The Kuomintang of China is a major political party in the Republic of China. It is currently the second-largest in the country, the predecessor of the KMT, the Revolutionary Alliance, was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of a republic. The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, Sun was the provisional president but he did not have military power and ceded the first presidency to the military leader Yuan Shikai. After Yuans death, China was divided by warlords, while the KMT was able to only part of the south. Later led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army and it was the ruling party in mainland China from 1928 until its retreat to Taiwan in 1949 after being defeated by the Communist Party of China during the Chinese Civil War. In Taiwan, the KMT continued as the ruling party until the reforms in the late 1970s through the 1990s loosened its grip on power. Since 1987, the Republic of China is no longer a single-party state, the KMT is currently the main opposition party in the Legislative Yuan.
The guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, advocated by Sun Yat-sen and its party headquarters are located in Taipei. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union, the previous president, Ma Ying-jeou, elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2012, was the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency. Together with the People First Party and New Party, the KMT forms what is known as the Taiwanese Pan-Blue Coalition, the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan. However, since 2008, in order to ease tensions with the PRC, the group planned and supported the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and the founding of the Republic of China on 1 January 1912. However, Sun did not have power and ceded the provisional presidency of the republic to Yuan Shikai. On 25 August 1912, the Nationalist Party was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Peking, the then-President of the ROC, was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing as his deputy.
The party opposed constitutional monarchists and sought to check the power of Yuan, the Nationalists won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly election in December 1912. But Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions, Song Jiaoren was assassinated in Shanghai in 1913. Yuan, claiming subversiveness and betrayal, expelled adherents of the KMT from the parliament, Yuan dissolved the Nationalists in November and dismissed the parliament early in 1914. Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor in December 1915, in order tonary Party, members must take an oath of personal loyalty to Sun, which many old revolutionaries regarded as undemocratic and contrary to the spirit of the revolution. Thus, many old revolutionaries did not join Suns new organisation, Sun returned to China in 1917 to establish a military junta at Canton, in order to against the Beiyang government, but was soon forced out of office and exiled to Shanghai
Steven Joseph Steve Chabot /ˈʃæbət/ is an American politician who has been the United States Representative for Ohios 1st congressional district since 2011. Chabot, a member of the Republican Party, previously represented the district from 1995 to 2009, Chabot was born in 1953 in Cincinnati, the son of Gerard Joseph and Doris Leona Chabot, paternally, he is of French-Canadian descent. He graduated from La Salle High School in Cincinnati in 1971 and he went on to obtain a Juris Doctor degree from Northern Kentucky Universitys Salmon P. Chase College of Law, in Highland Heights, Kentucky, in 1978. He worked as a school teacher in 1975–1976 while taking law classes at night. As a practicing attorney from 1978 to 1994, Chabot handled domestic disputes and he operated out of small law office in Westwood. Chabot ran unsuccessfully for the Cincinnati City Council as an independent candidate in 1979, running as a Republican, he won a seat in 1985 and was re-elected in 1987 and 1989. In 1988, he ran for the U. S.
House of Representatives against seven-term incumbent Democrat Tom Luken, who defeated Chabot 56–44%. After that, he was appointed a Commissioner of Hamilton County, Ohio, in 1990, in 1994, he ran for the U. S. House again and defeated Democratic incumbent David S. Mann of Ohios 1st congressional district, 56%–44%. In 1996, he defeated Democrat Mark Longabaugh, member of the Cincinnati City Council, in 1998, he defeated Cincinnati Mayor Roxanne Qualls, 53% to 47%. In the series of debates during that campaign, Qualls criticized Chabot for not funneling enough federal spending back to his home district, Chabot countered that he would not support wasteful or unnecessary federal programs. In 2000, he defeated City Councilman and Harvard graduate John Cranley 53–44%, in 2002, he defeated Greg Harris, with 65% of the vote. In 2004, he defeated Greg Harris again, with 60% of the vote,2006 He defeated Democratic challenger John Cranley again, this time by a narrower margin of 52–48%. 2008 Chabot was defeated by State Representative Steve Driehaus 52%–48%,2010 In a rematch, Chabot defeated Democratic incumbent Steve Driehaus, Libertarian Jim Berns, and Green Party nominee Richard Stevenson.
Chabot won by a margin 51%–46%,2012 Steve Chabot defeated Democratic nominee Jeff Sinnard 58%–38%, with Green nominee Rich Stevenson, and Libertarian nominee Jim Berns picking up the balance. Chabot has voted against allowing embryonic stem cell research, Chabot authored a bill prohibiting a form of late-term abortion called partial-birth abortion, referred to in some medical literature by its less common name of intact dilation and extraction. President George W. Bush signed the bill into law on November 5,2003, Chabot opposes the regulation of indirect campaign contributions from corporations and unions. Chabot endorsed Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election, Chabot supports a great increase in defense spending. He wants to eliminate public spending on the arts and he has voted against trade adjustment assistance for workers who have lost their jobs due to globalization
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China is the founding and ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, the CPC is currently the worlds second largest political party with a membership of 88.76 million as of 2016. It controls the worlds largest armed force, the Peoples Liberation Army, the highest body of the CPC is the National Congress, convened every fifth year. The partys leader holds the offices of General Secretary, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, through these posts the party leader is the countrys paramount leader. The current party leader is Xi Jinping, elected at the 18th National Congress, the CPC is still committed to communist thought and continues to participate in the International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties each year. The official explanation for Chinas economic reforms is that the country is in the stage of socialism. The planned economy established under Mao Zedong was replaced by the socialist market economy, the CPC has its origins in the May Fourth Movement of 1919, during which radical ideologies like Marxism and anarchism gained traction among Chinese intellectuals.
Other influences stemming from the Bolshevik revolution and Marxist theory inspired the Communist Party of China, Li Dazhao was the first leading Chinese intellectual who publicly supported Leninism and world revolution. In contrast to Chen Duxiu, Li did not renounce participation in the affairs of the Republic of China, both of them regarded the October Revolution in Russia as groundbreaking, believing it to herald a new era for oppressed countries everywhere. The CPC was modeled on Vladimir Lenins theory of a vanguard party, Study circles were, according to Cai Hesen, the rudiments. Several study circles were established during the New Culture Movement, the founding National Congress of the CPC was held on 23–31 July 1921. With only 50 members in the beginning of 1921, the CPC organization, while it was originally planned to be held in Shanghai French Concession, police officers interrupted the meeting on 3 July. Because of that, the congress was moved to a tourist boat on South Lake in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province, only 12 delegates attended the congress, with neither Li nor Chen being able to attend.
Chen sent a representative to attend the congress. The resolutions of the called for the establishment of a communist party. The communists dominated the left wing of the KMT, a party organized on Leninist lines, when KMT leader Sun Yat-sen died in March 1925, he was succeeded by a rightist, Chiang Kai-shek, who initiated moves to marginalize the position of the communists. Fresh from the success of the Northern Expedition to overthrow the warlords, Chiang Kai-shek turned on the communists, ignoring the orders of the Wuhan-based KMT government, he marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by communist militias. Although the communists welcomed Chiangs arrival, he turned on them, Chiangs army marched on Wuhan, but was prevented from taking the city by CPC General Ye Ting and his troops
Tsai Ing-wen is a Taiwanese politician currently serving as the President of the Republic of China, commonly referred to as Taiwan. Tsai is the president from the Democratic Progressive Party. Tsai is the first woman elected to the office and she is the incumbent chairperson of the Democratic Progressive Party, and was the partys presidential candidate in the 2012 and 2016 presidential elections. Tsai previously served as party chair from 2008 to 2012, Tsai graduated in law and was subsequently a university professor. After DPP President Chen Shui-bian took office in 2000, Tsai served as Minister of the Mainland Affairs Council throughout Chens first term as a non-partisan and she joined DPP in 2004 and served briefly as a DPP-nominated at-large member of the Legislative Yuan. From there, she was appointed Vice Premier under Premier Su Tseng-chang until the mass resignation in 2007. She was elected and assumed DPP chairpersonship in 2008, following her partys defeat in the 2008 presidential election and she resigned as chairperson after losing her 2012 presidential election bid.
Tsai ran for New Taipei City mayorship in the November 2010 municipal elections but was defeated by former vice premier. Tsai was born in Zhongshan District, Taiwan on August 31,1956 and her given name, Ing-wen, could be translated as heroic literature or English language. During her middle school period, she studied in Taipei Municipal Zhongshan Girls High School and she studied law at the behest of her father. Upon her return to Taiwan, she taught law at the School of Law of Soochow University and National Chengchi University and she was appointed to the Fair Trade Commission and the Copyright Commission. She served as consultant for the Mainland Affairs Council and the National Security Council and she led the drafting team on the Statute Governing Relations with Hong Kong and Macau. In 2000, Tsai was given the appointment of chairperson of the Mainland Affairs Council. Confirming the widely held belief that she maintained Pan-Green sympathies, Tsai joined the Democratic Progressive Party in 2004 and she was subsequently nominated by the DPP to be a candidate in the 2004 legislative election and was elected as a legislator-at-large.
On January 26,2006, Tsai was appointed to the post of president of the Executive Yuan. She concurrently served as chairwoman of the Consumer Protection Commission, on May 17,2007, along with the rest of the cabinet of out-going Premier Su Tseng-chang, resigned to make way for incoming Premier Chang Chun-hsiung and his cabinet. Premier Chang named Chiou I-jen, the incumbent secretary-general of the Presidential Office to replace Tsai as vice premier and she served as the chair of TaiMedBiologics, a biotechnology company based in Taiwan. The Kuomintang accused Tsai of contracting government work out to TaiMedBiologics during her term as premier, while planning to leave the government
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability, the term most commonly refers to a large, crewed vessel. It is used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine. The noun submarine evolved as a form of submarine boat, by naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as boats rather than as ships. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, Submarines were first widely used during World War I, and now figure in many navies large and small. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage and facility inspection, Submarines can be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are used in tourism, and for undersea archaeology, most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure, usually located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes.
In modern submarines, this structure is the sail in American usage, a conning tower was a feature of earlier designs, a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the rear, and various hydrodynamic control fins, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate significantly from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and change the amount of water, Submarines have one of the widest ranges of types and capabilities of any vessel. Submarines can work at greater depths than are survivable or practical for human divers, modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle and its unclear whether he ever carried out his idea. The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel and it was propelled by means of oars.
By the mid-18th century, over a dozen patents for submarines/submersible boats had been granted in England, in 1747, Nathaniel Symons patented and built the first known working example of the use of a ballast tank for submersion. His design used leather bags that could fill with water to submerge the craft, a mechanism was used to twist the water out of the bags and cause the boat to resurface. In 1749, the Gentlemens Magazine reported that a design had initially been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in 1680. By this point of development, further improvement in design stagnated for over a century, until new industrial technologies for propulsion. The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person and it was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, and the first to use screws for propulsion
Presidency of Ronald Reagan
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began on January 20,1981, at noon Eastern Standard Time, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as President of the United States, and ended on January 20,1989. Reagan, a Republican, took office as the 40th United States president following a win over Democratic incumbent President Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election. The election was an election, the Reagan Revolution, that changed the trajectory of the nation. Reagan was succeeded by his president, George H. W. Bush. Domestically, the claimed to support reducing government programs. The economic policies enacted in 1981, known as Reaganomics, were an example of supply-side economics, economic growth was strong for most of the 1980s, there was a recession in the beginning of his term and the national debt increased significantly. S. Troops since the end of the Vietnam War and it controversially granted aid to paramilitary forces seeking to overthrow leftist governments, particularly in war-torn Central America and Afghanistan.
In diplomacy, he forged an alliance and friendship with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of Great Britain. Reagan held multiple meetings with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. In June 1987, when visiting West Berlin and standing at the Berlin Wall, Reagan demanded, Mr. Gorbachev tear down this wall. This dramatic moment helped Reagan claim that his approach beat Communism as the Berlin Wall fell, Soviet domination of Eastern Europe came to an end, and, by 1991, the damaging Iran–Contra affair engulfed several Reagan aides during his second term. His administration was criticized for lending support to right-wing military movements that committed human rights violations, Reagan was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms. Reagan was an advocate of free markets and laissez-faire economics and believed that the U. S. economy was hampered by excessive regulations and social programs. His first act as president was to issue an order ending price controls on domestic oil, which had contributed to the 1973 oil crisis.
Reagan focused his first months in office on two goals, tax reforms and increased military spending, during Reagans first term, the nation fell into a recession that lasted from 1981 to 1982, with unemployment remaining high, as much as 10%, during 1982 and 1983. Income inequality in the U. S. rose substantially during Reagans presidency, despite this, the economy made a strong recovery and experienced one of the longest periods of peacetime growth in its history.7 percent. Despite Reagans stated desire to cut spending, federal spending grew during his administration, one of Reagans most controversial early moves was to fire most of the countrys air traffic controllers after they took part in a strike action. Reagan reduced Social Security by cutting disability and survivor benefits and he took tougher positions against some crime, and declared a renewed War on Drugs
Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician and actor who was the 40th President of the United States, from 1981 to 1989. Before his presidency, he was the 33rd Governor of California, from 1967 to 1975, after a career as a Hollywood actor and union leader. Raised in a family in small towns of northern Illinois, Reagan graduated from Eureka College in 1932. After moving to Hollywood in 1937, he became an actor, Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild, the labor union for actors, where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he moved into television and was a speaker at General Electric factories. Having been a lifelong Democrat, his views changed and he became a conservative and in 1962 switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagans speech, A Time for Choosing, in support of Barry Goldwaters foundering presidential campaign, Building a network of supporters, he was elected Governor of California in 1966. Entering the presidency in 1981, Reagan implemented sweeping new political, in his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, and fought public sector labor.
During his re-election bid, Reagan campaigned on the notion that it was Morning in America, foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending of the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, and the Iran–Contra affair. Publicly describing the Soviet Union as an empire, and during his famous speech at the Brandenburg Gate. Jack, a salesman and storyteller, was the grandson of Irish Catholic immigrants from County Tipperary, Reagan had one older brother, John Neil Reagan, who became an advertising executive. As a boy, Reagans father nicknamed his son Dutch, due to his fat little Dutchman-like appearance and Dutchboy haircut, Reagans family briefly lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth and Chicago. In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C, Pitney Variety Store until finally settling in Dixon. After his election as president, residing in the upstairs White House private quarters, for the time, Reagan was unusual in his opposition to racial discrimination, and recalled a time in Dixon when the local inn would not allow black people to stay there.
Reagan brought them back to his house, where his mother invited them to stay the night and have breakfast the next morning, after the closure of the Pitney Store in late 1920 and the familys move to Dixon, the midwestern small universe had a lasting impression on Reagan. Reagan attended Dixon High School, where he developed interests in acting and his first job was as a lifeguard at the Rock River in Lowell Park in 1927. Over a six-year period, Reagan reportedly performed 77 rescues as a lifeguard and he attended Eureka College, a Disciples-oriented liberal arts school, where he became a member of the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity, a cheerleader, and studied economics and sociology. While involved, the Miller Center of Public Affairs described him as an indifferent student and he majored in economics and sociology, and graduated with a C grade
Robert Bob Menendez /mɛˈnɛndɛz/ is the senior United States Senator from the State of New Jersey. He is a member of the Democratic Party of the United States, First appointed to the U. S. Senate in January 2006, he was elected Chair of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in January 2013. In 1974, at the age of 20, he was first elected to the Union City School Districts Board of Education, in 1986, won the election for Mayor of Union City. The next year he won a seat in the Congress of the United States for the House of Representatives and represented New Jerseys 13th congressional district for six two-year terms, from 1993 to 2006. In January 2006, he was appointed to fill the U. S. Senate seat being vacated by Jon Corzine, Menendez is one of four Latinos in the Senate. In 2015, he was ranked #1 on The Hudson Reporters annual Power List of the Fifty Most Powerful Political Figures in Hudson County, Menendez has pleaded not guilty to all charges. Robert Menendez, was born on January 1,1954 in New York City, to Cuban immigrants who had left Cuba a few months earlier and his father, Mario Menéndez, was a carpenter, and his mother, Evangelina, a seamstress.
The family subsequently moved to neighboring New Jersey where he grew up in a tenement in Union City and he attended Union Hill High School, where his speech teacher, Gail Harper, helped the introverted Menendez emerge as a powerful public speaker. Menendez explains, My mother and Miss Harper made me understand the power of education, while at Union Hill, Menendez became the student body president. He went on to become the first in his family to go to college, attending Saint Peters College in Jersey City and he graduated with a B. A. in political science, and subsequently earned his Juris Doctor degree from Newarks Rutgers School of Law in 1979. Menendez was admitted to the New Jersey Bar in 1980 and became a lawyer in private practice and he was elected to the Union City Board of Education in 1974, the youngest ever to do so. He did, stay close to Musto throughout the 1970s, Menendez was elected mayor of Union City, the states 13th most populous locality, in 1986 after an unsuccessful run against the popular Musto in 1982.
Congressman Frank Guarini, of New Jerseys 14th congressional district, decided to retire after redistricting, the district had been renumbered as the 13th district, and reconfigured as a Latino-majority district. Menendez decided to run in the real contest in this heavily Democratic district—and defeated Robert Haney Jr. in the Democratic primary 68%–32%. He won the election with 64% of the vote, defeating New Jersey Superior Court Judge Fred J. Theemling. After that, he won every two years with at least 71% of the vote until he was appointed to the U. S. Senate in January 2006. Menendez, who is described as close to Republicans on foreign policy voted for the failed Kosovo Resolution. Menendez voted in favor of Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists, in 2002, Menendez voted against the Iraq Resolution to authorize the invasion of Iraq
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
In the early years, military conflicts continued, while diplomatically both governments competed to be the legitimate government of China. More recently, questions around the political and legal status of Taiwan have focused on the prospects of political unification with China or full Taiwanese independence. The Peoples Republic remains hostile to any declaration of independence. At the same time, non-governmental and semi-governmental exchanges between the two sides have been increasing, from 2008, negotiations began to restore the three links between the two sides, cut off since 1949. Party-to-party talks between the CPC and the KMT have resumed and semi-official negotiations through organizations representing the interests of their governments are being scheduled. Leaders of the two states The early history of cross-Strait relations involved the exchange of cultures, however, no Chinese dynasty formally incorporated Taiwan in ancient times. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Taiwan caught the attention of first Portuguese, Dutch, in 1624, the Dutch established their first settlement in Taiwan.
In 1662, Koxinga, a Ming Dynasty loyalist, defeated the Dutch rulers of Taiwan, koxingas heirs used Taiwan as a base for launching raids into mainland China against the Manchu Qing Dynasty. However, they were defeated in 1683 by Qing forces, the following year, Taiwan was incorporated into Fujian province. Over the next two centuries, the Imperial government paid little attention to Taiwan, the situation changed in the 19th century, with other powers increasingly eyeing Taiwan for its strategic location and resources. In response, the administration began to implement a modernization drive, in 1887, Fujian-Taiwan Province was declared by Imperial decree. Within 10 years, Taiwan had become one of the most modern provinces in the Empire. However, the fall of the Qing outpaced the development of Taiwan, and in 1895, following its defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War, Qing loyalists briefly resisted the Japanese rule under the banner of the Republic of Taiwan, but order was quickly established by Japanese authorities.
During this time, Taiwan, as part of the Japanese Empire, was a jurisdiction in relation to first the Qing Empire, after 1912. In 1945, Japan was defeated in World War II and surrendered its forces in Taiwan to the Allies, with the ROC, the seeds for the Taiwan autonomy and independence movement were sown in this time. During this time and in subsequent periods, the Taiwan autonomy, one such organization, the Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League, remains one of the eight official minor parties in China. China was soon engulfed in civil war. In 1949, the war turned decisively against the KMT and in favor of the CPC, on 1 October 1949, the CPC proclaimed the founding of the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president