London Museum of Water & Steam
London Museum of Water & Steam is an independent museum founded in 1975 as the Kew Bridge Steam Museum. It was rebranded in early 2014 following a major investment project. Situated on the site of the old Kew Bridge Pumping Station in Brentford, near Kew Bridge on the River Thames in West London, the museum is centred on a collection of stationary water pumping steam engines dating from 1820 to 1910, it is the home of the world’s largest collection of working Cornish engines, including the Grand Junction 90 inch, the largest such working engine in the world. The site is an anchor point on the European Route of Industrial Heritage; the museum reopened on 22 March 2014. Kew Bridge Pumping Station was opened in 1838 by the Grand Junction Waterworks Company, following a decision to close an earlier pumping station at Chelsea due to poor water quality. In the years up to 1944 the site expanded housing six steam pumping engines as well as four Allen diesel pumps and four electric pump sets; the steam engines were retired from service in 1944, although two were kept on standby until 1958, when a demonstration run of the Harvey & Co. 100 inch engine marked the final time steam power would pump drinking water at the site.
The Metropolitan Water Board decided not to scrap the resident steam pumping engines and set them aside to form the basis of a museum display at a date. This action bore fruit in 1974 with the formation of the Kew Bridge Engines Trust, a registered charity, by a group of volunteers involved in the restoration of the Crofton Pumping Station. Today the site is an internationally recognised museum of working steam pumping engines, a reminder of the many pumping stations spread throughout London and the UK. In 1999, the United Kingdom government Department for Culture and Sport described Kew Bridge as "the most important historic site of the water supply industry in Britain"; the Kew Bridge Engine Trust and Water Supply Museum Limited, a registered charity, has three aims: to restore the five historic beam engines at the Kew Bridge site to add other important water pumping engines to establish a museum of London's water supply. In 1997 the museum was awarded an Engineering Heritage Award by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and Britain’s Institute of Mechanical Engineers.
A second IMechE Engineering Hallmark was awarded in 2008 for the restoration of the Bull engine, making the museum one of only 12 sites to achieve more than one of these awards. The museum houses the world's largest collection of Cornish cycle beam engines, including the largest working beam engine, the Grand Junction 90 inch, which has a cylinder diameter of 90 inches and was used to pump water to London for 98 years; this machine weighs about 250 tons. It was described by Charles Dickens as "a monster"; this engine is still steamed for public viewing as well as for private parties. The museum has several other working Cornish cycle beam engines, other working steam engines, as well as a three-cylinder Allen diesel engine, on public display and run. A complete list of the pumping engines at the museum is as follows: Sandys and Vivyan 90 inch Harvey & Co. 100 inch Bull engine Maudslay engine Boulton & Watt James Simpson & Co. Easton and Amos engine Hathorn Davey & Co. triple expansion engine James Kay, Allen diesel engine Hindley waterwheelThe museum operates an 1860 Shand Mason Fire Engine on selected event days.
The museum runs a 2 ft narrow-gauge railway which in 2009 saw the introduction of a new-build Wren Class steam locomotive, Thomas Wicksteed. The railway had been operated by visiting loan locomotives; the line runs for 400 yards around the Kew Bridge site, passenger trains are operated at weekends and on other special event days. Although not an original feature of the waterworks at Kew Bridge, the railway was inspired by similar facilities provided at major waterworks in the UK, notably the Metropolitan Water Board Railway that ran between Hampton and the Kempton Park waterworks. A small part of that railway, is now operated as the Kempton Steam Railway, comprising the only other site in London where rides can be taken on steam trains of such a large size; the museum site contains a number of Grade II listed buildings. The original engine house, home of the Bull, Boulton & Watt and Maudslay engines, was built in 1837 and is Grade I listed, as is the Great Engine House, housing the 90 inch and 100 inch engines, constructed in two parts in 1845 and 1869.
The Boiler House, which now houses the rotative steam engines, was built in 1837, along with the ancillary buildings and Gatehouse and Boundary Wall, is Grade II listed. The ancillary buildings, which include a working forge and belt driven workshop, are used by a number of independent artists and creatives; the museum’s most striking feature is its 200 ft high Victorian standpipe tower. This is not a chimney stack; the brick tower, of Italianate design, was constructed in 1867 to replace an earlier open metal lattice structure. It is a Grade I listed building; the museum has been a filming location for episodes of TV serials including EastEnders, The Bill, Doctor Who and Industrial Age. As well as many music videos and feature films, including Jude Law's The Wisdom of Crocodiles, it was used as the location for the 1991-1995 title sequence of the BBC music s
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, used for sugar production. It has stout, fibrous stalks that are rich in the sugar sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes; the plant is two to six metres tall. All sugar cane species can interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Sugarcane belongs to the grass family Poaceae, an economically important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat and sorghum, many forage crops. Sucrose and purified in specialized mill factories, is used as raw material in the food industry or is fermented to produce ethanol. Sugarcane is the world's largest crop by production quantity, with 1.9 billion tonnes produced in 2016, Brazil accounting for 41% of the world total. In 2012, the Food and Agriculture Organization estimated it was cultivated on about 26 million hectares, in more than 90 countries.
The global demand for sugar is the primary driver of sugarcane agriculture. Cane accounts for 79% of sugar produced. Sugarcane predominantly grows in the subtropical regions. Other than sugar, products derived from sugarcane include falernum, rum, cachaça, ethanol. In some regions, people use sugarcane reeds to make pens, mats and thatch; the young, unexpanded inflorescence of Saccharum edule is eaten raw, steamed, or toasted, prepared in various ways in Southeast Asia, including Fiji and certain island communities of Indonesia. Sugarcane was an ancient crop of the Papuan people, it was introduced to Polynesia, Island Melanesia, Madagascar in prehistoric times via Austronesian sailors. It was introduced to southern China and India by Austronesian traders at around 1200 to 1000 BC; the Persians, followed by the Greeks, encountered the famous "reeds that produce honey without bees" in India between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. They adopted and spread sugarcane agriculture. Merchants began to trade in sugar from India, considered a luxury and an expensive spice.
In the 18th century AD, sugarcane plantations began in Caribbean, South American, Indian Ocean and Pacific island nations and the need for laborers became a major driver of large human migrations, both the voluntary in indentured servants. And the involuntary migrations, in the form of slave labor. Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems three to four m high and about 5 cm in diameter; the stems grow into cane stalk. A mature stalk is composed of 11–16% fiber, 12–16% soluble sugars, 2–3% nonsugars, 63–73% water. A sugarcane crop is sensitive to the climate, soil type, fertilizers, disease control and the harvest period; the average yield of cane stalk is 60–70 tonnes per hectare per year. However, this figure can vary between 30 and 180 tonnes per hectare depending on knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane is a cash crop, but it is used as livestock fodder. There are two centers of domestication for sugarcane: one for Saccharum officinarum by Papuans in New Guinea and another for Saccharum sinense by Austronesians in Taiwan and southern China.
Papuans and Austronesians primarily used sugarcane as food for domesticated pigs. The spread of both S. officinarum and S. sinense is linked to the migrations of the Austronesian peoples. Saccharum barberi was only cultivated in India after the introduction of S. officinarum. Saccharum officinarum was first domesticated in New Guinea and the islands east of the Wallace Line by Papuans, where it is the modern center of diversity. Beginning at around 6,000 BP they were selectively bred from the native Saccharum robustum. From New Guinea it spread westwards to Island Southeast Asia after contact with Austronesians, where it hybridized with Saccharum spontaneum; the second domestication center is mainland southern China and Taiwan where S. sinense was a primary cultigen of the Austronesian peoples. Words for sugarcane exist in the Proto-Austronesian languages in Taiwan, reconstructed as *təbuS or **CebuS, which became *tebuh in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, it was one of the original major crops of the Austronesian peoples from at least 5,500 BP.
Introduction of the sweeter S. officinarum may have replaced it throughout its cultivated range in Island Southeast Asia. From Island Southeast Asia, S. officinarum was spread eastward into Polynesia and Micronesia by Austronesian voyagers as a canoe plant by around 3,500 BP. It was spread westward and northward by around 3,000 BP to China and India by Austronesian traders, where it further hybridized with Saccharum sinense and Saccharum barberi. From there it spread further into the Mediterranean; the earliest known production of crystalline sugar began in northern India. The exact date of the first cane sugar production is unclear; the earliest evidence of sugar production comes from ancient Pali texts. Around the 8th century and Arab traders introduced sugar from medieval India to the other parts of the Abbasid Caliphate in the Mediterranean, Egypt, North Africa, Andalusia. By the 10th century, sources state, it was among the early crops brought to the Americas by the Spanish Andalu
The Severn Tunnel is a railway tunnel under the Severn Estuary between England and Wales. The tunnel links South Gloucestershire in the west of England to Monmouthshire in south Wales, it was constructed by the Great Western Railway between 1873 and 1886 to shorten the journey between Western England and South Wales. Its completion has been regarded as the crowning achievement of the civil engineer Sir John Hawkshaw, the chief engineer of the GWR. Before the Severn Tunnel was built all traffic between Western England and South Wales was by ship or upriver via Gloucester; the single-track Severn Railway Bridge, 14 miles upstream, opened during the construction of the tunnel. Recognising the value of a tunnel, the GWR tasked Hawkshaw with its design and the civil engineer Thomas A. Walker to undertake its construction, which commenced in March 1873. In October 1879, the works were flooded by what is now known as "The Great Spring". Through strenuous and innovative efforts, the flooding was contained and work continued, albeit with a great emphasis on drainage.
Completed in 1885, the first passenger train was ran through on 1 December 1886, nearly 14 years after the commencement of work. The Severn Tunnel is a key element of the trunk railway line between southern England and South Wales; the GWR operated a car shuttle train service through the tunnel for many decades. The tunnel presents difficulties operationally and in the maintenance of its infrastructure; the 50 million litres of water per day that infiltrates the tunnel is removed using several large pumping engines. During the steam era and banking locomotives were required to assist heavy trains on the tunnel's challenging gradients; the Severn Tunnel is 4 miles 624 yards long. It takes 3 minutes 40 seconds for a train to travel through; the tunnel was the longest underwater tunnel in the world for more than 100 years until 1987, it was the longest mainline railway tunnel in the UK. Its length was exceeded in 2007 by the opening of the two London tunnels of High Speed 1, part of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link.
In late 2016, overhead line equipment was installed in the Severn Tunnel to allow electric traction to pass through as part of the 21st-century modernisation of the Great Western main line. The Severn Tunnel is part of the trunk railway line between southern England and South Wales, carries an intensive passenger train service and freight traffic; as of 2012, an average of 200 trains per day used the tunnel. The line through the tunnel is controlled as a single signal section, which limits the headway of successive trains; the steep gradients make working heavy freight trains difficult. A continuous drainage culvert between the tracks takes water to the tunnel's lowest point under Sudbrook Pumping Station, where it is pumped to the surface. Should ignited petroleum run into the culvert in the event of derailment of a tank wagon, special arrangements are in place to prevent passenger trains entering while hazardous liquid loads are being worked through. At Sudbrook Pumping Station, an iron ladder descends in the shaft of the water pumping main and ventilation air is pumped in.
The GWR ventilation arrangement was to extract air at Sudbrook, but the exhaust from steam trains caused premature corrosion of the fan mechanism. When the Cornish pumping engines were replaced in the 1960s, the draughting was reversed so that atmospheric air is pumped into the tunnel exhausting at the tunnel mouths. About 50 million litres of water per day of fresh water are pumped from the tunnel and released into the River Severn; the tunnel's physical condition requires a higher than usual degree of attention in difficult working conditions. Work can only be performed during temporary line closure, it is claimed that the tunnel would be full of water within 26 minutes if the pumps were switched off and backup measures failed. Network Rail has observed that the corrosive atmosphere inside the tunnel, produced by moisture and diesel fumes requires replacing the steel rails every six years. Before the tunnel was built, the journey between Bristol and South Wales involved a ferry crossing between New Passage and Portskewett or a detour via Gloucester.
The GWR decided. In the early 1870s, chief engineer, John Hawkshaw designed the tunnel. On 27 June 1872, the company obtained a Act of Parliament authorising the construction of the tunnel. On 18 March 1873, sinking a shaft with a diameter of 4.6 meters began at Sudbrook and a smaller drainage heading was started near the Pennant Measures. The rate of work was slow but without major incident. By August 1877, the shaft and a 1.5km heading had been completed and new contracts were issued for sinking additional shafts at both sides of the Severn and new headings along the tunnel's route. Thomas A. Walker the contractor for the tunnel's construction, noted that the GWR expected the critical part of the work was tunnelling under the Shoots deep-water channel. Most difficulties were encountered during October 1879, with only 130 yards separating the main tunnel heading from the Monmouthshire side and the shorter Gloucestershire heading, the workings were inundated; the water was fresh, not from the Severn but from the Welsh side, the source became known as "The Great Spring".
Walker proceeded to complete the tunnel following the flood. The Great Spring was controlled by installing greatly-increased pumping facilities. During November 1880, a diver was sent down a shaft and 300 m along the tunnel heading to close a watertight door, it was achieved by the lead diver, Alexander Lambert equipped with Henry Fleuss' newly-developed self-contained bre
A winding engine is a stationary engine used to control a cable, for example to power a mining hoist at a pit head. Electric hoist controllers have replaced proper winding engines in modern mining, but use electric motors that are traditionally referred to as winding engines. Early winding engines were hand, or more horse powered; the first powered winding engines were stationary steam engines. The demand for winding engines was one factor that drove James Watt to develop his rotative beam engine, with its ability to continuously turn a winding drum, rather than the early reciprocating beam engines that were only useful for working pumps, they differ from most other stationary steam engines in that, like a steam locomotive, they need to be able to stop and reverse. This requires more complex valve gear and other controls than are needed on engines used in mills or to drive pumps
A chaff cutter is a mechanical device for cutting straw or hay into small pieces before being mixed together with other forage and fed to horses and cattle. This prevents animals from rejecting any part of their food. Chaff and hay played a vital role in most agricultural production. Horses were extensively used in farming operations until they were replaced by tractors in the 1940s. Chaff cutters have evolved from the basic machines into commercial standard machines that can be driven at various speeds and can achieved various lengths of cuts of chaff with respect to animal preference type. New chaff cutter machines include portable tractor driven chaff cutter - where chaff cutter can be in the field and load trolleys. Media related to Chaff cutters at Wikimedia Commons
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature; the alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon ranging from 1.8 to 4 wt%, silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point of the iron–carbon system, the melting temperatures range from 1,150 to 1,200 °C, about 300 °C lower than the melting point of pure iron of 1,535 °C.
Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its low melting point, good fluidity, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications and are used in pipes and automotive industry parts, such as cylinder heads, cylinder blocks and gearbox cases, it is resistant to weakening by oxidation. The earliest cast-iron artifacts date to the 5th century BC, were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare and architecture. During the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for cannon in Burgundy, in England during the Reformation; the amounts of cast iron used for cannon required large scale production. The first cast-iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, is known as The Iron Bridge. Cast iron was used in the construction of buildings. Cast iron is made from pig iron, the product of smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
Cast iron can be made directly from the molten pig iron or by re-melting pig iron along with substantial quantities of iron, limestone and taking various steps to remove undesirable contaminants. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the molten iron, but this burns out the carbon, which must be replaced. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, which may be anywhere from 2–3.5% and 1–3%, respectively. If desired, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is sometimes melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola, but in modern applications, it is more melted in electric induction furnaces or electric arc furnaces. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into ladle. Cast iron's properties alloyants. Next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide and the production of white cast iron.
A high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon, the formation of those carbides. Nickel and copper increase strength, machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed; the carbon in the form of graphite results in a softer iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength, decreases density. Sulfur a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, which prevents the formation of graphite and increases hardness; the problem with sulfur is. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide; the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt, so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag. The amount of manganese required to neutralize sulfur is 1.7 × sulfur content + 0.3%. If more than this amount of manganese is added manganese carbide forms, which increases hardness and chilling, except in grey iron, where up to 1% of manganese increases strength and density.
Nickel is one of the most common alloying elements because it refines the pearlite and graphite structure, improves toughness, evens out hardness differences between section thicknesses. Chromium is added in small amounts to reduce free graphite, produce chill, because it is a powerful carbide stabilizer. A small amount of tin can be added as a substitute for 0.5% chromium. Copper is added in the ladle or in the furnace, on the order of 0.5–2.5%, to decrease chill, refine graphite, increase fluidity. Molybdenum is added on the order of 0.3–1% to increase chill and refine the graphite and pearlite structure. Titanium is added as a degasser and deoxidizer, but it increases fluidity. 0.15–0.5% vanadium is added to cast iron to stabilize cementite, increase hardness, increase resistance to wear and heat. 0.1–0.3% zirconium helps to form graphite and increase fluidity. In malleable iron melts, bismuth is added, on the scale of 0.002–0.01%, to increase how much silicon can be added. In white iron, boron is added to aid in the production of malleable iron.
Margate is a seaside town in Thanet, England, 15 miles north-east of Canterbury, which includes Cliftonville, Palm Bay and Westbrook. Margate was recorded as "Meregate" in 1264 and as "Margate" in 1299, but the spelling continued to vary into modern times; the name is thought to refer to a pool gate or gap in a cliff where pools of water are found allowing swimmers to jump in. The cliffs of the Isle of Thanet are composed of a fossil-bearing rock. Margate gives its name to the unknown yet influential Battle of Margate, starting on the 24 March 1387, it was the last major naval battle of the Caroline War phase of the Hundred Years' War. Despite the battle being named after Margate little happened near the coastal town - the battle is named after Margate as this was where an English fleet of 51 vessels, anchored at Margate Roadstead first spotted a Franco-Castilian-Flemish wine fleet of around 250-360 vessels; the English gave chase after the undermanned wine fleet and defeated the fleet a day on the 25 March 1387 off the coast of Cadzand, Netherlands.
The town's history is tied to the sea and it has a proud maritime tradition. Margate was a "limb" of Dover in the ancient confederation of the Cinque ports, it was added to the confederation in the 15th century. Margate has been a leading seaside resort for at least 250 years. Like its neighbour Ramsgate, it has been a traditional holiday destination for Londoners drawn to its sandy beaches. Margate had a Victorian pier, destroyed by a storm in 1978. Like Brighton and Southend, Margate was infamous for gang violence between mods and rockers in the 1960s, mods and skinheads in the 1980s; the Turner Contemporary art gallery occupies a prominent position next to the harbour. The Thanet Offshore Wind Project, completed in 2010, is visible from the seafront. Since 1983, the Member of Parliament for North Thanet, covering northern Thanet and Herne Bay, has been the Conservative, Roger Gale. At the 2017 General Election, in North Thanet the Conservatives won a majority of 10,738 and 56.2% of the vote. Labour won 34.0% of the vote, United Kingdom Independence Party 4.5%.
Margate was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1857. This was abolished since which date Margate has been part of the Thanet district of Kent; the town contains the seven electoral wards of Margate Central, Cliftonville West, Cliftonville East, Garlinge, Dane Valley and Salmestone. These wards have seventeen of the fifty six seats on the Thanet District Council. At the 2007 Local Elections, nine of those seats were held by the Conservatives, seven by Labour and one by an Independent. Margate experiences an oceanic climate similar to much of the United Kingdom. Like all of southern Britain, Margate experiences mild temperatures, complemented by a large amount of sunshine. Rainfall is quite low, Margate is one of the drier Kentish towns. At the 2001 UK census: Margate had a population of 40,386; the urban area had a population of 46,980 at the 2001 census, increasing to 49,709 at the 2011 census. The ethnicity of the town was 97.1% white, 1.0% mixed race, 0.5% black, 0.8% Asian, 0.6% Chinese or other ethnicity.
The place of birth of residents was 94.2% United Kingdom, 0.9% Republic of Ireland, 0.5% Germany, 0.8% other Western Europe countries, 0.7% Africa, 0.6% Eastern Europe, 0.5% Far East, 0.5% South Asia, 0.5% Middle East, 0.4% North America and 0.3% Oceania. Religion was recorded as 71.6% Christian, 17.1% no religion, 0.7% Muslim, 0.3% Buddhist, 0.3% Jewish, 0.2% Hindu, 0.1% Sikh. For every 100 females, there were 92 males; the age distribution was 6% aged 0–4 years, 16% aged 5–15 years, 5% aged 16–19 years, 31% aged 20–44 years, 23% aged 45–64 years and 19% aged 65 years and over.11% of Margate residents had some kind of higher or professional qualification, compared to the national average of 20%. At the 2001 UK census, the economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 33.8% in full-time employment, 11.8% in part-time employment, 8.0% self-employed, 5.5% unemployed, 2.2% students with jobs, 3.9% students without jobs, 15.5% retired, 8.3% looking after home or family, 7.9% permanently sick or disabled and 3.6% economically inactive for other reasons.
The rate of unemployment in the town was higher than the national rate of 3.4%. The industry of employment of residents was 17% retail, 16% health & social work, 13% manufacturing, 9% construction, 8% real estate, 8% education, 7% transport & communications, 5% public administration, 6% hotels & restaurants, 2% finance, 1% agriculture and 6% other community, social or personal services. Compared to national figures, the town had a high number of workers in the construction, hotels & restaurants and health & social care industries and a low number in real estate and finance. In more recent years, as tourists have travelled further afield, Margate's unemployment rate has become higher than much of the rest of south eastern England. Margate railway station, constructed in 1926 to designs by Edwin Maxwell Fry, serves the town. Train services are provided by Southeastern Trains. For at least 250 years, Margate has been a leading seaside resort in the UK, drawing Londoners to its beaches, Margate Sands.
The bathing machines in use at Margate were described in 1805 as four-wheeled carriages, covered with canvas, having at one end of them an umbrella of the same materials, let down to the surface of the water, so that the bather descending from the machine by a few steps is concealed from the public view, whereby the most refined female is enabled to e