In the Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-flood Patriarchs. The story of Noahs Ark is told in the Bibles Genesis flood narrative, the biblical account is followed by the story of the Curse of Canaan. Noah was the subject of much elaboration in the literature of Abrahamic religions, the primary account of Noah in the Bible is in the Book of Genesis. Noah was the tenth of the pre-flood Patriarchs and his father was Lamech and his mother is unknown. When Noah was five hundred years old, he begat Shem, the Genesis flood narrative makes up chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis, in the Bible. Thus, the flood was no ordinary overflow but a reversal of creation, and God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth. They were told that all fowls, land animals, furthermore, as well as green plants, every moving thing would be their food with the exception that the blood was not to be eaten. Mans life blood would be required from the beasts and from man, whoso sheddeth mans blood, by man shall his blood be shed, for in the image of God made he man.
Noah died 350 years after the flood, at the age of 950, the maximum human lifespan, as depicted by the Bible, diminishes rapidly thereafter, from almost 1,000 years to the 120 years of Moses. After the flood, Noah became a husbandman and he planted a vineyard, and he drank of the wine, and was drunken, and was uncovered within his tent. Noahs son Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father and told his brethren, in Jewish tradition and rabbinic literature, rabbis blame Satan for the intoxicating properties of the wine. In the field of biblical criticism, J. H. Ellens and W. G. Rollins address the narrative of Genesis 9. Because of its brevity and textual inconsistencies, it has suggested that this narrative is a splinter from a more substantial tale. A fuller account would explain what exactly Ham had done to his father, or why Noah directed a curse at Canaan for Hams misdeed, or how Noah came to know what occurred. The narrator relates two facts, Noah became drunken and he was uncovered within his tent, and Ham saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without.
Thus, these passages revolve around sexuality and the exposure of genitalia as compared with other Hebrew Bible texts, such as Habakkuk 2,15 and Lamentations 4,21. Genesis 10 sets forth the descendants of Shem and Japheth, among Japheth’s descendants were the maritime nations. Ham’s son Cush had a son named Nimrod, who became the first man of might on earth, a mighty hunter, king in Babylon, from there Asshur went and built Nineveh
Premillennialism, in Christian eschatology, is the belief that Jesus will physically return to the earth to gather His saints before the Millennium, a literal thousand-year golden age of peace. This return is referred to as the Second Coming, the doctrine is called premillennialism because it holds that Jesus physical return to earth will occur prior to the inauguration of the Millennium. For the last century, the belief has been common in Evangelicalism according to surveys on this topic, Premillennialism is based upon a literal interpretation of Revelation 20, 1–6 in the New Testament, which describes Jesus reign in a period of a thousand years. It views this future age as a time of fulfillment for the hope of Gods people as given in the Old Testament. Post-millennialism, for example, agrees with premillennialism about the future reign of Christ. Postmillennialists hold to the view that the second coming will happen after the millennium, historically Christian premillennialism has been referred to as chiliasm or millenarianism.
The current religious term premillennialism did not come into use until the mid-19th century, the concept of a temporary earthly messianic kingdom at the Messiahs coming was not an invention of Christianity. Instead it was an interpretation developed within the apocalyptic literature of early Judaism. In Judaism during the Christian intertestamental period, there was a distinction between the current age and the “age to come”. The “age to come” was commonly viewed as a nationalistic Golden Age in which the hopes of the prophets would become a reality for the nation of Israel, on the surface, the biblical prophets revealed an “age to come” which was monolithic. Seemingly the prophets did not write of a two-phase eschaton consisting of a messianic age followed by an eternal state. However, that was the concept that some Jewish interpreters did derive from their exegesis and their conclusions are found in some of the literature and theology of early Judaism within the centuries both before and during the development of the Christian New Testament.
This work likely dates to the early 2nd century and shows a schematization of the divine history divided into ten periods of time called “weeks. ”In the apocalypse. However, after the week, the temporary earthly messianic age begins. After the temporary messianic kingdom, the creation of the new heavens, Second Esdras likely dates from soon after the destruction of Jerusalem in AD70. The apocryphal book was apparently an attempt to explain the difficulties associated with the destruction of Jerusalem, during one of the visions in the book, Ezra receives a revelation from the angel Uriel. The angel explains that prior to the last judgment, the Messiah will come, seven days after this cataclysmic event, the resurrection and the judgment will occur followed by the eternal state. The Jewish belief in a temporary messianic age continued during
Chabad, known as Lubavitch and Chabad-Lubavitch, is an Orthodox Jewish, Hasidic movement. Chabad is today one of the worlds best known Hasidic movements and is known for its outreach. It is the largest Hasidic group and Jewish religious organization in the world, the name Lubavitch is the Yiddish name for the originally Belorussian village Lyubavichi, now in Russia, where the movements leaders lived for over 100 years. He established a network of more than 3,600 institutions that provide religious and humanitarian needs in over 1,000 cities, spanning more than 80 countries and all 50 American states. Studies conducted between 1993 and 1996 stated the movement is thought to number between 40,000 and 200,000 adherents, in 2005 the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs reported that up to one million Jews attend Chabad services at least once a year. In 2013, Chabad forecast that their Chanukah activities would reach up to 8,000,000 Jews in 80 countries worldwide, the movement was based in Lyubavichi for over a century, briefly centered in the cities of Rostov-on-Don and Warsaw.
Since 1940, the center has been in the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn. While the movement has spawned a number of groups, the Chabad-Lubavitch branch appears to be the only one still active. Sarna has characterized Chabad as having enjoyed the fastest rate of growth of any Jewish religious movement for the period 1946-2015, in the early 1900s, Chabad-Lubavitch legally incorporated itself under Agudas Chasidei Chabad. The Chabad movement has been led by a succession of Hasidic rebbes, the main line of the movement, Chabad-Lubavitch, has had seven rebbes in total, Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, founded the Chabad movement in the town of Liozna. He moved the center to the town of Liadi. Rabbi Shneur Zalman was the youngest disciple of Rabbi Dovber of Mezritch, the Chabad movement began as a separate school of thought within the Hasidic movement, focusing of the spread of Hasidic mystical teachings using logical reasoning. Shneur Zalmans main work is the Tanya, the Tanya is the central book of Chabad thought and is studied daily by followers of the Chabad movement.
Shneur Zalmans successors went by last names such as Schneuri and Schneersohn and he is commonly referred to as the Alter Rebbe or Admur Hazoken. Rabbi Dovber Schneuri, son of Rabbi Shneur Zalman, led the Chabad movement in the town of Lyubavichi and his leadership was initially disputed by Rabbi Aaron Halevi of Stroselye, Rabbi Dovber was generally recognized as his fathers rightful successor, and the movements leader. Rabbi Dovber published a number of his writings on Hasidic thought and he published some of his fathers writings. Many of Rabbi Dovbers works have been republished by the Chabad movement. He is commonly referred to as the Mitteler Rebbe, or Admur Haemtzoei, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn, a grandson of Rabbi Shneur Zalman and son-in-law of Rabbi Dovber
David was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, reigning in c. He is described as a man after Gods own heart in 1 Samuel 13,14 and Acts 13,22. The Hebrew prophets regarded him as the ancestor of the future messiah, the New Testament says he was an ancestor of Jesus. God is angered when Saul, Israels king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice and disobeys a divine instruction to not only all of the Amalekites. Consequently, he sends the prophet Samuel to anoint David, the youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem, God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul. Sauls courtiers recommend that he send for David, a man skillful on the lyre, wise in speech, and brave in battle. So David enters Sauls service as one of the royal armour-bearers, and plays the lyre to soothe the king, war comes between Israel and the Philistines, and the giant Goliath challenges the Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single combat. David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Sauls army, refusing the kings offer of the royal armour, he kills Goliath with his sling.
Saul inquires the name of the heros father. Saul sets David over his army, all Israel loves David, but his popularity causes Saul to fear him. Saul plots his death, but Sauls son Jonathan, one of those who loves David, warns him of his fathers schemes and David flees. He becomes a vassal of the Philistine king Achish of Gath, but Achishs nobles question his loyalty and Saul are killed, and David is anointed king over Judah. In the north, Sauls son Ish-Bosheth is anointed king of Israel, with the death of Sauls son, the elders of Israel come to Hebron and David is anointed king over all Israel. He conquers Jerusalem, previously a Jebusite stronghold, and makes it his capital. He brings the Ark of the Covenant to the city, intending to build a temple for God, Nathan prophesies that God has made a covenant with the house of David, Your throne shall be established forever. David wins more victories over the Philistines, while the Moabites, Amalekites, during a battle to conquer the Ammonite capital of Rabbah, David seduces Bathsheba and causes the death of her husband Uriah the Hittite.
In response, Nathan prophesies the punishment that shall fall upon him, in fulfillment of these words Davids son Absalom rebels. The rebellion ends at the battle of the Wood of Ephraim, Absaloms forces are routed, and Absalom is caught by his long hair in the branches of a tree, and killed by Joab, contrary to Davids order. Joab was the commander of Davids army, David laments the death of his favourite son, O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom
Shabbat observance entails refraining from work activities, often with great rigor, and engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaisms traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, variations upon Shabbat are widespread in Judaism and, with adaptations, throughout the Abrahamic and many other religions. According to halakha, Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night, Shabbat is ushered in by lighting candles and reciting a blessing. Traditionally, three meals are eaten, in the evening, in the early afternoon, and late in the afternoon. The evening meal begins with a blessing called kiddush and another blessing recited over two loaves of challah. Shabbat is closed the evening with a havdalah blessing. Shabbat is a day when Jews exercise their freedom from the regular labors of everyday life. It offers an opportunity to contemplate the spiritual aspects of life, the word Shabbat derives from the Hebrew verb shavat.
Although frequently translated as rest, another translation of these words is ceasing. The related modern Hebrew word shevita, has the implication of active rather than passive abstinence from work. The notion of active cessation from labor is regarded as consistent with an omnipotent Gods activity on the seventh day of Creation according to Genesis. Sabbath is given status as a holy day at the very beginning of the Torah in Genesis 2. It is first commanded after the Exodus from Egypt, in Exodus 16,26 and in Exodus 20, Sabbath is commanded and commended many more times in the Torah and Tanakh, double the normal number of animal sacrifices are to be offered on the day. Sabbath is described by the prophets Isaiah, Ezekiel, Amos, the longstanding traditional Jewish position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution. The Mosaic tradition quotes an origin from the Bible of special creation, though some suggest a later, naturalistic origin.
Seventh-day Shabbat did not originate with the Egyptians, to whom it was unknown, the first non-Biblical reference to Sabbath is in an ostracon found in excavations at Mesad Hashavyahu, which is dated 630 BCE. The prohibitions on these days, spaced seven days apart, include abstaining from chariot riding, on these days officials were prohibited from various activities and common men were forbidden to make a wish, and at least the 28th was known as a rest-day. The difficulties of this theory include reconciling the differences between a week and a lunar week, and explaining the absence of texts naming the lunar week as Sabbath in any language
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace.
However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians and Samaritans. Israel hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016.
The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Islam
He is commonly referred to in Hebrew as ha-Gaon he-Chasid mi-Vilna, the saintly genius from Vilnius. Born in Sielec in the Brest Litovsk Voivodeship, the Gaon displayed extraordinary talent while still a child, by the time he was twenty years old, rabbis were submitting their most difficult halakhic problems to him for legal rulings. Various Kabbalistic works have commentaries in his name, and commentaries on the Proverbs, none of his manuscripts were published in his lifetime. When Hasidic Judaism became influential in his town, the Vilna Gaon joined the opposers or Mitnagdim and heads of the Polish communities. In 1777, one of the first excommunications against the nascent Hasidic movement was launched in Vilna and he encouraged his students to study natural sciences, and even translated geometry books to Yiddish and Hebrew. Legend has it that by the age of four he had committed the Tanakh to memory, at the age of seven he was taught Talmud by Moses Margalit, rabbi of Kėdainiai and the author of a commentary to the Jerusalem Talmud, entitled Pnei Moshe.
The young Elijah was said to have known several of the Talmudic tractates by heart. He is known for having possessed an eidetic memory, by eight, he was studying astronomy during his free time. When he reached a mature age, Elijah decided to go into exile and he wandered in various parts of Europe including Poland and Germany. By the time he was twenty years old, rabbis were submitting their most difficult problems to him. Scholars and non-Jewish, sought his insights into mathematics and he returned to his native city in 1748, having by acquired considerable renown. The Gaon applied to the Talmud and rabbinic literature proper philological methods and he devoted much time to the study of the Torah and Hebrew grammar, and was knowledgeable in the secular sciences, enriching the latter by his original contributions. His pupils and friends had to pursue the same plain and simple methods of study that he followed and he exhorted them not to neglect the secular sciences, maintaining that Judaism could only gain by their studying them.
The Vilna Gaon was modest, he declined to accept the office of rabbi, in his years he refused to give approbations, though this was the privilege of great rabbis, he thought too humbly of himself to assume such authority. He led a life, only lecturing from time to time to a few chosen pupils. Already at that age, the Gaon was considered the greatest of the generation, when Hasidic Judaism became influential in Vilna, the Vilna Gaon, joining the rabbis and heads of the Polish communities, took steps to check the Hasidic influence. The letter was acted upon by several communities, and in Brody, during the trade fair, the excommunications did not stop the tide of Hasidism. Except for the conflict with the Hasidim, the Vilna Gaon almost never took part in affairs and, so far as is known
World to come
Under Christian eschatology, the phrase is found in the Nicene Creed, We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. It is found in the King James Version of the New Testament at Matthew 12,32, Mark 10,30, Luke 18,30, Hebrews 2,5, in Hindu eschatology the current age is the Kali Yuga, a period of decline. Kalki will appear to all evil, beginning a golden age of Satya Yuga. HaOlam HaBa, or the world to come, is an important part of Jewish eschatology, the afterlife is known as Olam haBa, Gan Eden and Gehinom. According to the Talmud, any non-Jew who lives according to the Seven Laws of Noah is regarded as a Ger toshav, and is assured of a place in the world to come, the final reward of the righteous. In Zoroastrian eschatology, the world to come is the frashokereti and this is followed by a last judgment. The yazatas Airyaman and Atar will melt the metal in the hills and mountains, and the molten metal will flow across the earth like a river. All mankind—both the living and the resurrected dead—will be required to wade through that river, the river will flow down to hell, where it will annihilate Angra Mainyu and the last vestiges of wickedness in the universe.
There have been a range of dates predicted, purportedly from different methods of calculation and this is not a rare occurrence and last happened in early 2012, passing without event. The time of arrival of Kalki has not been asserted by astrologers
In Christology, the Person of Christ refers to the study of the human and divine natures of Jesus Christ as they co-exist within one person. There is no discussion in the New Testament regarding the dual nature of the Person of Christ as both divine and human. Hence, since the days of Christianity theologians have debated various approaches to the understanding of these natures. In the period following the Apostolic Age, specific beliefs such as Arianism and Docetism were criticized. On the other end of the spectrum, Docetism argued that Jesus physical body was an illusion, docetic teachings were attacked by St. Ignatius of Antioch and were eventually abandoned by proto-orthodox Christians. However, after the First Council of Nicaea in 325 the Logos, historically in the Alexandrian school of christology, Jesus Christ is the eternal Logos paradoxically humanized in history, a divine Person who became enfleshed, uniting himself to the human nature. The views of these schools can be summarized as follows, Antioch, Logos assumes a specific human being The First Council of Ephesus in 431 debated a number of views regarding the Person of Christ.
At the same gathering the council debated the doctrines of monophysitism or miaphysitism. The council rejected Nestorianism and adopted the term hypostatic union, referring to divine, the language used in the 431 declaration was further refined at the 451 Council of Chalcedon. However, the Chalcedon creed was not accepted by all Christians, because Saint Augustine died in 430 he did not participate in the Council of Ephesus in 431 or Chalcedon in 451, but his ideas had some impact on both councils. On the other hand, the major theological figure of the Middle Ages. The Third Council of Constantinople in 680 held that both divine and human wills exist in Jesus, with the divine will having precedence and guiding the human will. John Calvin maintained that there was no element in the Person of Christ which could be separated from the person of The Word. Calvin emphasized the importance of the Work of Christ in any attempt at understanding the Person of Christ, the study of the Person of Christ continued into the 20th century, with modern theologians such as Karl Rahner and Hans von Balthasar.
Balthasar argued that the union of the human and divine natures of Christ was achieved not by the absorption of human attributes, thus in his view the divine nature of Christ was not affected by the human attributes and remained forever divine
Jewish mythology is a major literary element of the body of folklore found in the sacred texts and in traditional narratives that help explain and symbolize Jewish culture and Judaism. Elements of Jewish mythology have had a influence on Christian mythology and on Islamic mythology. Christian mythology directly inherited many of the narratives from the Jewish people, Islamic mythology shares many of the same stories, for instance, a creation-account spaced out over six periods, the legend of Abraham, the stories of Moses and the Israelites, and many more. Jewish mythology contains similarities to the myths of other Middle Eastern cultures, the ancient Hebrews often participated in the religious practices of their neighbors, worshiping other gods alongside Yahweh. These pagan religions were forms of worship, their deities were personifications of natural phenomena like storms. Because of its worship, Mircea Eliade argues, Near Eastern paganism expressed itself in rich and dramatic mythologies featuring strong and dynamic gods.
The Biblical prophets, including Isaiah and Jeremiah, had a concept of the divine that differed significantly from that of the nature religions. According to Jewish mythology, their lives were full of miracles and visions from God that kept Jewish mythology alive, instead of seeing the God of Israel as just one national god, these prophets saw him as the one God of the entire universe. The prophets condemned Hebrew participation in worship, and they refused to completely identify the divine with natural forces. In so doing, they set the stage for a new kind of mythology — a mythology featuring a single God who exists beyond the natural world, through the prophets influence, Jewish mythology increasingly portrayed God as aloof from nature and acting independently of natural forces. On one hand, this produced a mythology that was, in a sense and it was therefore something irreversible and unrepeatable. The fall of Jerusalem does not repeat the fall of Samaria, Jahveh stands out from the world of abstractions, of symbols and generalities, he acts in history and enters into relations with actual historical beings.
On the other hand, this transcendent God was absolutely unique, the myths surrounding him were, in a sense, less complex, they did not involve the acts of multiple, anthropomorphic gods. In this sense, Jahveh is surrounded by no multiple and varied myths, the Hebrew prophets had to struggle against the nature gods popularity, and Jewish mythology reflects this struggle. In fact, some Jewish myths may have been designed to reflect the conflict between paganism and a new uncompromising monotheism. In Psalm 82, God stands up in the Divine Council and condemns the pagan deities, although they are gods, he says, karen Armstrong interprets the creation myth of Genesis 1 as a poised, calm polemic against the old belligerent cosmogonies, particularly the Babylonian cosmogonic myth. The Babylonian Enûma Eliš describes the god Marduk earning kingship over the gods, battling the monster Tiamat. In contrast, Armstrong argues, in the Genesis account, the sun, stars and earth are not gods in their own right and they are subservient to him, and created for a purely practical end
Esther Jungreis was a Hungarian-born American religious leader. She was the founder of the international Hineni movement in the United States, a Holocaust survivor, she worked to bring Jews to Orthodox Judaism. Jungreis was born and raised in Szeged, Hungary on April 27,1936 and her two brothers and Binyamin, both became rabbis. Her father, was an Orthodox rabbi and operated a little shtiebel in the city, Abraham Jungreis was deported with other Jews from Szeged in a cattle car bound for Auschwitz. In 1947 the family moved to Brooklyn, New York, where Jungreis reconnected with distant cousin Theodore Jungreis, a rabbi, the couple settled in North Woodmere, New York, and founded the North Woodmere Jewish Center/Orthodox Congregation Ohr Torah. Due to her experiences as a Holocaust survivor, she determined to devote her life to combating the spiritual holocaust that was occurring here in the United States. This led to the birth of the Hineni movement on November 18,1973, the movement aimed to promote authentic, traditional Yiddishkeit in the United States.
As the leader of movement, she drew criticism for her outspoken stance against interfaith marriages. She was critical of secularization, which she viewed as a form of assimilation, after Rabbi Jungreis died in 1996, Rebbetzin Jungreis continued with outreach and education. Along with Paysach Krohn, Jungreis served as a guest speaker at the annual Shavuot retreat hosted by The Gateways Organization, Hineni became a worldwide movement with centers all over the world. As a result, Jungreis spoke in such as the Hollywood Palladium. She spoke regularly for the United States Army and Navy as well as for the Israel Defense Forces, Jungreis wrote four books, Jewish Soul on Fire, The Committed Life, Principles of Good Living from Our Timeless Past and The Committed Marriage. Her last book, published in 2006, was Life is a Test, for more than forty years, she wrote a column for The Jewish Press using the Torah as the source for solutions to everyday problems. Jungreis was named Woman of the Year by Hadassah, Jewish War Veterans, Bnai Brith, Federation of Jewish Womens Organizations, the Knights of Pythias, and the Christian Amita Society.
President George W. Bush appointed Jungreis to serve on the delegation that accompanied him to Jerusalem for the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the State of Israel in May 2008
Written in Latin by Hartmann Schedel, with a version in German, translation by Georg Alt, it appeared in 1493. It is one of the early printed books—an incunabulum—and one of the first to successfully integrate illustrations. Latin scholars refer to it as Liber Chronicarum as this appears in the index introduction of the Latin edition. English-speakers have long referred to it as the Nuremberg Chronicle after the city in which it was published, german-speakers refer to it as Die Schedelsche Weltchronik in honour of its author. Two Nuremberg merchants, Sebald Schreyer and his son-in-law, Sebastian Kammermeister and they commissioned George Alt, a scribe at the Nuremberg treasury, to translate the work into German. Both Latin and German editions were printed by Anton Koberger, in Nuremberg, the contracts were recorded by scribes, bound into volumes, and deposited in the Nuremberg City Archives. The first contract, from December,1491, established the relationship between the illustrators and the patrons and Pleydenwurff, the painters, were to provide the layout of the chronicle, to oversee the production of the woodcuts, and to guard the designs against piracy.
The patrons agreed to advance 1000 gulden for paper, printing costs, a second contract, between the patrons and the printer, was executed in March,1492. It stipulated conditions for acquiring the paper and managing the printing, the blocks and the archetype were to be returned to the patrons once the printing was completed. The author of the text, Hartmann Schedel, was a doctor, humanist. He earned a doctorate in medicine in Padua in 1466, settled in Nuremberg to practice medicine, according to an inventory done in 1498, Schedels personal library contained 370 manuscripts and 670 printed books. The author used passages from the classical and medieval works in this collection to compose the text of Chronicle and he borrowed most frequently from another humanist chronicle, Supplementum Chronicarum, by Jacob Philip Foresti of Bergamo. It has been estimated that about 90% of the text is pieced together from works on humanities, philosophy, Nuremberg was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire in the 1490s, with a population of between 45,000 and 50,000.
Thirty-five patrician families comprised the City Council, the Council controlled all aspects of printing and craft activities, including the size of each profession and the quality and type of goods produced. Although dominated by an aristocracy, Nuremberg was a center of northern humanism. Anton Koberger, printer of the Nuremberg Chronicle, printed the first humanist book in Nuremberg in 1472, Sebald Shreyer, one of the patrons of the chronicle, commissioned paintings from classical mythology for the grand salon of his house. Hartmann Schedel, author of the chronicle, was a collector of both Italian Renaissance and German humanist works. Hieronymus Münzer, who assisted Schedel in writing the chapter on geography, was among this group, as were Albrecht Dürer and Johann