European Regional Development Fund
The European Regional Development Fund is a fund allocated by the European Union. During the 1960s, the European Commission occasionally tried to establish a regional fund, britain made it an issue for its accession in 1973, and pushed for its creation at the 1972 summit in Paris. Britain was going to be a contributor to the CAP and the EEC budget. They would be able to show their public some tangible benefits of EEC membership, the ERDF was set to be running by 1973, but the 1973 oil crisis delayed it, and it was only established in 1975 under considerable British and Italian pressure. Since its creation, it has operated under changing set of rules that were standardised with Single European Act and is now in its 2014–2020 period, failure to comply with these legal requirements may result in irregularity rulings which carry financial implications. In 2009, Ecologists in Action called the location insulting and asked the EU to investigate why more than €1. 1m was given to the project by the ERDF.
The petition was dismissed, because the objectives of the course to “increase tourism, create jobs and promote sport
Michael Peter Ancher was a Danish realist artist. He is remembered above all for his paintings of fishermen and other scenes from the Danish fishing community in Skagen, Michael Peter Ancher was born at Rutsker on the island of Bornholm. The son of a merchant, he attended school in Rønne but was unable to complete his secondary education as his father ran into financial difficulties. In 1865, he work as an apprentice clerk at Kalø Manor near Rønde in eastern Jutland. The following year, he met the painters Theodor Philipsen and Vilhelm Groth who had arrived in the area to paint, impressed with his own early work, they encouraged him to take up painting as a profession. In 1871, he spent a period at C. V Nielsens art school as a preliminary to joining the Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen in the year. Although he spent some time at the academy, he left in 1875 without graduating, one of his student companions was Karl Madsen who invited him to travel to Skagen, a small fishing village in the far north of Jutland where the Baltic and North Sea converge.
From the mid-1870s, he and Madsen became key members of a group of artists who congregated there each summer, after Ancher first visited Skagen in 1874, he settled there joining the growing society of artists. The colony of painters regularly met in the Brøndums Hotel in Skagen in order to exchange ideas, in 1880 Ancher married fellow painter and Skagen native Anna Brøndum, whose father owned the Brøndums Hotel. In the first years of their marriage, the couple had a home and studio in the Garden House, after the birth of their daughter Helga in 1883, the family moved to Markvej in Skagen. He achieved his breakthrough in 1879 with the painting Vil han klare pynten. Michael Anchers works depict Skagens heroic fishermen and their experiences at sea, combining realism. Key works include The Lifeboat is Carried Through The Dunes, The Crew Are Saved, Michael Ancher was influenced by his traditional training at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in the 1870s which imposed strict rules for composition.
His marriage to Anna Ancher did, introduce him to the concept of undecorated reproduction of reality. By combining the pictorial composition of his youth with the teachings of naturalism, Michael Ancher created what has been called modern monumental figurative art, such as A Baptism. The works of Anna and Michael Ancher can among other places be seen at the Skagens Museum, Statens Museum for Kunst, Michael Ancher received the Eckersberg Medal in 1889 and in 1894 the Order of the Dannebrog. Originally many of Anchers paintings hung in the room of the Brøndums Hotel. Krøyer conceived the idea of placing paintings by different artists in the wall panels, in 1946 the dining hall was moved to Skagens Museum
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
In architecture the frieze /ˈfriːz/ is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on a wall it lies upon the architrave and is capped by the moldings of the cornice. A frieze can be found on many Greek and Roman buildings, the Parthenon Frieze being the most famous and this style is typical for the Persians. In interiors, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the picture rail, by extension, a frieze is a long stretch of painted, sculpted or even calligraphic decoration in such a position, normally above eye-level. Frieze decorations may depict scenes in a sequence of discrete panels, the material of which the frieze is made of may be plasterwork, carved wood or other decorative medium. In an example of a frieze on the façade of a building. A pulvinated frieze is convex in section, such friezes were features of 17th-century Northern Mannerism, especially in subsidiary friezes, and much employed in interior architecture and in furniture.
The concept of a frieze has been generalized in the construction of frieze patterns. Media related to Friezes at Wikimedia Commons Frieze
Viggo Johansen was a Danish painter and active member of the group of Skagen Painters who met every summer in the north of Jutland. He was one of Denmarks most prominent painters in the 1890s, as a boy, Johansen already had a talent for drawing which was recognized by Wilhelm Marstrand. He studied at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts from 1868 to 1875, specializing in figure painting and his earliest works are from Hornbæk where he painted between 1872 and 1876 with works such as Et Maaltid and Nabokonens Besøg. He first became associated with the Skagen Painters in 1875, encouraged by his fellow students Karl Madsen and Michael Ancher. After his return from Paris, his paintings took on lighter tones, he had noted the absence of black in the works of the French artists, after a falling out with P. S. Krøyer in 1891, Johansens relationship with the Anchers was strained and he, from 1888 to 1906, he taught at the Artists Academys School for Women. He became a professor there until 1920 and, for a time, was one of its directors and it is said that in Skagen, he showed just as much interest in playing Mozart on the hotel piano or Gluck on the church organ as in painting.
He married Anna Anchers cousin Martha Møller in 1880, viggo Johansens daughter, was a painter. She married the painter Johannes Ottesen, in 1886, Johansen was awarded the Exhibition Medal for the painting Evening Talk. In 1889, many of the Skagen artists received awards at Exposition Universelle in Paris, northern Light - The Skagen Painters
Carlsberg Foundation was founded by J. C. Jacobsen in 1876 and owns 30. 3% of the shares in Carlsberg Group and has 74. 2% of the voting power, the foundation was started to run Carlsberg Laboratory. To finance its works the foundation received a portion of shares in Carlsberg Brewery, J. C. Jacobsens wish was to create a foundation with firm obligations to the natural sciences and direct responsibility for the running of a corporate enterprise. In 1878 the foundation started to manage and fund the Museum of National History at Frederiksborg Palace, in 1882 after the death of J. C. Jacobsen the foundation inherited the remaining shares in the brewery, in 1902 Carl Jacobsen started the New Carlsberg Foundation to run his brewery, New Carlsberg. When the old and new Brewery merged, the obligations of New Carlsberg Foundation were added to those of the Carlsberg foundation, including the management, in 1931 the foundation started a Scholarship programme named after J. C. The foundation sponsored the Danish excavation of Tell Shemshara in Iraq in 1957, in 1991 the foundation took over the responsibilities of the Tuborg Foundation, after Carlsberg acquired Tuborg brewery in 1970.
In 1882 at the death of J. C, Jacobsen the foundation inherited the remaining shares in Carlsberg Brewery, the testament stated that the foundation shall always at least own 51% of the brewery. The shares in Carlsberg are divided into two classes, where the A-class has twenty votes per share and the B-class has two votes per share, as of May 2007 the foundation owns 51. 3% of the capital and 81. 9% voting capacity in Carlsberg
Ulrik Adolph Plesner, usually known as Ulrik Plesner, was an innovative Danish architect who designed in a National Romantic style at the beginning of the 20th century. He is remembered in particular for his influence on the style of architecture practiced in Skagen in the north of Jutland, born in Vedersø near Ringkøbing on the west coast of Jutland, he was the son of parish priest J. F. Plesner. After attending the Copenhagen Technical School, he entered the school of architecture at the Royal Danish Academy where he studied under Martin Nyrop and he developed a simple style typified by compact structures of red brick with white cornices and trimmings. Plesner was first noted for an extension to Brøndums Hotel in Skagen which he completed in 1892, much of his subsequent work was in Skagen where he lived for extended periods and became closely associated with the colony of artists known as the Skagen Painters. Highly respected by his colleagues, he contributed to the development of the style of the period.
He associated with Thorvald Bindesbøll who collaborated with him, often designing interiors in the Art Nouveau style, Plesner first arrived in Skagen in 1891 in connection with the establishment of Højen Lighthouse. The same year he designed the first extension of Brøndums Hotel, the same year, he renovated the house belonging to P. S. Krøyer and in 1913 designed a house for Michael and Anna Ancher, in 1919, he drew up early designs for Skagens Museum and went on to design the towns railway station, bank, harbor-masters residence, post office and numerous private houses. Plesner died of an attack in 1933 while staying in Brøndums Hotel. The last building he designed before his death was Ålbæk Station on the railway from Skagen to Frederikshavn, Ulrik Plesner and grandnephew of Ulrik Adolph Plesner
Anna Ancher was a Danish artist associated with the Skagen Painters, an artists colony on the northern point of Jutland, Denmark. She is considered to be one of Denmarks greatest visual artists, Anna Kirstine Brøndum was born in Skagen, the daughter of Erik Andersen Brøndum and Ane Hedvig Møller. She was the one of the Skagen Painters who was actually born and grew up in Skagen. The artistic talent of Anna Ancher became obvious at an early age and she studied drawing in Paris at the atelier of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes along with Marie Triepcke, who would marry Peder Severin Krøyer, another Skagen painter. In 1880 she married fellow painter Michael Ancher, whom she met in Skagen and they had one child, daughter Helga Ancher. Despite pressure from society that women should devote themselves to household duties. Anna Ancher was considered to be one of the great Danish pictorial artists by virtue of her abilities as a character painter and colorist. Her art found its expression in Nordic arts modern breakthrough towards a more truthful depiction of reality, e. g.
in Blue Ane, Ancher preferred to paint interiors and simple themes from the everyday lives of the Skagen people, especially fishermen and children. She was intensely preoccupied with exploring light and color, as in Interior with Clematis and she created more complex compositions such as A Funeral. Anna Anchers works often represented Danish art abroad and she was awarded the Ingenio et Arti medal in 1913 and the Tagea Brandt Rejselegat in 1924. The Skagen residence of Anne and Michael Ancher was purchased in 1884, in 1913, a large studio annex was added to the property, and this formed part of what is on display today. Upon her death in 1964, the Anchers daughter, left the house, the former residence was restored and opened as a museum and visitor attraction. In 1967, Michael and Anna Anchers house in Skagen was converted into a museum by the Helga Ancher Foundation before Anchers Hus opened to the public for tours, original furniture and paintings created by the Anchers and other Skagen artists are shown in the restored home and studio.
Anna and Michael Ancher were featured on the front side of the DKK1000 bill, I Am Anna, A Homage to Anna Ancher. Brøndums Hotel Danish Skagen Paintings Paintings and drawings by Anna Ancher
Holger Henrik Herholdt Drachmann was a Danish poet and dramatist. He was a figure of the Modern Breakthrough, the son of a physician, A. G. Drachmann, whose father belonged to the German-speaking congregation at St. Peters Church, was born in Copenhagen. Drachmann first visited Skagen in 1872 with the Norwegian painter Frits Thaulow and he frequently returned, associating with the growing colony of artists known as the Skagen Painters although his painting took second place to his writing. In 1903, he and his third wife Soffi settled in Skagens Vesterby in their Villa Pax, in life, Drachmann returned to art, often painting pictures of ships and the sea. After his death, his Skagen home became a museum, Holger was sent to Bornholm to learn to paint, there he met his first wife Vilhelmine Erichsen, whom he married in 1871 in Gentofte. He was involved with a woman named Polly for a short while. Shortly after she gave birth to a daughter, she broke contact with him and he met with a young girl in Hamburg by the name of Emmy.
They fell in love and got married and they adopted Pollys daughter and had four more children of their own. In 1887 she became ill, and one of their daughters died the same year. Perhaps suffering from stress, he fled into a relation with Amanda Nielsen, whom he called Edith and he would have many muses in his life, but on his deathbed he said that his two biggest muses were Vilhelmine and Edith. Behind in his studies, he did not enter university until 1865, from 1866 to 1870 he learned, under Professor Sørensen, to become a marine painter, with some success. In about 1870 he came under the influence of Georg Brandes, at various periods he travelled very extensively in England, France and Italy, and his literary career began by his sending letters about his journeys to the Danish newspapers. After returning home, he settled for some time on the island of Bornholm and he now issued his earliest volume of poems and joined the group of young Radical writers who followed Brandes. Drachmann was unsettled, and still doubted whether his strength lay in the pencil or in the pen.
His volume of lyrics, Dæmpede Melodier, proved that Drachmann was a poet with a real vocation, ungt Blod contained three realistic stories of contemporary life. In 1879 he published Ranker og Roser, amatory lyrics of a high order of melody. To the same period belongs Paa sømands tro og love, a volume of stories in prose. It was about time that Drachmann broke with Brandes and the Radicals