Richmond is a suburban town in south-west London, 8.2 miles west-southwest of Charing Cross. It is on a meander of the River Thames, with a large number of parks and open spaces, including Richmond Park, many protected conservation areas, which include much of Richmond Hill. A specific Act of Parliament protects the scenic view of the River Thames from Richmond. Richmond was founded following Henry VII's building of Richmond Palace in the 16th century, from which the town derives its name. During this era the town and palace were associated with Elizabeth I, who spent her last days here. During the 18th century Richmond Bridge was completed and many Georgian terraces were built around Richmond Green and on Richmond Hill; these remain well preserved and many have listed building architectural or heritage status. The opening of the railway station in 1846 was a significant event in the absorption of the town into a expanding London. Richmond was part of the ancient parish of Kingston upon Thames in the county of Surrey.
In 1890 the town became a municipal borough, extended to include Kew, Ham and part of Mortlake. The municipal borough was abolished in 1965 when, as a result of local government reorganisation, Richmond was transferred from Surrey to Greater London. Richmond is now part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, has a population of 21,469, it has a significant retail centre with a developed day and evening economy. The name Richmond upon Thames is used, incorrectly, to refer to the town of Richmond: in fact, the suffix should properly be used only in reference to the London Borough; until 1501, Richmond was known as Shene. Shene was not listed in Domesday Book, although it is depicted on the associated maps as Sceon, its Saxon spelling. Henry VII had a palace built there and in 1501 he named it Richmond Palace in recognition of his earldom and his ancestral home at Richmond Castle in Yorkshire; the town that developed nearby took the same name as the palace. Henry I lived in the King's house in "Sheanes".
In 1299 Edward I, the "Hammer of the Scots", took his whole court to the manor house at Sheen, a little east of the bridge and on the riverside, it thus became a royal residence. Edward II, following his defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, founded a monastery for Carmelites at Sheen; when the boy-king Edward III came to the throne in 1327 he gave the manor to his mother Isabella. Edward spent over £ 2,000 on improvements, but in the middle of the work Edward himself died at the manor, in 1377. Richard II was the first English king to make Sheen his main residence, which he did in 1383. Twelve years Richard was so distraught at the death of his wife Anne of Bohemia at the age of 28 that, according to Holinshed, the 16th-century English chronicler, he "caused it to be thrown down and defaced, it was rebuilt between 1414 and 1422, but destroyed by fire in 1497. Following that fire Henry VII built a new residence at Sheen and in 1501 he named it Richmond Palace. There are unconfirmed beliefs.
When Elizabeth I became queen she spent much of her time at Richmond, as she enjoyed hunting stags in the "Newe Parke of Richmonde". She died at the palace on 24 March 1603; the palace was no longer in residential use after 1649, but in 1688 James II ordered its partial reconstruction: this time as a royal nursery. The bulk of the palace had decayed by 1779; this has five bedrooms and was made available on a 65-year lease by the Crown Estate Commissioners in 1986. Beyond the grounds of the old palace, Richmond remained agricultural land until the 18th century. White Lodge, in the middle of what is now Richmond Park, was built as a hunting lodge for George II and during this period the number of large houses in their own grounds – such as Asgill House and Pembroke Lodge – increased significantly; these were followed by the building of further important houses including Downe House, Wick House and The Wick on Richmond Hill, as this area became an fashionable place to live. Richmond Bridge was completed in 1777 to replace a ferry crossing that connected Richmond town centre on the east bank with its neighbouring district of East Twickenham.
Today, together with the well-preserved Georgian terraces that surround Richmond Green and line Richmond Hill to its crest, now has listed building status. As Richmond continued to prosper and expand during the 19th century, much luxurious housing was built on the streets that line Richmond Hill, as well as shops in the town centre to serve the increasing population. In July 1892 the Corporation formed a joint-stock company, the Richmond Electric Light and Power Company, this wired the town for electricity by around 1896. Like many other large towns in Britain, Richmond lost many young people in the First and Second World Wars. In the Second World War, 96 people were killed in air raids, which resulted in the demolition of 297 houses; the Richmond War Memorial, which now commemorates both wars, was installed in the 1920s at the end of Whittaker Avenue, between t
Sabena Flight 548
Sabena Flight 548 was a Boeing 707-329 aircraft that crashed en route from New York City to Brussels, Belgium, on February 15, 1961. The flight, which had originated at Idlewild International Airport, crashed on approach to Zaventem Airport, killing all 72 people on board and one person on the ground; the fatalities included the entire U. S. Figure Skating team, who were travelling to the World Figure Skating Championships in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Despite a thorough investigation, the precise cause of the crash remains a mystery; this was the first fatal accident involving a Boeing 707 in regular passenger service. It remains the deadliest plane crash to occur on Belgian soil. There were eleven crew members on board the ill-fated flight; the two pilots, Louis Lambrechts and Jean Roy, were both experienced ex-army pilots. There were no difficulties reported during the seven and a half hour trans-Atlantic flight from New York. Under clear skies, at about 10:00 Brussels time, the Boeing 707 was on a long approach to Runway 20 when, near the runway threshold and at a height of 900 feet, power was increased and the landing gear retracted.
The airplane had been forced to cancel its final approach to Brussels airport, as a small plane had not yet cleared the runway. The 707 circled the airport and made another attempt to land on adjoining Runway 25, not operational, it became clear to observers that the pilots were fighting for control of the aircraft, making a desperate attempt to land despite the fact that a mechanical malfunction was preventing them from making a normal landing. The plane circled the airfield three times altogether, during which the bank angle increased until the aircraft had climbed to 1,500 feet and was in a near vertical bank, it leveled its wings, pitched up abruptly, lost speed and spiralled nose down, plunging into the ground less than two miles from the airport, at 10:05 CET. The location of the crash was a marshy area adjacent to farmland near Berg, four miles northeast of Brussels. Eyewitnesses said that the plane exploded when it hit the ground and heavy black smoke was seen coming from the wreckage which had burst into flames.
Theo de Laet, a young farmer and noted amateur cyclist, working in a field near to the crash site, was killed by a piece of aluminum shrapnel from the plane. Another field worker, Marcel Lauwers, was hit by flying debris which amputated part of his leg. Father Joseph Cuyt, a local priest, observing the airplane as it came in to land, rushed to the scene but was driven back by the intense heat of the fire. Airport rescue vehicles arrived at the crash site immediately but the plane was a blazing bonfire, it is believed that all 72 occupants of the plane were killed on impact. Baudouin I, King of the Belgians, his consort, Queen Fabiola, travelled to the scene of the disaster to provide comfort to the bereaved families, they donated oak coffins bearing the royal seal to transport the bodies back home. All eighteen members of the 1961 U. S. Figure Skating team lost their lives, as well as sixteen other people who were accompanying them, including family members, professional coaches, skating officials.
Among the fatalities were nine-times U. S. ladies' champion, turned coach, Maribel Vinson-Owen and her two daughters: reigning U. S. ladies' champion Laurence Owen, aged sixteen, her 20-year-old sister, reigning U. S. pairs champion Maribel Owen, both of whom had won gold medals at the 1961 U. S. Figure Skating Championships in Colorado Springs just two weeks earlier. Laurence Owen was the cover story for the February 13 issue of Sports Illustrated, just two days before her untimely death. Maribel Owen's pairs champion partner Dudley "Dud" Richards and reigning U. S. men's champion Bradley Lord were killed, along with U. S. ice dance champions Diane "Dee Dee" Sherbloom and Larry Pierce. The team lost U. S. men's silver medalist Gregory Kelley, U. S. ladies' silver medalist Stephanie "Steffi" Westerfeld, U. S. ladies' bronze medalist Rhode Lee Michelson. Despite the fact that some national teams had arrived in Prague for the World Championships—which were scheduled to start on February 22—the devastating loss of the U.
S. team forced the event to be canceled. The competition organizers in Prague confirmed that the event would go ahead, but the International Skating Union conducted a poll to agree on the most appropriate course of action. S. team. A telegram was sent from ISU headquarters which read: "In view of the tragic death of 44 American skaters and officials the 1961 world championship will not be held." Prague was given the chance to host the event the following year. The figure skating team was mourned across the U. S. and all of the national newspapers carried the story on their front pages. In office for less than a month, President John F. Kennedy issued a statement of condolence from the White House, which read: "Our country has sustained a great loss of talent and grace which had brought pleasure to people all over the world. Mrs. Kennedy and I extend our deepest sympathy to the families and friends of all the passengers and crew who died in this crash."
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria. It is in the Inn valley, at its junction with the Wipp valley, which provides access to the Brenner Pass some 30 km to the south. Located in the broad valley between high mountains, the so-called North Chain in the Karwendel Alps to the north, the Patscherkofel and Serles to the south. Innsbruck is an internationally renowned winter sports center, hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics as well as the 1984 and 1988 Winter Paralympics. Innsbruck hosted the first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012; the name translates as "Inn Bridge". The earliest traces suggest initial inhabitation in the early Stone Age. Surviving pre-Roman place names show that the area has been populated continuously. In the 4th century the Romans established the army station Veldidena at Oenipons, to protect the economically important commercial road from Verona-Brenner-Augsburg in their province of Raetia; the first mention of Innsbruck dates back to the name Oeni Pontum or Oeni Pons, Latin for bridge over the Inn, an important crossing point over the Inn river.
The Counts of Andechs acquired the town in 1180. In 1248 the town passed into the hands of the Counts of Tyrol; the city's arms show a bird's-eye view of the Inn bridge, a design used since 1267. The route over the Brenner Pass was a major transport and communications link between the north and the south of Europe, the easiest route across the Alps, it was part of a medieval imperial road under special protection of the king. The revenues generated by serving. Innsbruck became the capital of all Tyrol in 1429 and in the 15th century the city became a centre of European politics and culture as Emperor Maximilian I resided in Innsbruck in the 1490s; the city benefited from the emperor's presence. Here a funeral monument for Maximilian was planned and erected by his successors; the ensemble with a cenotaph and the bronze statues of real and mythical ancestors of the Habsburg emperor are one of the main artistic monuments of Innsbruck. A regular postal service between Innsbruck and Mechelen was established in 1490 by the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post.
In 1564 Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria received the rulership over Tirol and other Further Austrian possessions administered from Innsbruck up to the 18th century. He had Schloss Ambras built and arranged there his unique Renaissance collections nowadays part of Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Museum. Up to 1665 a stirps of the Habsburg dynasty ruled in Innsbruck with an independent court. In the 1620s the first opera house north of the Alps was erected in Innsbruck. In 1669 the university was founded; as a compensation for the court as Emperor Leopold I again reigned from Vienna and the Tyrolean stirps of the Habsburg dynasty had ended in 1665. During the Napoleonic Wars Tyrol was ceded to ally of France. Andreas Hofer led a Tyrolean peasant army to victory in the Battles of Bergisel against the combined Bavarian and French forces, made Innsbruck the centre of his administration; the combined army overran the Tyrolean militia army and until 1814 Innsbruck was part of Bavaria. After the Vienna Congress Austrian rule was restored.
Until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy, head of the district of the same name, one of the 21 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Tyrol province. The Tyrolean hero Andreas Hofer was executed in Mantua. During World War I, the only recorded action taking place in Innsbruck was near the end of the war. On February 20, 1918, Allied planes flying out of Italy raided Innsbruck, causing casualties among the Austrian troops there. No damage to the town is recorded. In November 1918 Innsbruck and all Tyrol were occupied by the 20 to 22 thousand soldiers of the III Corps of the First Italian Army. In 1929, the first official Austrian Chess Championship was held in Innsbruck. In 1938 Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in the Anschluss. Between 1943 and April 1945, Innsbruck suffered heavy damage. In 1996, the European Union approved further cultural and economic integration between the Austrian province of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino by recognizing the creation of the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino.
Innsbruck has a humid continental climate, since it has larger annual temperature differences than most of Central Europe due to its location in the centre of the Continent and its position around mountainous terrains. Winters are very cold and snowy, although the foehn wind sometimes brings pronounced thaws. Spring is brief. Summer is variable and unpredictable. Days can be cool 17 °C and rainy, or sunny and hot, sometimes hitting 34 °C. In summer, as expected for an alpine-influenced climate, the diurnal temperature variation is very high as nights remain cool, being 12 °C on average, but sometimes dipping as low as 6 °C; the average annual temperature is 9 °C. Innsbruck is divided into nine boroughs that were formed from previo
1960 European Figure Skating Championships
The 1960 European Figure Skating Championships was a figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which figure skaters competed for the title of European Champion. The 1960 competitions took place from February 4 to February 7, 1960, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, West Germany. Skaters competed in the disciplines of men's singles, pair skating and ice dancing. Judges were Hans Meixner Austria E. Skakala Czechoslovakia J. Donnier France W. Stanek West Germany Pamela Davis United Kingdom M. Verdi Italy Christen Christensen Norway J. Creux Switzerland Tatiana Tolmacheva Soviet Union Judges were Oskar Madl Austria E. Skakala Czechoslovakia J. Donnier France W. Stanek West Germany P. L. Barrajo United Kingdom Z. Balázs Hungary M. Verdi Italy C. Benedict-Stieber Netherlands R. Steinmann Switzerland Judges were E. Kucharz Austria E. Skakala Czechoslovakia E. Bauch East Germany A. Walker West Germany J. Metlewicz Poland J. Creux Switzerland Tatiana Tolmacheva Soviet Union Judges were E. Kucharz Austria E. Skakala Czechoslovakia J. Meudec France Hermann Schiechtl West Germany P. Barrajo United Kingdom G. Bozetti Italy Z. Balázs Hungary Result List provided by the ISU printed program of the Europeans
2014 U.S. Figure Skating Championships
The 2014 U. S. Figure Skating Championships were the national figure skating championships of the United States for the 2013–14 season; the event was held in Boston, Massachusetts on January 5–12, 2014. Medals were awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, ice dancing at the senior, novice and juvenile levels; the results were part of the U. S. selection criteria for the 2014 Winter Olympics, 2014 World Championships, 2014 World Junior Championships, 2014 Four Continents Championships. The 2014 event was the 100th anniversary of the U. S. Championships and the seventh time that Boston had hosted the competition. Competitors qualified at the Eastern, Midwestern, or Pacific Coast Sectional Championships or earned a bye; the international teams were announced at two press conferences on January 12, 2014. The nominations to the Olympic team were announced as follows: The team to the 2014 World Championships was announced as follows in January 2014 and amended in March: The team to the 2014 Four Continents Championships was announced as follows: The team to the 2014 World Junior Championships was announced as follows: 2014 United States Figure Skating Championships results at IceNetwork Schedule of events at IceNetwork
Francina "Fanny" Elsje Blankers-Koen was a Dutch track and field athlete, best known for winning four gold medals at the 1948 Summer Olympics in London. She competed there as a 30-year-old mother of two, earning her the nickname "the flying housewife", was the most successful athlete at the event. Having started competing in athletics in 1935, she took part in the 1936 Summer Olympics a year later. Although international competition was stopped by World War II, Blankers-Koen set several world records during that period, in events as diverse as the long jump, the high jump, sprint and hurdling events. Apart from her four Olympic titles, she won five European titles and 58 Dutch championships, set or tied 12 world records – the last, pentathlon, in 1951 aged 33, she retired from athletics in 1955, after which she became captain of the Dutch female track and field team. In 1999, she was voted "Female Athlete of the Century" by the International Association of Athletics Federations, her Olympic victories are credited with helping to eliminate the belief that age and motherhood were barriers to success in women's sport.
Blankers-Koen was born on 26 April 1918 in Lage Vuursche to Helena Koen. Her father was a government official who discus, she had five brothers. As a teenager, she enjoyed tennis, gymnastics, ice skating and running. Standing 1.75 m, she was a natural athlete. It soon became clear she had a talent for sports. A swimming coach advised her to concentrate on running because there were several top swimmers in the Netherlands at that time, she would have a better chance to qualify for the Olympics in a track event, her first appearance in the sport was in 1935, aged 17. Her first competition was a disappointment, but in her third race, she set a national record in the 800 m. Fanny Koen soon made the Dutch team. At that time, 800 m was considered too physically demanding for female contestants, had been removed from the Olympic programme after 1928; the following year, her coach and future husband, Jan Blankers, a former Olympic triple-jumper who had participated in the 1928 Olympics, encouraged her to enter the trials for the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.
Only eighteen years old, she was selected to compete in the 4 × 100 m relay. At the Berlin Olympics, the high jump and the 4 × 100 m relay competitions were held on the same day. In the high jump, she took fifth place, she gained the autograph of American athlete Jesse Owens. Koen rose to the top. In 1938, she ran her first world record, she won her first international medals. At the European Championships in Vienna, she won the bronze in both the 100 and 200 m, which were both won by Stanisława Walasiewicz. Many observers, Koen herself, expected her to do well at the upcoming Olympics, which were due to be held in Helsinki in July 1940. However, the outbreak of World War II put a stop to the preparations; the Olympics were formally cancelled on 2 May 1940. Just prior to the invasion, Koen had become engaged, on 29 August 1940, she married Jan Blankers, thereupon changing her name to Blankers-Koen. Blankers was a sports journalist and the coach of the Dutch women's athletics team though he thought women should not compete in sports – not an unusual opinion at the time.
However, his attitude toward female athletes changed. When Blankers-Koen gave birth to her first child, Jan Junior, in 1942, Dutch media automatically assumed her career would be over. Top female athletes who were married were rare at the time, it was considered inconceivable that a mother would be an athlete. Blankers-Koen and her husband had other plans, she resumed training only weeks after their son's birth. During the war, domestic competition in sports continued in German-occupied Holland, Blankers-Koen set six new world records between 1942 and 1944; the first came in 1942. The following year, she did better. First, she improved the high jump record by an unequalled 5 cm from 1.66 m to 1.71 m in a specially arranged competition in Amsterdam on 30 May. She tied the 100 m world record, but this was never recognised as she competed against men when setting the record, she closed out the season with a new world record in the long jump, 6.25 m on 19 September 1943. The latter record would stand until 1954.
Circumstances were not easy, it became harder to get enough food for an athlete in training. Despite this, Blankers-Koen managed to break the 100 yd world record in May 1944. At the same meet, she ran with the relay team; the German press was excited. Months she helped break the 4 × 200 m record, held by Germany. In an act of defiance, the women wore outfits with national symbols while setting the record; the winter of 1944–45, known as the Hongerwinter, was severe, there was a great lack of food in the big cities. She gave birth to a daughter, Fanneke, in 1945 and in contrast to her previous post-birth activities she took seven months off from sport and only undertook limited training; the first major international event after the war w
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around