Area of responsibility
Area of Responsibility is a pre-defined geographic region assigned to Combatant commanders of the Unified Command Plan, that are used to define an area with specific geographic boundaries where they have the authority to plan and conduct operations. The term may be used in other countries worldwide but it originated within the United States Armed Forces; this system is designed to allow a single commander to exercise command and control of all military forces in the AOR, regardless of their branch of service. The President of the United States signed the U. S. Unified Command Plan 2008 on 17 December 2008, establishing the up-to-date boundaries for the newest Command, United States Africa Command, all changes to boundaries of the other Commands. U. S Unified Command Plan 2011 was signed on 6 April 2011. Boundaries were adjusted in the high northern latitudes between USEUCOM, USNORTHCOM and USPACOM. Http://www.defense.gov/news/UCP_2011_Map4.pdf Combatant commanders may designate theaters of war, theaters of operation, combat zones, communications zones.
Joint force commanders may define additional operational areas or joint areas to assist in the coordination and execution of joint warfare. The size of these areas and the types of forces used depend on the scope and projected duration of the operation. Combatant commanders and other joint force commanders use the following organization of the battlespace at the operational level of war. Combatant commanders are assigned an area of responsibility in the Unified Command Plan. Theater of war, the area of aerial and naval/littoral that is, or may become, directly involved in the manner of combat. Theater of operations, a sub-area within a theater of war defined by the force commander required to conduct or support specific operations. Different theaters of operations within the same theater of war will be geographically separate and focused on different enemy forces. Theaters of operations are of significant size, allowing for operations over extended periods of time. Combat zone, areas required by combat forces for the conduct of operations.
Communication zone, the rear part of the theater of war or theater of operations that contains lines of communications, establishments for supply or evacuation, other agencies required for the immediate support and maintenance of the field forces. The Marine Corps component commander will focus his efforts to deploy and sustain his forces the MAGTF, in the communications zone, he will locate his headquarters close to the joint force commander, who establishes his headquarters in the communications zone. Understanding the joint battlespace at the operational level of war in which forces will operate is an important step in setting the conditions for their success. Force commanders must understand the relationship between the Area of Operation, Area of Interest, Area of Influence. By analyzing his AO in terms of his area of influence and area of interest, a force commander determines whether his assigned AO is appropriate; this analysis may include the forces’ capabilities to conduct actions across the warfighting functions.
The Areas of Operation, or AOs, are areas that component and force commanders define as their tactical operability. It is known as close battlespace; the commanders focus on establishing control in this area. The commander sets up force protection and supportive arms, such as logistics or reinforcements; the term "area of operations" has long been used in the U. S. Army, for the geographic areas of interest to much smaller units than the combatant commands, it has been used among U. S. Army Special Forces; the commander can choose to organize his AO so that his subordinates have contiguous or noncontiguous AOs: Contiguous AO—In a contiguous AO, all the subordinate commands' share one or more common boundary within supporting distance of one another in the battlespace. A commander may establish their battlespace in a reflection of linear operations, where there is a continuity and contiguous array of units across the area of operation. Noncontiguous—A noncontiguous Area of Operation is one where one or more subordinate AOs do not share a common boundary.
The commander establishes noncontiguous AOs when a more situation is one where the task force conducts non-linear operations within a noncontiguous battlespace and within an operational framework with noncontiguous deep and rear areas. Operation Restore Hope in Somalia during 1992–1993, is an example of a battlefield framework with noncontiguous areas; the United States' Marine Air-Ground Task Forces' rear area was centered around the separate sites of the embassy compound and airfield in the city of Mogadishu, while its close area was scattered around the towns and villages of the interior that were occupied by the MAGTF. The MAGTF's deep area included the rest of the country and those population and relief centers not under the joint force commander's supervision. In an area of influence, the component or force commander assigns his subordinate units to conduct missions in and out of this area. Communication is key, either for reconnaissance to report intelligence or fire support for ground forces.
Sometimes known as distant battlespace, it is useful to the force commander
United States Southern Command
The United States Southern Command, located in Doral, Florida in Greater Miami, is one of ten Unified Combatant Commands in the United States Department of Defense. It is responsible for providing contingency planning and security cooperation for Central and South America, the Caribbean, their territorial waters, for the force protection of U. S. military resources at these locations. USSOUTHCOM is responsible for ensuring the defense of the Panama Canal and the canal area; as explained below, USSOUTHCOM has been under scrutiny due to several human rights and rule of law controversies in which it has been embroiled for nearly a decade. Under the leadership of a four-star Commander, USSOUTHCOM is organized into a headquarters with six main directorates, component commands and military groups that represent SOUTHCOM in the region; the current commander is Admiral Craig S. Faller, USN. USSOUTHCOM is a joint command of more than 1,201 military and civilian personnel representing the United States Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, several other federal agencies.
Civilians working at USSOUTHCOM are, for the most part, civilian employees of the Army, as the Army is USSOUTHCOM's Combatant Command Support Agent. The Services provide USSOUTHCOM with component commands which, along with their Joint Special Operations component, two Joint Task Forces, one Joint Interagency Task Force, Security Cooperation Offices, perform USSOUTHCOM missions and security cooperation activities. USSOUTHCOM exercises its authority through the commanders of its components, Joint Task Forces/Joint Interagency Task Force, Security Cooperation Organizations; the USSOUTHCOM Area of Responsibility encompasses 32 nations, of which 31 are democracies, 14 U. S. and European territories. As of October 2002, the area of focus covered 14.5 million square miles The United States Southern Command area of interest includes: The land mass of Latin America south of Mexico The waters adjacent to Central and South America The Caribbean Sea, its 12 island nations and European territories A portion of the Atlantic Ocean USSOUTHCOM accomplishes much of its mission through its service components, four representing each service, one specializing in Special Operations missions, three additional joint task forces: United States Army South forces include aviation, intelligence and logistics units.
Located at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, it supports counterdrug efforts. ARSOUTH exercises oversight and logistical support for humanitarian and civic assistance projects throughout the region in support of the USSOUTHCOM Theater Security Cooperation Strategy. ARSOUTH provides Title 10 and Executive Agent responsibilities throughout the Latin American and Caribbean region. In 2013, around four thousand troops were deployed in Latin America. Located at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona, AFSOUTH consists of a staff. AFSOUTH serves as the executive agent for forward operating locations. AFSOUTH provides oversight, planning and logistical support for humanitarians and civic assistance projects and hosts a number of Airmen-to-Airmen conferences. Twelfth Air Force is leading the way in bringing the Chief of Staff of the Air Force's Warfighting Headquarters concept to life; the WFHQ is composed of a command and control element, an Air Force forces staff and an Air Operations Center. Operating as a WFHQ since June 2004, Twelfth Air Force has served as the Air Force model for the future of Combined Air and Space Operations Centers and WFHQ Air Force forces.
Located at Naval Station Mayport, Florida, USNAVSO exercises command and control over all U. S. naval operations in the USSOUTHCOM area including naval exercises, maritime operations, port visits. USNAVSO is the executive agent for the operation of the cooperative security location at Comalapa, El Salvador, which provides basing in support of aerial counter narco-terrorism operations. On 24 April 2008, Admiral Gary Roughead, the Chief of Naval Operations, announced that the United States Fourth Fleet would be re-established, effective 1 July, responsible for U. S. Navy ships and submarines operating in the Caribbean Sea, as well as Central and South America. Rear Admiral Joseph D. Kernan was named as the fleet commander and Commander, U. S. Naval Forces Southern Command. Up to four ships are deployed in the waters at any given time. Located in Doral, Florida, USMARFORSOUTH commands all United States Marine Corps Forces assigned to USSOUTHCOM. Located at Homestead Air Reserve Base near Miami, Special Operations Command South provides the primary theater contingency response force and plans, prepares for, conducts special operations in support of USSOUTHCOM.
USSOCSOUTH controls all Special Operations Forces in the region and establishes and operates a Joint Special Operations Task Force when required. As a Theater Special Operations Command, USSOCSOUTH is a sub-u
Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines. It is ranked 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern region of the archipelago, it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital city, Manila, as well as Quezon City, the country's most populous city. With a population of 53 million as of 2015, it is the fourth most populous island in the world containing 52.5% of the country's total population. Luzon may refer to one of the three primary island groups in the country; as such, it includes the Luzon mainland, the Batanes and Babuyan groups of islands to the north, Polillo Islands to the east, the outlying islands of Catanduanes, Masbate, Romblon and Palawan, among others, to the south. The name Luzon is thought to derive from the Tagalog word lusong, a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice. Luzon was inhabited by Negrito people before Austronesians from Taiwan displaced them; the Austronesian groups were divided further into two types of nations.
Highland civilizations were based in the mountains and had built up plutocracies based on agriculture, such as the Igorot Society, responsible for building the Banaue Rice Terraces. Meanwhile, maritime states were split among Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, Muslim principalities, ethnoreligious tribes, who had trading connections with Borneo, Java, India, Korea and China before the Spanish established their rule. From just before the first millennium, the Tagalog and Kapampangan peoples of south and central Luzon had established several major coastal polities, most notable among them those of Maynila and Namayan; the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the first Philippine document written in 900AD, names places in and around Manila Bay as well as Medan in Indonesia. These kingdoms were based on leases between village rulers and landlords or Rajahs, to whom tributes and taxes were levied; these kingdoms were coastal thalassocracies based on trade with neighboring Asian political entities at that time.
There was a Sino-Buddhist country in nearby Mindoro called the country of Ma-i. According to sources at the time, the trade in large native Ruson-tsukuri clay jars used for storing green tea and rice wine with Japan flourished in the 12th century, local Tagalog and Pangasinense potters had marked each jar with Baybayin letters denoting the particular urn used and the kiln the jars were manufactured in. Certain kilns were renowned over prices depended on the reputation of the kiln. Of this flourishing trade, the Burnay jars of Ilocos are the only large clay jar manufactured in Luzon today with origins from this time. During the 1300s, the Javanese-centered Hindu empire of Majapahit ruled over Luzon as recorded in the epic poem Nagarakretagama, which stated that they had colonies in the Philippines at Saludong and Solot; the kingdoms of Luzon regained independence from Majapahit after the Battle of Manila and Sulu reestablished independence and in vengeance, assaulted the Majapahit province of Poni before a fleet from the capital drove them out.
The Yongle Emperor instituted a Chinese Governor on Luzon during Zheng He's voyages and appointed Ko Ch'a-lao to that position in 1405. China had vassals among the leaders in the archipelago. China attained ascendancy in trade with the area in Yongle's reign. Afterwards, some parts of Luzon were Islamized when the former Majapahit province of Poni broke free, converted to Islam, imported an Arab prince from Saudi Arabia, in the person of Sharif Ali, became the Sultanate of Brunei, a nation that expanded its realms from Borneo to the Philippines and set up the Kingdom of Maynila as its puppet-state as well as incorporate the newly converted Sultanate of Sulu by a royal marriage. However, other kingdoms resisted Islam, like the Wangdom of Pangasinan which had remained a tributary state to China and was a Sinified kingdom which maintained trade with Japan. In the 1500s, people from Luzon were called Lucoes and they established many overseas communities within the Indo-Pacific and were employed in trading and military campaigns across Southeast Asia.
The Portuguese were the first European explorers who recorded it in their charts as Luçonia or Luçon and inhabitants were called Luçoes. Edmund Roberts, who visited Luzon in the early 19th century, wrote that Luzon was "discovered" in 1521. Many people from Luzon had active-employment in Portuguese Malacca. Lucoes such as the Luzon spice magnate Regimo de Raja, based in Malacca, was influential and the Portuguese appointed him as Temenggong or a governor and chief general responsible for overseeing of maritime trade, at Malacca; as Temenggung, he was the head of an armada which traded and protected commerce between the Indian Ocean, the Strait of Malacca, the South China Sea, the medieval maritime principalities of the Philippines. His father and wife carried on his maritime trading business after his death. Another important Malacca trader was Curia de Raja who hailed from Luzon; the "surname" of "de Raja" or "diraja" could indicate that Regimo and Curia, their families, were of noble or royal descent as the term is an abbreviation of Sanskrit adiraja.
Pinto noted that there were a number of Lucoes in the Islamic fleets that went to battle with the Portuguese in the Philippines during the 16th century. The Sultan of Aceh gave one of them the task of holding Aru in 1540. Pinto says one was named leader of the Malays remaining in the Moluccas Islands after the
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering and analyzing national security information from around the world through the use of human intelligence. As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U. S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President.
It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates; the CIA has expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations; when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, to perform covert actions. According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIA has five priorities: Counterterrorism, the top priority Nonproliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
Warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events. Counterintelligence Cyber intelligence; the CIA has an executive office and five major directorates: The Directorate of Digital Innovation The Directorate of Analysis The Directorate of Operations The Directorate of Support The Directorate of Science and Technology The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence. The Deputy Director is formally appointed by the Director without Senate confirmation, but as the President's opinion plays a great role in the decision, the Deputy Director is considered a political position, making the Chief Operating Officer the most senior non-political position for CIA career officers; the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the CIA.
Each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIA regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIA; the Directorate of Analysis, through much of its history known as the Directorate of Intelligence, is tasked with helping "the President and other policymakers make informed decisions about our country's national security" by looking "at all the available information on an issue and organiz it for policymakers". The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, three that focus on policy and staff support. There is an office dedicated to Iraq; the Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, for covert action. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U.
S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. In spite of this, the Department of Defense organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency; this Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Columbo is an American television series starring Peter Falk as Columbo, a homicide detective with the Los Angeles Police Department. The character and show, created by Richard Levinson and William Link, popularized the inverted detective story format, which begins by showing the commission of the crime and its perpetrator. Columbo is a shrewd but inelegant blue-collar homicide detective whose trademarks include his rumpled beige raincoat, unassuming demeanor, frequent cigar smoking, his suspects are affluent members of high society who try to cover their tracks. Dismissive of Columbo's circumstantial speech and apparent ineptitude, they become unsettled as his pestering behavior leads him to tease out incriminating evidence, his relentless approach leads to self-incrimination or an outright confession by the suspect. Episodes of Columbo are between 70 and 98 minutes long, have been broadcast in 44 countries; the 1971 episode "Murder by the Book", directed by Steven Spielberg, was ranked No. 16 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time and in 1999, the magazine ranked Lt. Columbo No. 7 on its 50 Greatest TV Characters of All Time list.
In 2012, the program was chosen as the third-best cop or legal show on Best in TV: The Greatest TV Shows of Our Time. In 2013, TV Guide included it in its list of The 60 Greatest Dramas of All Time and ranked it at #33 on its list of the 60 Best Series. In 2013, the Writers Guild of America ranked it No. 57 in the list of 101 Best Written TV Series. After two pilot episodes, the show aired on NBC from 1971 to 1978 as one of the rotating programs of The NBC Mystery Movie. Columbo aired less on ABC beginning in 1989 under the umbrella of The ABC Mystery Movie; the last film was broadcast in 2003 as part of ABC Thursday Night at the Movies. In every episode the audience sees the crime unfold at the beginning and knows the identity of the culprit an affluent member of society. Once Columbo enters the story, viewers watch him solve the case by sifting through the contradictions between the truth and the version presented to him by the killer; this style of mystery is sometimes referred to as a "howcatchem", in contrast to the traditional whodunit.
In structural analysis terms, the majority of the narrative is therefore dénouement, a feature reserved for the end of a story. Episodes tend to be driven by their characters, the audience observing the criminal's reactions to Columbo's intrusive presence; the explanation for the crime and its method having played out as part of the narrative, most of the stories end with the criminal's reaction at being found out. In some cases, the killer's arrogance and dismissive attitude allow Columbo to manipulate his suspects into self-incrimination. While the details, the motivation, of the murderers' actions are shown to the viewer, Columbo's true thoughts and intentions are never revealed until close to the end of the episode. Columbo maintains a friendly relationship with the murderer until the end; the point at which the detective first begins to suspect the murderer is not revealed, although it is fairly early on. In some instances, such as Ruth Gordon's avenging elderly mystery writer in "Try and Catch Me", Janet Leigh's terminally ill and deluded actress in "Forgotten Lady", Donald Pleasence's elegant vintner in "Any Old Port in a Storm", Johnny Cash's enserfed singer in "Swan Song", the killer is more sympathetic than the victim.
Each case is concluded in a similar style, with Columbo dropping any pretense of uncertainty and sharing details of his conclusion of the killer's guilt. Following the killer's reaction, the episode ends with the killer confessing or submitting to arrest. There are few attempts to provide a twist in the tale. One convoluted exception is "Last Salute to the Commodore", where Robert Vaughn is seen elaborately disposing of a body, but is proved to have been covering for his alcoholic wife, whom he mistakenly thought to be the murderer; the character of Columbo was created by the writing team of Richard Levinson and William Link, who said that Columbo was inspired by Fyodor Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment character Porfiry Petrovich as well as G. K. Chesterton's humble cleric-detective Father Brown. Other sources claim Columbo's character is influenced by Inspector Fichet from the French suspense-thriller film Les Diaboliques; the character first appeared in a 1960 episode of the television-anthology series The Chevy Mystery Show, titled "Enough Rope".
This was adapted by Levinson and Link from their short story "May I Come In", published as "Dear Corpus Delicti" in an issue of Alfred Hitchcock's Mystery Magazine. The short story did not include Columbo as a character; the first actor to portray Columbo, character actor Bert Freed, was a stocky character actor with a thatch of grey hair. Freed's Columbo wore a rumpled suit and smoked a cigar, but he otherwise had few of the other now-familiar Columbo mannerisms. However, the character is still recognizably Columbo, uses some of the same methods of misdirecting and distracting his suspects. During the course of the show, the frightened murderer brings pressure from the district attorney's office to have Columbo taken off the case, but the detective fights back with his own contacts. Although Freed received third billing, he wound up with alm