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Sixpence (British coin)

The sixpence, sometimes known as a tanner or sixpenny bit, is a coin, worth one-fortieth of a pound sterling, or six pence. It was first minted in the reign of Edward VI, circulated until 1980. Following decimalisation in 1971 it had a value of ​2 1⁄2 new pence; the coin was made from silver from its introduction in 1551 until 1947, thereafter in cupronickel. Prior to Decimal Day in 1971 there were 240 pence in one pound sterling. Twelve pence made a shilling, twenty shillings made a pound. Values less than a pound were written in shillings and pence, e.g. 42 old pence would be three shillings and sixpence, phrased as "three and six". Values of less than a shilling were written in terms of pence, e.g. eight pence would be 8d. In 2016, new decimal sixpences began being minted by the Royal Mint as commemorative issues to celebrate Christmas; the first sixpences were minted in 1551, during the reign of Edward VI. They came about as a result of the debasement of silver coinage in the 1540s, in particular the silver testoon, which fell in value from 12d to 6d.

The debased testoon was useful in everyday transactions, it was decided that new coinage should be introduced with the express denomination of six pence. The testoon decreased in value because, unlike today, the value of coins was determined by the market value of the metal they contained, during the reign of Henry VIII the purity of silver in coinage had fallen significantly. Sixpences were minted during the reign of every British monarch after Edward VI, as well as during the Commonwealth, with a vast number of variations and alterations over the years. During the reign of George II a number of issues were designed by John Sigismund Tanner, who became Chief Engraver of the Royal Mint, it has been suggested that this is the origin of the nickname "tanner", a popular name for the coin until decimalisation. An alternative explanation for the nickname is that it comes from the Angloromani word tawno meaning small thing; the Royal Mint undertook a massive recoinage programme in 1816, with large quantities of gold and silver coin being minted.

Previous issues of silver coinage had been irregular, the previous issue, minted in 1787, had done little to alleviate the chronic shortage of silver coinage in general circulation. New silver coinage was to be of.925 standard, with silver coins to be minted at 66 shillings to the pound weight. Hence, newly minted sixpences weighed 1⁄11 troy ounce, equivalent to 2.828 grams. The Royal Mint debased the silver coinage in 1920 from 92.5% silver to 50% silver. Sixpences of both alloys were minted that year; this debasement was done because of the rising price of silver around the world, followed the global trend of elimination, or reduction in purity, of the silver in coinage. The minting of silver coinage of the pound sterling ceased in 1946 for similar reasons, exacerbated by the costs of the Second World War. New "silver" coinage was instead minted in cupronickel, an alloy of copper and nickel containing no silver at all. Beginning with Lord Wrottesley's proposals in the 1820s, there were various attempts to decimalise the pound sterling over the next century and a half.

These attempts came to nothing significant until the 1960s, when the need for a currency more suited to simple monetary calculations became pressing. The decision to decimalise was announced in 1966, with the pound to be divided into 100, rather than 240, pence. Decimal Day was set as 15 February 1971, a whole range of new coins were introduced. Sixpences continued to be legal tender, with a value of ​2 1⁄2 new pence, until 30 June 1980. In 2016, the Royal Mint began minting legal tender decimal sixpence coins in silver, intended to be bought as Christmas presents; these coins are heavier than the pre-1970 sixpences, have a denomination of six new pence instead of six old pence. The new reverse was designed by John Bergdahl.. Sixpences issued during the reign of Edward VI feature a three-quarter portrait of the king on the obverse, with a Tudor rose to the left, the denomination VI to the right. Surrounding the portrait is the inscription EDWARD VI D G AGL FRA Z HIB REX, or similar, meaning "Edward VI, by the Grace of God, King of England and Ireland".

All sixpences minted under subsequent kings and queens bear a similar inscription on the obverse identifying the monarch, with the portrait alternating from left-facing to right-facing, or vice versa, between monarchs. The reverse features the escutcheon of the Royal Arms of England, surrounded by the inscription POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM, or a variant, meaning "I have made God my helper". Starting with Elizabeth, the coins have the year of minting stamped on the reverse. Unusually, the sixpences minted in 1561 and 1562 were milled, i.e. produced by machine rather than by hand, with the press of the Frenchman Eloy Mestrelle, granted authority to mint coins by the queen. Although of higher quality than hammered coins, Mestrelle's sixpences were more expensive to produce, machine-struck coinage ceased to be minted in 1572; the coins remained in circulation for over a hundred years, but it took until the reign of Charles II for milled coins of the pound sterling to be minted again. Sixpences minted after the Tudor period no longer bear.

Early sixpences of James I feature the alternative reverse inscription EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI, meaning "Let God arise and His enemies be scattered", becoming QVAE DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, meaning "What God hath put together let no man put asunder" after 160

Alena Vinnitskaya

Alena Vinnitskaya is a Ukrainian singer. She is an performer. During six years of solo career, Vinnitskaya released 5 CDs: Sunrise, 007, Electro, maxi-single Envelope, ZaMIXovano; the Best mixes. She started sending them to the newspaper Pionerskaya Pravda; some time Vinnitskaya became a fan of the band Kino and thanks to this started to play the guitar. In 1993, she created her first group The Last Unicorn, where she appeared as the author of her music and lyrics; the first concerts took place in Kiev Central Hospital. The first attempt to become an artist collapsed: not enough information and badly developed Ukrainian business forced the group to stop their activity. During these few years Vinnitskaya worked as the insurance agent, but was always thinking about the creation of her own band. In 1996 she gave up her work in the insurance company in hope of self-actualization; the long searches of her own way have been started. Vinnitskaya has played in Psychological Theatre etc.. "Me together with my brother decided to try ourselves.

We have prepared our programs. I was singing aria of Maria Magdalena from Jesus Christ Superstar. So we’ve entered. I was taken to the theatre troupe, but I do not regret about it because I have discovered myself as the actress"A year the troupe broke up because of not strong management. Vinnitskaya again was looking for her own way. At the end of 1997 she discovered a new profession — TV hostess at the music channel Biz TV; some time the future singer became a hostess of the other TV program FAN CLUB at the Inter channel. At the same time she was starting to work as a DJ at the radio station. In 1998 she entered the school of journalism INTERNEWS; these times she was busy. She was working from 8 am to 9 pm — INTERNEWS and 10 pm to 2 am as a radio DJ. "I don't miss about the stage passed. I have given a lot of my forces but I got much more" In 2000 Vinnitskaya was invited as the soloist in one popular project that at that time was at the stage of creation — it was VIA Gra, she worked there for 3 years and made a decision that she had been thinking about for a long time — to create her own band and to sing her own songs.

"Alena has passed a long way to the scene, starting as the insurance agent, continuing as the TV host, becoming the participant of mega popular band. But this fame and glory wasn’t enough for her. Alena has always wanted more — to sing her own songs." The debut work Forget It All by Vinnitskaya as the independent artist became a mega hit, has reached the top of popularity in Ukrainian and Russian hit-parades. Soon the second hit of the singer appeared and the single Tormented Heart followed it; these mega popular songs became a sunrise of Vinnitskaya as the independent. Some time she played on the scene together with The Cardigans, who came to Ukraine to give their one concert. Before the concert Nina Person has listened for a few Vinnitskaya's works and remained satisfied, saying during the press-conference that she liked the songs of Alena Vinnitskaya. In 2004 Vinnitskaya signed an agreement with the representative of world-famous recording company Universal Studios and soon the first album of the singer Sunrise appeared.

A year the second album 007 represented Vinnitskaya in traditionally male role — as the secret agent. She has coped with a complex and male character, proposing to the audience her own version of James Bond music; the album contains new visions of singer's hits in performance of popular DJ's in the country. The premier of the new song Dolls, the main song on Vinnitskaya's third album, took place on 13 February 2006. A video version of this work was released a week later. Vinnitskaya, as usual, is the author of music and lyrics. "This song -is a story about women, who are ready for everything just to reach their aim of success and power. Their willingness of this destroys their personality, they become tough, insincere to themselves and the people around them…" the singer says. In spring 2006 Vinnitskaya's third album came out. "This is one of the most free and courageous works of us", she said. The album of dance music Electro appeared in January 2007. Electro consists of 12 songs, it has remixes of several of Alena's songs, that shows the popularity of her music not only on radio and TV, but in clubs.

The singer's latest achievement became a maxi-single Envelope. It had been shown to the public in spring 2008; that autumn on TV channels and radio station appeared the hit Gold Autumn. This song was written by Alexey Bolshoy had been known to listeners for 10 years; the song presents arrangement. Gold Autumn is a duet with Vinnitskaya-Bolshoy; the new edition of Alena Vinnitskaya songs ZaMIXovano. The Best mixes was released in December, 2008. CD content is created for different musical tastes of listeners. Everyone can choose something personal – mixes for dance culture fans, bonus for live pop-rock music admirers. February, 2009 the new video, I'm alongside has appeared on TV channels; this video is a sound-track to the Ukrainian action movie Accidental record. In spring, Vinnitskaya has presented her new video All of it with us; this song is from the maxi-single Envelope. With Nu Virgos Popytka No. 5 Studio albums Rassvet Sunrise Kukly Compilation albums 00

HTC One E9+

The HTC One E9+ is an Android smartphone manufactured and marketed by HTC, announced in March 2015 on their official Chinese website. The body of the HTC One E9+ is made up of hybrid plastic and metal design where the front side of the device is made up of metal and rear side of the device is made up of metal-tone plastic; the device weighs 149 g with the dimensions of 156.5 mm height, 76.5 mm width and 7.54 mm depth. The display of the device is 5.5 in WQHD with a resolution of 1440 x 2562 pixels and pixel density of 534 ppi. The device features an octa-core MediaTek HelioX10 MT6795 system on chip with the speed of 2.0 GHz The internal storage of the device is 32 GB with expandable storage via microSD card up to 128 GB. The memory of the device is 3 GB LPDDR4 RAM; the HTC One E9+ is equipped with a 20.2 megapixel rear-facing camera with LED flash. The front facing camera is UltraPixel image sensor with ƒ/2.0 aperture and 26.8 mm lens, capable of recording videos at 1080p. Similar to the One M9, the device features the front stereo speakers "BoomSound" that uses Dolby Audio tuning.

The HTC One E9+ was launched in India in June 2015. On 24 June 2015, the device was released in the United Arab Emirates. Official Website

George Douglas, Master of Angus

George Douglas, Master of Angus was a Scottish Nobleman. The son of Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus and Elizabeth Boyd, daughter of Robert Boyd, 1st Lord Boyd, he was born at Tantallon Castle and died at the Battle of Flodden. In 1489 the 5th Earl of Angus, Douglas's father resigned his lordships of Tantallon, Liddesdale, Eskdale and Jedburgh Forest to the crown. James III granted a new charter in favour of the Master. During the stand off between James III and the party backing his son James Duke of Rothesay, the Master attended the last parliament of the king before his death in the Battle of Sauchieburn, it is not recorded to which faction the younger Angus adhered to. He attended parliament again under the newly crowned James IV in 1490; the Master did not take an active part in Public affairs until 1499 when he took formal control over his lordships of Eskdale and Ewesdale. These lordships had become renowned for lawlessness and banditry, the Master was appointed by the King as warden of Eskdale.

In his capacity of Warden he met with his English counterpart Lord Dacre at Canonbie to hear grievances and fix punishments. The Younger Angus was not a effective at restoring law and order, his undue leniency to his own tenantry caused the King to deprive him of office in 1506, granting it instead to Alexander Home, 3rd Lord Home. George did however, gain the Barony of Crawford-Lindsay in 1510, his father made over his estates of Kirriemuir and Horsehopecleugh in the same year. In late August 1513 the Master of Angus rode out with his father the Earl, his younger brother Sir William Douglas of Glenbervie at the head of a large Douglas contingent and their adherents. On reaching the mustering point at the Ellemford, north of Duns, they joined with the largest and most modern army that Scotland had fielded; the army proceeded under King James into England where it met with the army of the Earl of Surrey at Flodden Edge. A petulant Earl of Angus, having had his advice snubbed by King James, left the field and returned to Scotland, leaving the Master and his brother in charge of the Douglas contingent.

Nothing more is recorded of the Master of Angus except an anecdote recorded by David Hume of Godscroft recording the last moments of King James. When Sir Edward Stanley had broken the Scottish left under the Earl of Earl of Argyll. King James in the centre prepared to make his stand amongst his spearmen. On noticing the Master of Angus still on horseback, he cried to him, "asking if it had been in the manner of his race to remain mounted while their sovereign fought on foot". To which the Master replied asking whether "it was the fashion of the King of Scots to wear his mail and armorial bearings while fighting on foot"; the master hit a raw nerve in James's chivalric mind and he replied "I dare fight upon my feet as well as you or any subject I have, that without coat-armour or royal cognisance." The English billmen now closed on the Scottish centre and King James was found within a spear length of Surrey. Whether Godscroft's anecdote is true or not, that the Master of Angus's taunts drove him to his death, the Master was equal to the King in reckless gallantry.

The Master's corpse was found amongst the twelve Scottish Earls and seventeen Lords who lost their lives. According to Godscroft over 200 men of the name of Douglas died. In 1485 the Master of Angus was contracted in marriage to Margaret, daughter of Laurence Oliphant, 1st Lord Oliphant, it appears that this contract was not fulfilled as George was wed in 1488 to Elizabeth Drummond, daughter of John Drummond, 1st Lord Drummond. The marriage ran afoul of the strictures of a small feudal society such as Scotland: it was found out some years after the marriage that it was within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity; the Master of Angus applied for and obtained Papal dispensation in 1495. By Elizabeth Drummond, George Master of Angus had three sons and four daughters: Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus Sir George Douglas of Pittendreich William Douglas, Prior of Coldingham and Abbot of Holyrood Elizabeth Douglas, married John Hay, 3rd Lord Yester Alison Douglas, married David Home of Wedderburn Janet Douglas, married John Lyon, 6th Lord Glamis Margaret Douglas, married James Douglas of Drumlanrig Maxwell, Sir Herbert.

A History of the House of Douglas. Freemantle, London. 1902 Barr, Niall. Flodden. Tempus, Stroud. 2003 Brown, Michael. The Black Douglases. Tuckwell Press, East Linton. 1998


Serif WebPlus was a website design program for Microsoft Windows, developed by a software company Serif. It allows users to design and upload their website onto the internet without any knowledge of HTML or other web technologies. Much like Microsoft Word, WebPlus uses WYSIWYG drag and drop editing to add and position text and links as they would appear on the finished web page. Once a user has designed their site, WebPlus can preview the site in a web browser before uploading the site using the in-built FTP; the software comes with a variety of pre-designed sample websites containing Filler text like Lorem ipsum, which can be used as a template for designing a site. It provides drawing tools for creating and editing buttons and web graphics. Serif had made available feature limited Starter Editions of their software, based on older versions, which could be obtained and used free of charge. For WebPlus the final free edition was based on version X5 and this was released in September 2012; this continued to be available from Serif's server until it was withdrawn around March 2016.

WebPlus was only available as a paid-for version X8. Around mid-2014, the algorithm used to generate the product keys across the entire Serif "Plus" software collection was broken; this enabled unlicensed copies of all the Serif programs issued prior to that date to be installed by means of a third party code-generator software. This software provided a way to make the new code needed at the time of each program installation. Serif responded by patching some program installers and making these versions downloadable from their website; the patched versions blocked the codes generated by the third party key software. 2014 and issued patches for older software included detection and splash screen indication of suspected third party codes. Serif withdrew the installers for older versions of their programs that were not under active development, thus were not patched against the third party codes, to try to prevent users circulating the now unlocked software, to block its entry into the public domain.

With WebPlus for example, the original X7 disc media was open to the use of third party codes. However Serif's downloadable patches for X7 to v15.0.2.31, v15.0.3.35 and v15.0.4.38, reported detection of these "unauthorised code"s but allowed the software to continue to operate. Conversely the publicly downloadable WebPlus X8 installation file from Serif appears to accept a third party key during installation, but reports an "unauthorised code" and terminates the program operation on startup. In March 2016, Serif announced that WebPlus X8 would be the final version, that there were no current plans to design an application to replace it. Sales of WebPlus X8 by Serif were ended around December 2016. In early 2018, Serif announced that Serif Web Resources, hosted on Serif servers and required to implement some advanced web-site functionality in WebPlus created sites, would no longer work after August 31st 2018. In 2018, Serif shutdown the servers that generated the "Plus" software registration numbers on-line from the product version and the individual generated installation number.

Serif revealed the alternative was to use a universal master registration number, 881887. This is known to work with post 2003 Serif "Plus" software; however Serif "Plus" software still registers itself automatically if within a certain recent period of a previous Serif software registration on the same PC. WebPlus was developed for Microsoft Windows "Win32" graphical desktop interface and is compatible with Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 and Windows 8. Web hosting to upload websites to the internet with the address and email E-Commerce tool to create online stores with providers such as PayPal. Form wizard generates online forms to collect information from website visitors. Add blogs, hit counters, online polls and content management systems to websites using Smart Objects. Google Maps tool embeds optional navigation markers within a website. Site navigation bars adopt a website's structure providing a tool for navigating around the website.

Photo gallery groups displays them as an animated slideshow. Search engine optimization tools optimise a websites search ranking with the likes of Google, Yahoo! and Bing. Collect website metrics such as page popularity and number of website hits using Google Analytics. WebPlus X5 introduced a button studio for creating button graphics. Restrict access to specific pages on a website with a secure member’s area. WebPlus automatically converts images and graphics into a web targeted format, optimising them for fast download. Embed YouTube videos within a web page. Add animated effects to a website with Animated GIFs, Animated Marquees or by importing Flash videos. Stream news and information feeds to a website using podcasts. Automated Site Checker corrects potential problems with a website. AdSense tool incorporates Google AdSense advertisements into a website In-built FTP transfers files onto a web server, uploading a website to the internet. In-built Basic Photo Editor the PhotoLab can make "Quick Fix's" to photos.

From X5, WebPlus offers image editing and filters, through its PhotoLab and provides a dedicated background-removal tool in the form of Cutout Studio. Display images, Flash videos and web pages using animated Lightboxes. Filter Effects can be applied to the graphical objects, giving convincing, realistic effects such as glass, plastic and o

Cathérine Hug

Cathérine Hug is an art historian and curator. Hug was born 1976 in Switzerland. With her parents and siblings she grew up in Delémont, Switzerland. Hug studied Computer Science, Media Science and Art History at the Chairs of Rolf Pfeiffer, Heinz Bonfadelli and Stanislaus von Moos at the University of Zurich. From 2000 until 2007 she was curatorial assistant at the Kunsthaus Zurich, where she worked with Bice Curiger and Tobia Bezzola. From 2005 until 2008 she was assistant of the Art Unlimited Curator Simon Lamunière at the Art Basel; as freelance curator she organized among others Unloaded with Giovanni Carmine. From 2008 until 2013 she was curator at the Kunsthalle Wien in Vienna, where she curated among others Thomas Ruff, 1989. End of History or Beginning of the Future? with Gerald Matt, Street And Studio. From Basquiat to Séripop with Thomas Mießgang, Space. About A Dream with Walter Famler, Lucy Skaer – Force Justify, WWTBD – What Would Thomas Bernhard Do and Salon der Angst with Nicolaus Schafhausen.

From 2011 until 2013 she was in the workers’ committee and supervisory board of Kunsthalle Wien. Since 2013 she is curator at the Kunsthaus Zurich, where she curated among others Von Matisse zum Blauen Reiter with Timothy Benson; the Future of History with Robert Menasse. Incognito in collaboration with Folkwang Essen. A retrospective with Anne Umland in collaboration with MoMA New York; as guest curator she curated Feiert das Leben! with Robert Menasse and Manuela Laubenberger at the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien in Vienna. Hug is further project leader of the digitalization of the Kunsthaus Dada Collection. Labels exhibitions with an accompanying publication or catalogue 1999 Co-conductor with Charlotte Tschumi of the tutorial course The Actuality of Walter Benjamin & the Critical Theory, Institute of Art History, University of Zurich.2000 Editorial collaboration to the exhibition catalogue Mixing Memory and Desire, Museum of Art Lucerne. Assistant to the artists’ books publishing house Memory/Cage Editions, Zurich.

Editorial assistance to the exhibition catalogue Hypermental*, curated by Bice Curiger and Christoph Heinrich at the Kunsthaus Zurich and Hamburger Kunsthalle.2001 Program with Giovanni Carmine of the Nam June Paik-retrospective at Videoex*, organiser Patrik Huber. Curatorial assistance to Daniel Kurjakovic's group exhibition A World Within A Space*, Kunsthalle Zurich 2001. Initiation and assistance to Gianni Jetzer's guest lecture Art & Everyday Life, Institute of Art History, University of Zurich. Initiation and assistance to Yvonne Volkart's guest lecture Artistic Practice in the Area of Information and Biotechnology, Institute of Art History, University of Zurich.2002 Co-curator with Giovanni Carmine of the exhibition UNLOADED – Coming Up For Air*, Oberschan. With the participation of Monica Bonvicini, Annelise Coste, Christoph Büchel, Olivier Mosset and Gianni Motti among others. Reader/voice of Rirkrit Tiravanija's 280min video work, video animation. Assistant to Bice Curiger's group exhibition Public Affairs*, Kunsthaus Zurich.

Initiation and assistance to Jan Linders’ guest lecture In The Light of Experience. James Turrell's Extensions of Horizon, Institute of Art History, University of Zurich.2003 University exams with the degree of lic. phil. in Art History, Computer Science and Media Science, University of Zurich, Switzerland. Initiation, organization of and assistance to Cornel Windlin's guest lecture Sexy Terror, Institute of Art History, University of Zurich.2004 Scientific research associate and catalogue author of Monet: the Garden*, Kunsthaus from October 29, 2004 – March 13, 2005.2005 Co-curator with Alexandra Blättler of Friends Electric!* with the participating artists Jen Liu and Andrea Thal at Binz39, Zurich. Assistant Art Unlimited *, Art 36 Basel. Project Manager Ursula Diehr, Curator Simon Lamunière. Research collaborator at the Kunsthaus Zurich in relation with the exhibition catalogue Sigmar Polke: Werke & Tage* curated by Bice Curiger.2006 Assistant Art Unlimited*, Art 37 Basel. Curator Simon Lamunière.

Co-curator with Tobia Bezzola of In the Alps*, Kunsthaus Zurich. Swiss delegate of the Fine Arts Showcase in Liverpool organized by the British Council on the occasion of the Liverpool Biennial, 2006, in October 2006.2007 Ph. D. researches at the National Library of Canada, Ottawa AZPAA in collaboration with Annie Wu and Manuela Schlumpf, a non-profit art agency looking for unconventional exhibition locations and helping to produce site-specific artworks. Assistant Art Unlimited Art 38 Basel. Curator Simon Lamunière. Guest-curator of the exhibition Carola Giedion-Welcker und die Moderne, Kunsthaus Zurich, August 31 – November 18, 2007, Assistant to Simon Lamunière, Art Director of Utopics*, 11e Exposition Suisse de Sculpture, 11. Schweizerische Plastikausstellung, Bienne.2008 Assistant Art Unlimited*, Art 39 Basel. Curator Simon Lamunière. Co-curator together with Christoph Doswald of the exh. KONKRET