Mount Vernon, Washington
Mount Vernon is the county seat of Skagit County, United States. The population was 31,743 at the 2010 census, it is one of two principal cities of and included in the Mount Vernon-Anacortes, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area. Downtown Mount Vernon is known for its annual Tulip Festival Street Fair, part of the Skagit Valley Tulip Festival; the climate of Skagit County is similar to that of Northern France, with millions of tulips grown in the Skagit Valley. In 1998, Mount Vernon was rated the #1 "Best Small City in America" by the New Rating Guide to Life in America's Small Cities. Jasper Gates and Pillo first settled on the banks of the Skagit River, where the city of Mount Vernon now lies, in 1870. On, Harrison Clothier came to the community in 1877 to teach school and join in business with a former student, E. G. English, they were recognized as the city's founders and pioneer businessmen. A post office was established in November 1877 with Clothier appointed postmaster; the city was named after the plantation estate and resting place of George Washington.
The two men laid out the city's first plan while the area was still timbered. Mount Vernon's first industry was logging; the community grew following the loggers, hotels and saloons opened up along the Skagit River next to English & Clothiers' store. While poised to grow, river access to the community was stymied by a massive and ancient log jam in the river which prevented large ships from being able to port. Mail carriers instead had to paddle canoes down-stream to nearby Skagit City; the mining activity at nearby Ruby Creek spurred growth for a short time in 1880, gaining the city a new hotel, but little else was accomplished when the mines proved to be shallow. More logging operations were established but were not profitable due to the low price of logs at the time. By 1881, Mount Vernon's permanent population was 75. Growth in the 1880s was steady. In 1882, the Odd Fellows Lodge was established, followed by the first newspaper in 1884, The Skagit News; the first church, was established in 1884 but wouldn't build a permanent building for several years.
In November 1884, Mount Vernon's future was secured when it was chosen for the new Skagit County seat, taking the designation from La Conner. The Odd fellows building, built the following year, served the county's needs until a permanent building was built. Mount Vernon's growth was helped by its central location in reference to the mining and farming communities of the eastern and central parts of the county as well as its access to Puget Sound; the only thing it was lacking was a railroad connection to the outside world Everett and Vancouver, B. C.. A committee was appointed in 1889 to negotiate with railroads on line placement, their efforts paid off. This was completed in 1891; the city was in the process of convincing the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway to come to Mt. Vernon; this deal fell through after the railroad was acquired by Northern Pacific Railway who chose to lay tracks further east through Sedro-Woolley in 1896. The railroad's arrival caused great commotion in Mount Vernon, bringing hundreds of new businesses and residents.
Mount Vernon was incorporated on July 5, 1893. That same year, a large brick courthouse was built on Main street. Due to the area's stable economy, Mount Vernon never boomed in the 1890s like many other speculative booms in the region; the city experienced its first of many fires in 1891 when several blocks along the waterfront were destroyed. The same year the city's riverfront eroded taking away Front Street and the west side of Main Street; the boost from the railroad's construction replaced these buildings. 1891 saw the construction of several large civic structures such as a large brick schoolhouse on the hill above the city as well as the Mount Vernon Opera House, designed by Peacock & Dalton. Growth slowed after the Panic of 1893. Following a large flood in 1894, the first dike was built along the Skagit River. Another great fire in 1900 wiped out all of Mount Vernon's original structures including English & Clothiers' store and the Ruby Hotel. Fire would destroy more downtown businesses in 1903.
The city received a water system in 1902 after a failed attempt in 1894. The city again grew in the 1910s when it became the southern terminus for the Bellingham & Skagit Railway's interurban railroad line, which would carry passengers as well as freight between Bellingham and Mount Vernon as well as Burlington and Sedro-Woolley; the line opened on August 31, 1912, with passenger trips to Bellingham every two hours during the day and freight operating at night. Mount Vernon business owners soon began pressuring the railway company, since renamed the Pacific Northwest Traction Company, to extend the rails south to connect with the interurban line in Everett. Plagued by a weakening economy, the onset of America's entrance into World War I in 1917, numerous infrastructure failures that led to line closures for months at a time, extension of the interurban was put off indefinitely; the completion of the Pacific Highway between Seattle and Bellingham in 1920 posed a great threat to the still incomplete interurban line.
After a series of accidents and bridge wash outs, passenger service on the money-losing line was permanently suspended in June 1930. In 1969, Interstate 5 was built through downtown, severing it from most of the residential district and opening the farm lands north of the city to urban development, where many of Mount Vernon's downtown businesses moved; the Historic Lincoln Theatre on First Street in downtown Mount Vernon was
Law of Washington (state)
The law of Washington consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory and case law, as well as local ordinances. The Revised Code of Washington forms the general statutory law; the Constitution of Washington is the foremost source of state law. Legislation is enacted by the Washington State Legislature, published in the Laws of Washington, codified in the Revised Code of Washington. State agency regulations are published in the Washington State Register and codified in the Washington Administrative Code. Washington's legal system is based on common law, interpreted by case law through the decisions of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals, which are published in the Washington Reports and Washington Appellate Reports, respectively. Counties and towns may promulgate local ordinances; the foremost source of state law is the Constitution of Washington. The Washington Constitution in turn is subordinate to the Constitution of the United States, the supreme law of the land. Pursuant to the state constitution, the Washington State Legislature has enacted legislation.
Its session laws are published in the Laws of Washington, which in turn have been codified, and/or consolidated in the Revised Code of Washington. Both are published by the Washington State Statute Law Committee and the Washington State Code Reviser which it employs and supervises. Pursuant to certain statutes, state agencies have promulgated regulations known as administrative law; the Washington State Register is a biweekly publication that includes notices of proposed and expedited rules and permanently adopted rules, public meetings, requests for public input, notices of rules review, executive orders of the Governor, court rules, summary of attorney general opinions, juvenile disposition standards, the state maximum interest rate. The Washington Administrative Code codifies or compiles the regulations and arranges them by subject or agency, is updated twice a month. There are many agencies with quasi-judicial authority to hold hearings and make decisions; the Washington State Register is published by the Statute Law Committee, the Washington Administrative Code is compiled and published under the authority of its Code Reviser.
The legal system of Washington is based on the common law. Like all U. S. states except Louisiana, Washington has a reception statute providing for the "reception" of English law. All statutes and ordinances are subject to judicial review. Pursuant to common law tradition, the courts of Washington have developed a large body of case law through the decisions of the Washington Supreme Court and Washington Court of Appeals; the decisions of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals are published in the Washington Reports and Washington Appellate Reports, respectively. Both are published by LexisNexis; the Reporter of Decisions is the constitutional officer of the Supreme Court that prepares the decisions and opinions of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals for publication in the official court reports. Cases from Washington appellate courts are reported in the unofficial Pacific Reporter. From 1854 to 1889, opinions of the territorial Supreme Court were published in the three volumes of the Washington Territory Reports.
The legislative bodies of counties and towns may adopt ordinances, rules, regulations and orders, violations of which are punishable by a maximum of 90 days in jail and a $1,000 fine, or for a gross misdemeanor one year in jail and a $5,000 fine. Alternatively, a legislative body may make an offense a civil infraction, but no city or county may establish a civil penalty for an act that constitutes a crime under state law, nor may it establish a different criminal punishment than that provided by state law for the same act; the power of the public to initiate ordinances by petition and to have enacted ordinances referred to the voters are only available in first class cities, code cities, cities or towns organized under the commission plan of government, home rule counties. All cities and towns are required to publish every ordinance in their official newspaper, although in lieu of publishing an entire ordinance a city or town may publish a summary. Counties must provide advance notice of proposed police or sanitary regulations prior to adoption by the legislative body, the notice may either set out a copy of the regulation or summarize its content.
Capital punishment in Washington state Felony murder rule Gun laws in Washington LGBT rights in Washington List of Washington initiatives to the legislature List of Washington initiatives to the people Politics of Washington Law enforcement in Washington Crime in Washington Law of the United States Washington State Constitution from the Washington State Legislative Service Center Revised Code of Washington from the Washington State Legislative Service Center Revised Code of Washington archive from the Washington State Legislative Service Center Washington Administrative Code from the Washington State Legislative Service Center Washington Administrative Code archive from the Washington State Legislative Service Center Session laws from the Washington State Code Reviser Washington State Register from the Washington State Code Reviser Washington Supreme Court and Court of Appeals opinions from the Washington State Administrative Office of the Courts Washington state court decisions from the Municipal Research and Services Center Washington county codes from the Municipal Research and Services Center Washington city codes from the Municipal Research and Services Center Washington special purpose district and administrative codes from the Muni
Economy of Washington (state)
Washington's economy grew 3.7% in 2016, nearly two and a half times the national rate. The nation's largest concentration of STEM workers reside in Washington state The state of Washington are one of only seven states that does not levy a personal income tax; the state does not collect a corporate income tax or franchise tax. However, Washington businesses are responsible for various other state levies. One tax Washington charges on most businesses is the business and occupation tax, a gross receipts tax which charges varying rates for different types of businesses. Washington's state base sales tax is 6.5 percent, combined with a local sales tax which varies by locality. The combined state and local retail sales tax rates increase the taxes paid by consumers, depending on the variable local sales tax rates between 7.5 and 10 percent. As of March 2017, the combined sales tax rate in Seattle and Tacoma was 10.1 percent. The cities of Lynnwood and Mill Creek have the highest sale tax rate in the state at 10.4 percent.
These taxes apply to services as well as products. Most foods are exempt from sales tax. An applies to certain select products such as gasoline and alcoholic beverages. Property tax was the first tax levied in the state of Washington and its collection accounts for about 30% of Washington's total state and local revenue, it continues to be the most important revenue source for public schools, fire protection, libraries and recreation, other special purpose districts. All real property and personal property is subject to tax unless exempted by law. Personal property is taxed, although most personal property owned by individuals is exempt. Personal property tax applies to personal property used when conducting business or to other personal property not exempt by law. All property taxes are paid to the county treasurer's office. Washington does not impose a tax on assets such as stocks or bonds. Neither does the state assess any tax on retirement income received from another state. Washington does not collect inheritance taxes.
The per capita personal income in 2009 was 12th in the nation. Among its resident billionaires, Washington boasts Jeff Bezos, Chairman & CEO of Amazon, with a net worth of $154.4 billion, is the wealthiest man in the world, Bill Gates, technology advisor and former Chairman & CEO of Microsoft, with a net worth of $91.3 billion, is the second wealthiest man in the world as of December 2017. Other Washington state billionaires include Paul Allen, Steve Ballmer, Craig McCaw, James Jannard, Howard Schultz, Charles Simonyi. Significant amounts of trade with Asia pass through the ports of the Puget Sound. Washington is the fourth largest exporting state in the United States, after New York and Texas; the ports of Washington receive 6 % of the nation's imports. Washington industries by GDP value added 2011 Key businesses within the state include the design and manufacture of jet aircraft, computer software development, online retailers, biotechnology, aluminum production and wood products and tourism.
A Fortune magazine survey of the top 20 Most Admired Companies in the US has four Washington-based companies in it, Microsoft and Nordstrom. Washington was one of eighteen states which had a government monopoly on sales of alcoholic beverages, although beer and wine with less than 20% alcohol by volume could be purchased in convenience stores and supermarkets. Liqueurs and spirits could only be purchased in state-run or owned-state-contracted liquor stores; this however was overturned by 2011's Initiative 1183 which ceased state-run liquor stores as of June 1, 2012. Washington is a leading agricultural state.. For 2003, the total value of Washington's agricultural products was $5.79 billion, the 11th highest in the country. The total value of its crops was the 7th highest; the total value of its livestock and specialty products was the 26th highest. In 2010, the total value of the crops was $7.93 billion. In 2004, Washington ranked first in the nation in production of red raspberries, wrinkled seed peas, spearmint oil, sweet cherries, peppermint oil, Concord grapes, carrots for processing, Niagara grapes.
Washington ranked second in the nation in production of lentils, fall potatoes, dry edible peas, grapes, sweet corn for processing, green peas for processing. The apple industry is of particular importance to Washington; because of the favorable climate of dry, warm summers and cold winters of central Washington, the state has led the U. S. in apple production since the 1920s. Two areas account for the vast majority of the state's apple crop: the Wenatchee–Okanogan re
Washington's congressional districts
The following is a list of the ten congressional districts in the U. S. state of Washington. This article describes districts prior to the 2012 redistricting. From the time that Washington Territory was formed in 1853, through statehood in 1889, Washington Territory elected an at-large non-voting Delegate to the United States House of Representatives. At different times in its history, the state of Washington has elected one or more representatives At-large statewide. Washington Territory's at-large congressional district Washington's at-large congressional district List of members of the Washington United States House delegation, their terms, their district boundaries, the districts' political ratings according to the CPVI; the delegation has a total including 7 Democrats and 3 Republicans. Table of United States congressional district boundary maps in the State of Washington, presented chronologically. All redistricting events that took place in Washington between 1973 and 2013 are shown. Washington is one of 22 states that do not give direct control of redistricting to the state's legislature.
The state's congressional districts are determined by a four-member Washington State Redistricting Commission, appointed every ten years. Two members are appointed by both of the state's legislative branches, with the Democrats and Republicans from each selecting one person; the four appointed members vote to appoint a fifth, non-partisan chairperson that cannot vote. The commission is disbanded. In 1983, the voters approved a ballot measure to amend the state constitution to establish a redistricting commission; the first commission created under the changes completed their work as part of the 1991 redistricting. List of United States congressional districts Washington State Redistricting Commission Find your new congressional district: a searchable map, Seattle Times, January 13, 2012
Music of Washington (state)
The U. S. state of Washington has been home to many popular musicians and several major hotbeds of musical innovation throughout its history. The largest city in the state, Seattle, is best known for being the birthplace of grunge, a type of rock and roll, during the mid-1980s, as well as a major contributor to the evolution of punk rock, indie music and hip-hop. Nearby Tacoma and Olympia have been centers of influence on popular music. Several world-famous musicians have hailed from Washington. Bing Crosby, born in Tacoma in 1903 and raised in Spokane, had a #1 hit in the U. S. in 1942 with "White Christmas". Jimi Hendrix, one of classic rock's most enduring guitar legends, was born in Seattle and buried in Renton, WA. Saxophonist Kenny G attended the University of Washington. In the mid-1950s, the Washington rock scene was kick-started by a Seattle group, The Frantics, led by guitarist Ron Peterson; the Frantics were the first rock group from Seattle to have songs in the national Top 40 charts.
Several garage bands achieved regional and some national fame. The most famous of these are The Wailers, whose regional fame was paramount for several years in the early 1960s, they are considered the fathers of Seattle's rock scene. Their version of Richard Berry's "Louie, Louie" became the region's unofficial anthem. An influential garage rock band called The Regents became local icons in the Tacoma area, but the original incarnation never signed to a record label, they are known for pioneering a distinct sound technology when they fed the rhythm guitar through a Leslie organ speaker during a concert at the University of Puget Sound. Another Tacoma band, The Sonics proved to be influential, are still a cult favorite, their name was inspired by one of Seattle's most important employers, Boeing, an aircraft manufacturer, The Sonics' brand of aggressive guitar rock made them icons in the development of music in and around Seattle. Record producer Jerry Dennon of Jerdon Records was responsible for bringing The Kingsmen, best known for their national hit "Louie Louie", to the ears of northwest audiences.
The Kingsmen soon found themselves embroiled in a rivalry with local favorite Paul Revere & the Raiders, who released a version of "Louie, Louie". Local music fans were split between the two groups, the city's music scene polarized as a result; the Kingsmen's version caught on nationally after a Boston radio station picked up the song and Dennon negotiated distributing rights with Wand Records out of New York City. The song's suggestive lyrics led to it being banned in some localities, including Indiana. Sisters Ann and Nancy Wilson found commercial success with hard rock group Heart in the 1970s; the band scored two #1 Hot 100 hits, including "These Dreams" in 1986. Mondo Bando may be the earliest documented all out original Heavy Metal band in the Seattle area dating to early 1976 to 1977. Live Radio broadcast early 1976:, Rock Scene Magazine 1/77 Page 53: Members were: Electra Blue, Vocals. Disco Music was the music of choice at that time and Punk was on the rise in Seattle so Mondo Bando was in the musical wilderness but played around 25 shows during 1976-1977.
Mark Maye, Joe Seltice and the original singer Warren Ferger migrated to Seattle in 1975 from Spokane and reformed Mondo Bando with Brad Butler on Drums and played High School Dances, self promoted shows and some parties playing hard rock. Warren Ferger left the band early and Roger Williams joined as lead vocalist. Mondo Bando disbanded in December 1975 and reformed again in January 1976 when they added Electra Blue and Gary Herrman to their lineup; the newly revived band began writing their own music and went extra hard in their delivery. "We didn't call ourselves Heavy Metal, it was what people were calling us". The band once again disbanded in 1977 and it was permanent. Mondo Bando has made the Ranker list of most famous Seattle musical acts at the 111 spot. Electra Blue moved on to the Seattle Punk Scene and performed with Violent World for a while before relocating to San Francisco. In 1991 Mark Maye played guitar for the Washington Christian Heavy Metal band Amethyst. With lead singer and founder Mark Fekete on lead vocals, Gary Rose on bass, Charles Heinzerling on drums.
Mark Fekete and Gary Rose started Amethyst in Spokane, Washington in 1985, are still recording new material to this day. Their style and sound are similar to the styles of bands like Iron Maiden, Metal Church and Dokken. Notable heavy metal bands that emerged in the Seattle area in the 1980s include Metal Church, Queensrÿche, The Mentors, TKO, Prowler, Q5, Forced Entry, Culprit, Myth, Heir Apparent and Fifth Angel. Metal Church had acquired its name while Kurdt Vanderhoof started in the San Francisco scene, but moved back home to Seattle and changed the members of the band, was one of the most well-known metal bands from the 1980s thanks to albums like Metal Church, The Dark, Blessing in Disguise and The Human Factor. Queensrÿche is better known for falling somewhere between the heavy metal and glam metal scene, with strong influence from progressive rock, which can be seen in their albums Operation: Mindcrime and Empire. Going to the mid-end of the'80s, Seattle featured successful thrash metal bands, such as The Accüsed, Assault & B
United States congressional delegations from Washington
These are tables of congressional delegations from the state of Washington to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. From 1889 to 1909, members were elected At-large, statewide; as of January 2019, there are eighteen living former members of the House. The most recent to die was Al Swift on April 20, 2018; as of April 2015, there are two former U. S. Senators from the U. S. State of Washington who are living at this time, both from Class 1
Sedro-Woolley is a city in Skagit County, United States. The population was 10,540 at the 2010 census, it is included in the Mount Vernon -- Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area. Incorporated on December 19, 1898, Sedro-Woolley was formed from neighboring rival towns known as Bug and Woolley in Skagit County, northwestern Washington, 25 miles inland from the Puget Sound, 40 miles south of the border with Canada and 65 miles north of Seattle. Four British bachelors, led by David Batey, homesteaded the area in 1878, the time logjam obstructions were cleared downriver at the site of Mount Vernon. In 1884–85, Batey built a store and home for the arrival of the Mortimer Cook family from Santa Barbara, California where Cook had been mayor for two terms. Cook intended to name his new Pacific Northwest town Bug due to the number of mosquitos present, but his wife protested along with a handful of other local wives. Cook was the namesake for the town Cook's Ferry on the Thompson River in British Columbia.
With "Bug" being so unpopular, Cook derived a town name from Spanish. Sedro, on the northern banks of the Skagit River, proved susceptible to floods. In 1899, Northern Pacific Railway developer Nelson Bennett began laying track from the town of Fairhaven, 25 miles northwest on Bellingham Bay, real estate developer Norman R. Kelley platted a new town of Sedro on high ground a mile northwest of Cook's site; the Fairhaven and Southern Railroad arrived in Sedro on Christmas Eve 1899, in time for Bennett to receive a performance bonus from the towns at both ends, a month after Washington became the 42nd state in the Union. Within months, two more railroads crossed the F&S road bed a half mile north of new Sedro, forming a triangle where 11 trains arrived daily. Railroad developer Philip A. Woolley moved his family from Elgin, Illinois, to Sedro in December 1899 and bought land around the triangle, he built the Skagit River Lumber & Shingle Mill next to where the railroads crossed and he started his namesake company town there, based on sales of railroad ties to the three rail companies, including the Seattle and Northern Railway and the Northern Pacific Railroad.
Meanwhile, a fourth town rose nearby when the F&S laid rails on a "wye" that led northeast from Sedro about four and a half miles to coal mines. Bennett bought the mines, along with Montana mining financier Charles X. Larrabee, they soon sold their interests to James J. Hill, owner of the Great Northern; the resulting ore soon turned out to be more suitable for coking coal and a town began there named Cokedale. Cokedale faded in importance when the mine declined and the other towns all merged on December 19, 1898, as Sedro-Woolley. On May 15, 1922, a large circus elephant known as Tusko escaped from the Al G. Barnes Circus, making one of its stops in Sedro-Woolley, at that time; the elephant stomped his way through the little logging town and right into local history, demolishing fences, knocking over laundry lines and trees, telephone poles, a Model T along the way. After logging and coal-mining declined, the major employers and industries became the nearby Northern State Hospital and Skagit Steel & Iron Works, which rose from the back room of a local hardware store to become a major supplier of implements and parts for logging and railroad customers and which manufactured machines and parts for the war effort in World War II and artillery shells, starting in 1953.
By 1990, that company was gone and the hospital was closed but new industry, including robotics and aerospace, is developing north of town and on the campus of the old hospital. The City of Sedro-Woolley is a non-charter code city that operates under a Mayor-Council form of government with seven councilmembers. Six councilmembers are elected by wards and one is elected at-large; each councilmember serves a four-year term. The mayor is elected at-large every four years and is responsible for the executive functions of the city; the mayor appoints a city supervisor, subject to confirmation by the city council, responsible for the day-to-day operations of the city. The police chief, fire chief, finance director, IT director, planning director, public works director, offender work program director report to the city supervisor; the municipal judge is appointed by the mayor, subject to confirmation of the city council, operates independently of the other branches of government. The city librarian reports to the library board.
Sedro-Woolley is a full-service city with its own police department, fire department, wastewater treatment plan, solid waste operation, storm water division, street department, parks department and administration. The city maintains a large number of public parks and open spaces such as Hammer Heritage Square in downtown Sedro-Woolley. Riverfront Park situated on the north bank of the Skagit River is the signature park, it consists of nearly 60 acres and includes picnic shelters, baseball fields, RV park, an off-leash dog park. Every year on the 4th of July the city celebrates with a festive carnival, hosts the Loggerodeo parade. Public schools are operated by the Sedro-Woolley School District. Sedro Woolley school district elementary schools includes Evergreen elementary, Samish elementary, Mary - Purcelle elementary, Central elementary, Clear lake elementary, Big lake elementary, Lyman elementary. Sedro-Woolley is the home of Loggerodeo, a celebration staged annually since the mid-1930s close to the Fourth of July.
The annual event is well known in Western Washington and one