Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine is a style of traditional medicine based on more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, massage and dietary therapy, but also influenced by modern Western medicine. TCM is used in Sinosphere where it has a long history, it has begun "gaining global recognition". One of the basic tenets of TCM is that "the body's vital energy circulates through channels, called meridians, that have branches connected to bodily organs and functions." Concepts of the body and of disease used in TCM reflect its ancient origins and its emphasis on dynamic processes over material structure, similar to European humoral theory. Scientific investigation has not found evidence for traditional Chinese concepts such as qi, acupuncture points; the TCM theory and practice are not based upon scientific knowledge, there is disagreement between TCM practitioners on what diagnosis and treatments should be used for any given patient. The effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine supported.
There are concerns over a number of toxic plants, animal parts, mineral Chinese medicinals. There are concerns over illegal trade and transport of endangered species including rhinoceroses and tigers, the welfare of specially farmed animals including bears. A review of cost-effectiveness research for TCM found that studies had low levels of evidence, but so far have not shown benefit outcomes. Pharmaceutical research has explored the potential for creating new drugs from traditional remedies, with few successful results. A Nature editorial described TCM as "fraught with pseudoscience", said that the most obvious reason it has not delivered many cures is that the majority of its treatments have no logical mechanism of action. Proponents suggest that research has so far missed key features of the art of TCM, such as unknown interactions between various ingredients and complex interactive biological systems; the doctrines of Chinese medicine are rooted in books such as the Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon and the Treatise on Cold Damage, as well as in cosmological notions such as yin–yang and the five phases.
Starting in the 1950s, these precepts were standardized in the People's Republic of China, including attempts to integrate them with modern notions of anatomy and pathology. In the 1950s, the Chinese government promoted a systematized form of TCM. TCM describes health as the harmonious interaction of these entities and the outside world, disease as a disharmony in interaction. TCM diagnosis aims to trace symptoms to patterns of an underlying disharmony, by measuring the pulse, inspecting the tongue and eyes, looking at the eating and sleeping habits of the person as well as many other things. Traces of therapeutic activities in China date from the Shang dynasty. Though the Shang did not have a concept of "medicine" as distinct from other fields, their oracular inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells refer to illnesses that affected the Shang royal family: eye disorders, bloated abdomen, etc. which Shang elites attributed to curses sent by their ancestors. There is no evidence. According to a 2006 overview, the "Documentation of Chinese materia medica dates back to around 1,100 BCE when only dozens of drugs were first described.
By the end of the 16th century, the number of drugs documented had reached close to 1,900. And by the end of the last century, published records of CMM had reached 12,800 drugs."Stone and bone needles found in ancient tombs led Joseph Needham to speculate that acupuncture might have been carried out in the Shang dynasty. This being said, most historians now make a distinction between medical lancing and acupuncture in the narrower sense of using metal needles to treat illnesses by stimulating specific points along circulation channels in accordance with theories related to the circulation of Qi; the earliest evidence for acupuncture in this sense dates to the second or first century BCE. The Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon, the oldest received work of Chinese medical theory, was compiled around the first century BCE on the basis of shorter texts from different medical lineages. Written in the form of dialogues between the legendary Yellow Emperor and his ministers, it offers explanations on the relation between humans, their environment, the cosmos, on the contents of the body, on human vitality and pathology, on the symptoms of illness, on how to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in light of all these factors.
Unlike earlier texts like Recipes for Fifty-Two Ailments, excavated in the 1970s from a tomb, sealed in 168 BCE, the Inner Canon rejected the influence of spirits and the use of magic. It was one of the first books in which the cosmological doctrines of Yinyang and the Five Phases were brought to a mature synthesis; the Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders and Miscellaneous Illnesses was collated by Zhang Zhongjing sometime between 196 and 220 CE. Focusing on drug prescriptions rather than acupuncture, it was the first medical work to combine Yinyang and the Five Phases with drug therapy; this formulary was the earliest public Chinese medical text to group symptoms into clinically useful "patterns" that could serve as targets for therapy. Having gone through numerous changes over time, the formulary now circulates as two distinct books: the Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders and the Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Casket, which were edited separately in the eleventh century, under the Song dynasty.
The Shanghan Lun is a part of Shanghan Zabing Lun, known in English as the Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases, Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders or the Treatise on Cold Injury. It is a Traditional Chinese Medicine treatise, compiled by Zhang Zhongjing sometime before 220 AD, at the end of the Han dynasty, it is amongst the oldest complete clinical textbooks in the world, one of the four canonical works that students must study in Traditional Chinese Medicine education nowadays. Song dynasty edition. Collated by scholastic ministers Gao Baohen, Lin Yi, Sun Qi under the order of the emperor and published in 1065 AD. Reprinted in the Ming dynasty. Cheng Wuji's Annotated Treatise on Cold Damage. Extensively read in Japan and China, was circulated in Cheng's time. However, many transcriptions and re-transcriptions have stirred up disagreement as to whether it is true to the original. Classic of the Golden Chamber and Jade Sheath; this book has the same content as the Song edition with other minor variations in context.
Kang Ping edition. Kang Ping is the name of the period from 1058-1068 AD in the Kōhei era in Japan, it is indispensable for study because it retained the ancient style of typesetting dated back to the era at the end of the Han dynasty. The Song edition is organized into ten volumes including the first two chapters on pulse diagnosis; the Shanghan Lun has 398 sections with 113 herbal prescriptions, organised into the Six Divisions corresponding to the six stages of disease: Tai Yang: a milder stage with external symptoms of chills, fevers and headache. Therapy: sweating. Yang ming: a more severe internal excess yang condition with fever without chills, distended abdomen, constipation. Therapy: cooling and eliminating. Shao yang: half outside, half inside half excess and half deficiency with chest discomfort, alternating chills, fever. Therapy: harmonizing. Tai yin: chills, distended abdomen with occasional pain. Therapy: warming with supplementing. Shao yin: weak pulse, drowsiness, chills, cold extremities.
Therapy: warming with supplementing. Jue yin: thirst, difficult urination, physical collapse. Therapy: warming with supplementing. Chinese herbology Chinese patent medicine Traditional Chinese Medicine Jingui Yaolüe, another surviving part of Shanghan Zabing Lun