The Nordwestblock is a hypothetical Northwestern European cultural region that several scholars propose as a prehistoric culture in the present-day Netherlands, northern France, northwestern Germany, in an area bounded by the Somme, Oise and Elbe Rivers extending to the eastern part of what is now England, during the Bronze and Iron Ages from the 3rd to the 1st millennia BCE, up to the onset of historical sources, in the 1st century BCE. The theory was first proposed by two authors working independently: Hans Kuhn and Maurits Gysseling, whose proposal included research indicating that another language may have existed somewhere in between Germanic and Celtic in the Belgian region; the term Nordwestblock itself was coined by Hans Kuhn, who considered the inhabitants of the area neither Germanic nor Celtic and so attributed it to the people a distinct ethnicity or culture up to the Iron Age. Concerning the language spoken by the Iron Age Nordwestblock population, Kuhn speculated on linguistic affinity to the Venetic language, other hypotheses connect the Northwestblock with the Raetic or generic Centum Indo-European.
Gysseling suspected an intermediate Belgian language between Germanic and Celtic, that might have been affiliated to Italic. According to Luc van Durme, a Belgian linguist, toponymic evidence to a former Celtic presence in the Low Countries is nearly utterly absent. Kuhn noted that since Proto-Indo-European, /b/ was rare, since that PIE /b/, via Grimm's law, is the main source of inherited /p/ in words in Germanic languages, the many words with /p/ occurring must have some other language as source. In Celtic, PIE /p/ disappeared and in regularly-inherited words did not reappear in p-Celtic languages except as a result of proto-Celtic *kʷ becoming *p. All that taken together means that any word starting with a /p/ in a Germanic language, not evidently borrowed from either Latin or a p-Celtic language, such as Gaulish, must be a loan from another language. Kuhn ascribes those words to the Nordwestblock language. Linguist Peter Schrijver speculates on the reminiscent lexical and typological features of the region from an unknown substrate whose linguistic influences may have influenced the historical development of the languages of the region.
He assumes the pre-existence of pre-Indo-European languages linked to the archeological Linear Pottery culture and to a family of languages featuring complex verbs, of which the Northwest Caucasian languages might have been the sole survivors. Although assumed to have left traces within all other Indo-European languages as well, its influence would have been strong on Celtic languages originating north of the Alps and on the region including Belgium and the Rhineland, it is uncertain. The Nordwestblock region north of the Rhine is traditionally conceived as belonging to the realms of the Northern Bronze Age, with the Harpstedt Iron Age assumed to represent the Germanic precedents west of the Jastorf culture; the general development converged with the emergence of Germanic within other Northern Bronze Age regions to the east, maybe involving a certain degree of Germanic cultural diffusion. The local continuity of the Dutch areas was not affected by pre-Roman or Celtic immigration. From about the 1st century CE, that region saw the development of the "Weser-Rhine" group of West Germanic dialects which gave rise to Old Frankish from the 4th century.
The issue still remains unresolved and so far no conclusive evidence has been forwarded to support any alternative. Mallory considers the issue a salutary reminder that some anonymous linguistic groups that do not obey the current classification may have survived to the beginning of historical records; the archaeological case for the Nordwestgroup hypothesis makes reference to a time as early as 3000 BCE. The following prehistoric cultures have been attributed to the region and are compatible with but do not prove the Nordwestblock hypothesis; the Bell Beaker culture is thought to originate from the same geographic area, as early stages of the culture derived from early Corded Ware culture elements, with the Netherlands/Rhineland region as the most accepted site of origin. The Bell Beaker culture locally developed into the Bronze Age Barbed Wire Beaker culture. In the 2nd millennium BCE, the region was at the boundary between the Atlantic and Nordic horizons, split up in a northern and a southern region divided by the course of the Rhine.
To the north emerged the Elp culture, featuring an initial tumulus phase showing a close relationship to other Northern European tumulus groups and a subsequent smooth local transformation to the Urnfield culture. The southern region became dominated by the Hilversum culture, which inherited the previous Barbed Wire Beaker cultural ties with Britain. From 800 BCE onward, the area was influenced by the Celtic Hallstatt culture; the current view in the Netherlands holds that subsequent Iron Age innovations did not involve substantial Celtic intrusions but featured a local development from Bronze Age culture. In the final centuries BCE, areas occupied by the Elp culture emerge as the probably-Germanic Harpstedt culture west of the Germanic Jastorf culture, the southern parts become assimilated to the Celtic La Tène culture, as is consistent with Julius Caesar's account of the Rhine forming the boundary between Celtic and Germanic tribe
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
The Bructeri were a Germanic tribe in Roman imperial times, located in northwestern Germany, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia. Their territory included both sides of the upper Lippe rivers. At its greatest extent, their territory stretched between the vicinities of the Rhine in the west and the Teutoburg Forest and Weser river in the east. In late Roman times they moved south to settle upon the east bank of the Rhine facing Cologne, an area known as the kingdom of the Ripuarian Franks; the Bructeri formed an alliance with the Cherusci, the Marsi, the Chatti and the Chauci, under the leadership of Arminius, that defeated the Roman General Varus and annihilated his three legions at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD. Six years one of the generals serving under Germanicus, L. Stertinius defeated the Bructeri near the Ems and devastated their lands. Among the booty captured by Stertinius was the eagle standard of Legio XIX, lost at Teutoburg Forest. "The troops were marched to the furthest frontier of the Bructeri, all the country between the rivers Amisia and Luppia was ravaged, not far from the forest of Teutoburgium, where the remains of Varus and his legions were said to lie unburied."The Bructeri in 69-70 participated in the Batavian rebellion.
The best known of the Bructeri was their wise virgin Veleda, the spiritual leader of the Batavi rising, regarded as a goddess. She foretold the success of the Germans against the Roman legions during the Batavian revolt. A Roman Munius Lupercus was murdered on the road; the inhabitants of Cologne, the Ubii, asked for her as an arbiter, "they were not, allowed to approach or address Veleda herself. In order to inspire them with more respect they were prevented from seeing her, she dwelt in a lofty tower, one of her relatives, chosen for the purpose, like the messenger of a divinity, the questions and answers." The Bructeri were sometimes divided into minor divisions. Strabo describes the Lippe river running through the territory of the lesser Bructeri, about 600 stadia from the Rhine. Ptolemy says that the Sicambri occupied the area just to the north of the Rhine. Both authors agree that the greater Bructeri in their time lived between the Ems and the Weser, to the south of a part of the Chauci.
Tacitus on the other hand, states that the Bructeri had been forced from their territory, which he describes as having been north of the Tencteri who were on the Rhine at the time, between Cologne and the Chatti. This was done by the Chamavi and Angrivarii, who neighbored the Bructeri upon their north, along with other neighboring tribes. More than sixty thousand fell in this conflict, which the Romans had been able to observe with satisfaction. Pliny the Younger mentioned in a letter that in his time "a triumphal Statue was decreed by the Senate to Vestricius Spurinna", at the Motion of the Emperor, because he "had brought the King of the Bructeri into his Realm by force of War; the Bructeri disappear from historical records absorbed into the Frankish communities of the early Middle Ages. The final mentions of their name seem to indicate this, that they had moved south from their old position north of the Lippe. In 307-308, after having spent the year before fighting Franks, emperor Constantine fought the Bructeri over the Rhine and built a bridge at Cologne.
In 392 AD, according to a citation by Gregory of Tours, Sulpicius Alexander reported that Arbogast crossed the Rhine to punish the "Franks" for incursions into Gaul. He first devastated the territory of the "Bricteri", near the bank of the Rhine the Chamavi their neighbours. Both tribes did not confront him; the Ampsivarii and the Chatti however were under military leadership of the Frankish princes Marcomer and Sunno and they appeared "on the ridges of distant hills". At this time the Bructeri lived near Cologne. In the Peutinger map, the Bructeri appear as a distinct entity on the opposite side of the Rhine to Cologne and Bonn, the "Burcturi", with Franks to their north, Suevi to their south; this has been interpreted to mean that the Bructeri had moved into the area inhabited by the Tencteri and Usipetes, which had in the time of Caesar been inhabited by the Ubii. In the description of Claudius Ptolemy, the Bructeri and Sicambri are close to their old positions, but with Suevi having inserted themselves upon the Rhine and the Tencteri and Usipetes much further south, near the Black Forest.
This document is however suspected of resulting from confused use of primary sources. Sidonius, in his Poems, VII, lists the Bructeri among the allies who crossed the Rhine into Gaul under Attila in 451, leading to the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, but it is possible, according for example to E. A. Thompson that Sidonius included names of historical tribes, for effect. By 690 Bructeri were found in Thuringia. Under the Carolingians the name of the Bructeri was still being used for a gau in the region near where they had lived, the so-called Bruk
Birger Brosa, jarl of Sweden 1174–1202, d. 9 January 1202 on Visingsö, was a son of Bengt Snivil and a member of the powerful House of Bjälbo. In the medieval texts he is either called the jarl of the Swedes or the jarl of the Swedes and the Geats. Birger was appointed to the position of jarl during the reign of Knut Eriksson, he maintained the position during Knut's successor Sverker II until his death in 1202. Before 1170, Birger was married to Brigida Haraldsdotter, the daughter of the Norwegian king Harald Gille, she had been married to the Danish pretender Magnus Henriksson, who had ruled in Uppsala 1160–1161. Birger appears to have maintained peace in Sweden during the civil wars that ravaged Denmark and Norway. Many of the pretenders in these kingdoms sought refuge with Birger. Among them were the Birkebeiner chieftains Eystein Meyla and Sverre Sigurdsson who were kinsmen of Brigida Haraldsdotter. Birger's son Philippus was in the service of King Sverre and died as his Earl in 1200. Birger owned estates in Närke, Värmland and Södermanland.
He was a great donor to the convent of Riseberga in Närke, where Birgitta spent her last years after Birger's death. As soon as he was dead, a civil war broke out. Philippus Birgersson, Jarl of Norway in the service of King Sverre of Norway and one of his most staunch supporters. Knut Birgersson, Riksjarl of Sweden, jarl of Sweden. According to one source, Knut was married to king Knut Eriksson's daughter, named Sigrid in that source, he was killed in 1208 at the battle of Lena. Folke Birgersson, aka Folke jarl, jarl of Sweden, killed 1210 at battle of Gestilren Magnus Birgersson, Snorre names "Earl Philip, Earl Knut and Magnus" as the four sons of "Earl Birger Brose" & his wife. Ingegerd Birgersdotter, married to king Sverker II and became the mother of king John I of Sweden. Kristina Birgersdotter Margareta Birgersdotter Birger Brosa was portrayed by Stellan Skarsgård in the Swedish 2007 film Arn – The Knight Templar and 2008 sequel Arn – The Kingdom at Road's End
The Jastorf culture was an Iron Age material culture in what are now southern Scandinavia and north Germany, spanning the 6th to 1st centuries BC, forming the southern part of the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The culture evolved out of the Nordic Bronze Age, through influence from the Halstatt culture farther south. 7th century BC, Jastorf A 6th century BC, Jastorf B 400–350 BC, Jastorf C 350–120 BC, Ripdorf 120–1 BC, Seedorf The Jastorf culture is named after a site near the village of Jastorf, Lower Saxony. It was characterized by its use of cremation burials in extensive urnfields and links with the practices of the Northern Bronze Age. Archeology offers evidence concerning the crystallization of a group in terms of a shared material culture, in which the Northern Bronze Age continued to exert cultural influence, in which the northward thrust of the Celtic Hallstatt culture into the same area was instrumental, while extensive migrations "should be discounted". No homogeneous contribution to the Germanic-speaking northerners has been determined, while earlier notions holding proto-Germanic peoples to have emigrated from Denmark during the Northern Bronze Age have been abandoned by archaeologists.
The Jastorf culture extended south to the northern fringes of the Hallstatt culture, while towards the north a general congruence with the late phases of the Northern Bronze Age can be noted. Gravefields in today's Schleswig-Holstein, western Pomerania, in Brandenburg and in Lower Saxony show continuity of occupation from the Bronze Age far into the Jastorf period and beyond; the specific contributions from the various quarters witnessing the meeting of Celtic and indigenous cultures during the early periods can not be assessed by the present state of knowledge, although a shift to a northern focus has been noted to accompany the dwindling vitality of continental Celtic cultures on. The Jastorf culture's area was first restricted to what is today northern Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein, it developed a "very expansive" character, expanding towards the Harz hills and reaching by about 500 BC Thuringia, Lower Silesia, the lower Rhine region, thus covering the southern and western parts of Lower Saxony.
This was helped or propitiated by the earlier vacancy or large depopulation of these areas, as it became known in the archaeological record and from Classic sources that local Hallstatt Culture groups considered Celtic or Belgian migrated in its D period to extensive areas further West and South as far as the Mediterranean and Atlantic Europe. In its mature phase, the Jastorf area proper in northern Lower Saxony can be contrasted with the so-called Nienburg group to the west, situated along the Aller and the middle Weser rivers, bordering the Nordwestblock separating it from the La Tène culture proper farther south; the Nienburg group has characteristics of material culture closer to Celtic cultures, shows evidence of significant contact with the Hallstadt and La Tène cultures. Isolated finds are scattered as far as Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Finds are from tumuli, flat graves and Brandgruben graves or cremation pits. There are few and modest grave goods, with the weapon deposits characteristic of migration period graves absent.
The southernmost extent of Germanic cultures beyond Jastorf has been accounted for at the final stages of the Pre-Roman Iron Age, with the paucity of Late-La Téne bracelet-types in Thuringia and northeastern Hesse proposed to suggest population movements between the central-Elbe/Saale region, Main-Franconia and the edge of the Alps and to have been triggered by the spread of the Przeworsk culture. The demographic vacuum left in the south of Germany around the upper Danube and Rhine rivers, by the migrations of Celtic groups hitherto there into much richer lands in Gaul, Spain and Northern Italy from 400 BC also played a role; the cultures of the Pre-Roman Iron Age are sometimes hypothesized to be the origin of the Germanic languages. Herwig Wolfram locates the initial stages of Grimm's Law here. Nordic Bronze Age Germanic peoples J. Brandt, Jastorf und Latène. Internat. Arch. 66 W. Künnemann, Jastorf - Geschichte und Inhalt eines archäologischen Kulturbegriffs, Die Kunde N. F. 46, 61-122. Herwig Wolfram, Die Germanen, Beck.
Heinrich Krüger: Die Jastorfkultur in den Kreisen Lüchow-Dannenberg, Lüneburg, Uelzen und Soltau. 1961, ISBN 3-529-01501-6
The Angrivarii were a Germanic tribe of the early Roman Empire mentioned in Ptolemy as the Angriouarroi, which transliterates into Latin Angrivari. They are believed to be the source of the 8th century identity, one of three subdivisions of Saxony; the name appears earliest in the Germania of Tacitus as Angrivarii. In post-classical times the name of the people had a number of different spellings in addition to the ones just mentioned: Angarii, Aggerimenses, Angri, Angeri, they lived in a district called Angria, Angeriensis and Engaria. They lived in Engern, a region west of the Weser river not far from Teutoburg Forest, in Angeron of Münster. Ancient Engern was a much larger district than today's community, comprising most of the country surrounding the middle Weser, including both flat land, as around Minden, low hills, it became part of today's Westphalia. The name Angrivarii can be segmented Angri-varii meaning "the men of Engern", parallel to Ampsi-varii, "the men of the Ems." Julius Pokorny derives the first element from an Indo-European root *ang-, "to bend, bow."
From this root are derived German Anger, English dialect ing, Danish eng, Swedish äng, Dutch eng/enk, many other forms in Germanic languages, all meaning "meadow, pasture." Cf. the similar element Angeln. The second element -varii is most prolific among Germanic tribal names taken to mean "inhabitants of", "dwellers in", its precise etymology remains unclear, but there is a general consensus that it cannot be derived from the PIE root *wihxrós, "man", surviving in English "were-wolf". Although the Angrivarii receive brief mention in Ptolemy and the Germania of Tacitus, they appear at several locations in Annales, they were involved marginally in the wars fought by the talented Germanicus Caesar on behalf of his uncle Tiberius, emperor of Rome, against the perpetrators of the massacre of three Roman legions in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, the year 9. The wars began in the last years of the reign of first emperor of Rome. Augustus died an old but respected man in the year 14 and was celebrated with much pomp and splendor.
He left a document to be read to the senate posthumously, expressly forbidding extension of the empire beyond the Rhine. News of the will was welcomed by the Germans. Germanicus found it necessary to pacify the border, which he did by a combination of scorched earth raids and offers of alliance with Rome - in short and carrot; these raids kept the army of the lower Rhine distracted from the possibility of mutiny, which had broken out on Augustus's death and only been quelled by concessions and executions. For punitive expeditions Germanicus used the Ems river, which flowed from the heart of the country occupied by the tribes that became the Franks; these were still under Arminius, who had led the German confederation to the victory in 9. Unlike Arminius' native tribe, the Cherusci, the loyalty of the other tribes in the confederation was at best equivocal; the Angrivarii's defection or revolt in the middle of Arminius's renewed operations against the Teutoburg Forest must have been secured in advance by Germanicus.
If it was not, a cavalry attack soon brought the Angrivarii's capitulation. Soon afterwards, they are back in alliance with the Cherusci and opposition to the Romans, setting an ambush at the Cheruscan border, a high dirt embankment, they stationed their infantry on the reverse slope of the bank. The Romans had intelligence of the plan beforehand, they assaulted the embankment, preceding their assault with volleys from slings and spears thrown by machines. Driving the Angrivarii from the bank, they went on to pursue the cavalry in the woods. Once again the Angrivarii were routed. Once the Cherusci had been dealt with, Germanicus turned his attention to the Angrivarii. They, surrendered unconditionally to the general sent by Germanicus and placed themselves in the status of suppliants, begging for mercy, which Germanicus granted; this reaped dividends for the Angrivarii played a major role in securing the return of ships and men lost in a North Sea storm which scattered the Roman fleet upon the shore of hostile or neutral Germanic tribes.
On May 26 of the year 17, Germanicus celebrated a triumph for his victory over lower Germany and his uncle sent him off to the east. Arminius died and the Angrivarii, the other west Germans and their successor tribes continued friendly towards Rome, providing it with elite troops and urban and palace police. Battle of the Teutoburg Forest Barbarian invasions List of ancient Germanic peoples Angrivarian Wall Battle of the Angrivarian Wall Bjordvand, Harald. Våre arveord. Novus. ISBN 978-82-7099-467-0. Tacitus' Germania The Annals by Tacitus The Geography of Ptolemy