decided to shift the linga to a more convenient place and enclose it in a temple. Arrangements were soon made to reinstall the deity in the new place, but there was an initial difficulty. The linga could not be removed without cutting off a large part of the banyan tree. While cutting the branches of the tree, there was the danger of a piece of it falling on the idol and damaging it.
When the ruler and the others did not know what to do, the Yogatirippadu came forward with a solution. He lay over the deity so as to cover it and asked the men to cut the tree; the cutting to the wonder of all not a piece of the tree fell anywhere near the deity. The deity was moved with all due rituals and installed in the new place where it has remained till now. A temple was built according to the rules laid down in the Shastras; the temple was built at the time of Perumthachan from Parayi petta panthirukulam. It is said. According to Malayalam historian VVK Valath, the temple was a pre-Dravidian Kavu; the temple was influenced by Buddhism and Vaishnavism. In the early days, Paramekkavu Bhagavathi was inside the Vadakkunnathan temple, but Koodalmanikyam Temple, Kodungallur Bhagavathy Temple and Ammathiruvadi Temple, Urakam is older than Vadakkunnathan temple, according to temple documents. It had influences from Buddhist temples and Jain temples; the Nambudiris who were looking after the temple affairs were called as Yogiatiripppads.
When Kerala Nambudiris gained control, the temple fell into their hands. The Yogiatiripppads were elected from Thrissur desam. Prior to Sakthan Thampuran's reign, the Yogiatiripppad system declined; the Maharaja of Cochin gained presiding authority over the temple. Adi Shankara is believed to have been born to Shivaguru and Aryamba of Kalady in answer to their prayers before Vadakkunnathan, as amsavatara of Shiva; the couple had observed bhajan for 41 days in the temple. Legend has it that Shiva appeared to both husband and wife in their dreams and offered them a choice, they could have either a mediocre son who would live a long life or an extraordinary son who would die early. Both Shivaguru and Aryamba chose the second option. In honour of Shiva, they named the son Shankara. According to legend, Adi Shankara attained videha mukti in the Vadakkunnathan temple. One tradition, expounded by Keraliya Shankaravijaya, places his place of death as the temple, he established four Mutts at Thrissur, famously known as Edayil Madhom, Naduvil Madhom, Thekke Madhom and Vadakke Madhom During the invasion of Tipu Sultan, the temple was not attacked by Tipu’s Army.
Though Tipu Sultan destroyed many temples in Thrissur district at that time, he never touched Vadakkunnathan Temple. B According to historical accounts when Tipu Sultan was marching towards the Travancore lines locally known as Nedumkotta, he had