Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Pehr Gustaf Victor Gyllenhammar was a Swedish insurance company executive. He completed a law degree from Stockholm University in 1925, became CEO of the insurance company Svenska Skeppshypotekskassan in 1938, he was CEO of the Swedish insurance company Skandia until 1970, when he was succeeded by his son, Pehr G. Gyllenhammar, the Chairman of Reuters. Gyllenhammar was born in Gothenburg, the son of insurance company executive Pehr Gyllenhammar and Anne, he passed studentexamen in 1920 and earned a Candidate of Law degree from Stockholm University College in 1925. He did his clerkship in Askim judicial district from 1925 to 1928 and was an insurance and brokerage intern in Germany and England from 1928 to 1929. Gyllenhammar was employed by the insurance company Svenska Skeppshypotekskassan from 1929 as a ombudsman and at the law firm Dr Philip Lemans Advokatbyrå in Gothenburg as an assistant lawyer from 1934 to 1940. In 1938 he became CEO of Svenska Skeppshypotekskassan, he was employed by Sveriges allmänna sjöförsäkrings AB from 1941 and became the deputy CEO in 1942 and CEO from 1944 to 1947.
Gyllenhammar was board member and deputy CEO of AB Argo from 1945 and its CEO from 1948 and well as CEO of Försäkrings AB Ocean from 1948 to 1962 and the Återförsäkrings AB Union from 1948. He was CEO of Försäkrings AB Svea-Nornan from 1953 to 1961. Gyllenhammar was CEO of Försäkrings AB Svea from 1953 to 1961, Försäkrings AB Skandia in Stockholm from 1961 and Livförsäkrings AB Thule from 1964. Gyllenhammar was CEO of Nordiska sjöförsäkringspoolen from 1952. Gyllenhammar was an accountant at Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken from 1945 and chairman of the board of AB Lund & Michélsen from 1945 and board member of Lloyd's Register's Swedish commission from 1946, he was board member of: Sveriges allmänna sjöförsäkrings AB from 1943, AB Argo from 1945, Försäkrings AB Amphion-Æquitas from 1946, Återförsäkrings AB Skandia from 1946, Försäkrings AB Ocean from 1948, Återförsäkrings AB Union from 1948, AB Sjöassuranskompaniet from 1948, Sjöassuradörernas förening from 1948, Svenska försäkringsbolags riksförbund from 1950, Försäkringssällskapet i Göteborg from 1950 and Sjöförsäkrings AB Gauthiod from 1952.
Furthermore, Gyllenhammar was board member of Gothenburg Chamber of Commerce from 1954, AB Götaverken from 1955 to 1968, Försäkrings AB Svea from 1957, Pripp-bryggerierna AB from 1960, Försäkrings AB Skandia from 1961, Försäkrings AB Skåne, Skåne-Malmö from 1961, Sjöförsäkrings AB Ägir from 1962, Sjöförsäkrings AB Öresund from 1962 and Livförsäkrings AB Thule from 1963. He was board member of Försäkringsbolagens förhandlarorganisation from 1964, the International Law Association's Swedish section from 1954, the Swedish Sea Rescue Society from 1954 and Anna Ahrenbergs fond from 1951. Gyllenhammar was a council member of Stockholm Chamber of Commerce from 1963, he was chairman of Svenska tarifföreningen from 1955. In 1929, Gyllenhammar married Aina Dagny Kaplan, he was the father of Pehr-Gustaf. Gyllenhammar was buried at Östra kyrkogården in Gothenburg. Commander First Class of the Order of Vasa
Bertil Eric Hult is a Swedish billionaire businessman, who founded the educational and language school company EF Education First in 1965. In 1971, he moved from Sweden to Germany, in 1977, he established EF's head office in Lucerne, where he now lives, he served as the company's CEO until 2002 and as chairman until 2008. Today, he is semi-retired. Two of his four sons serve in the company. Under Bertil Hult's supervision, EF grew to a multi-billion dollar corporation with more than 40,000 employees in 53 countries. Bertil Hult was born in Stockholm, he has spoken about his struggles with dyslexia as a child. He dropped out of school after junior high and worked making coffee and running errands for a ship broker in London, he learned to speak English during this time and became convinced that immersion is the best way to learn a language. After returning to Sweden and taking up his studies again, he entered Lund University dropped out after one year. Hult founded EF Education First at the age of 23 in the basement of his university dormitory in Lund, Sweden.
He started EF as a language study and travel abroad organization for Swedish high school students going to England to learn English. His childhood struggles with dyslexia convinced him that cultural immersion was a superior way to study a language, he served as the company's CEO until 2002, as its chairman until 2008, semi-retired. Under Hult's supervision, EF grew to become a multi-billion dollar corporation with more than 40,000 employees across 500 schools and educational programs in 53 different countries. EF continues to open language schools around the world, grow its online language school, place au pairs with American families, coordinate life-changing student travel, international exchange experiences. EF is affiliated with a business school, Hult International Business School the Arthur D. Little School of Management, named after Bertil Hult. EF Education First is wholly owned by his family. Forbes estimated Bertil's net worth to be 5 billion USD as of March 2015, he is a keen sailor and his boat, EF Education with skipper Paul Cayard, won the last Whitbread Round the World Race in 1998.
He sails on his boat Erica XII. The boat hosted the Swedish Crown Princess Victoria and her husband Prince Daniel on their honeymoon. In 2006 he was elected International Swede of the Year. In 2012, Bertil Hult was awarded the Lucia Trade Award by the Swedish-American Chamber of Commerce for his contribution to fostering free trade between Sweden and the United States. In 2014, Bertil Hult was named a Laureate by the World Entrepreneurship Forum; the award recognizes "exceptional entrepreneurs for their impact on society and their capacity to change the world." Apart from EF, Hult has been involved in charities fighting drug abuse and promoting dyslexia education. In 1993, he was a founding member of the Geneva-based Mentor Foundation, “an independent, non-governmental, not for profit, apolitical organization” focused on supporting research and initiatives in drug prevention, he has since served as chairman and as trustee for the foundation. Bertil Hult supports the Bertil Hult Prize. Starting in 2003, the Bertil Hult Prize has been given to a Swedish school once every year, based on their support for dyslexia education.
Hult sponsors the Hult Prize, a USD 1 million award for a global business school case competition run by the Hult International Business School and supported by the United Nations. The Hult family has founded EF's Global Classroom Foundation, which has the goal of helping to rebuild elementary schools in troubled areas
Pehr G. Gyllenhammar
Pehr Gustaf Gyllenhammar is a Swedish businessman. He is known for his 24 years as CEO and chairman of Volvo, between 1970 and 1994. In the early 1980s he took the initiative for the European Round Table of Industrialists. Gyllenhammar is now Vice Chairman of Rothschild Europe. Gyllenhammar was made Commander of the "Ordre National du Mérite" in France in 1980 and he was made Commander of the Legion of Honour in France in 1987. Gyllenhammar became an Honorary Master of the Bench of the Inner Temple, London in 2001, Gyllenhammar was born in Gothenburg, Sweden to a Jewish family, he is the son of Aina. He did his military service at Bohuslän Regiment in Uddevalla from 1954 to 1955 and became a sergeant. Gyllenhammar graduated from Lund University with a degree in law in 1959 and did internship at law firms in Sweden and studied maritime law in the United States and aspects of Industrialism at the Centre d’Etudes Industrielles in Geneva, Switzerland in 1968, he was employed at the insurance company Amphion AB in Gothenburg from 1961 to 1964 and became Deputy Chief Administrative Officer of Skandia Group in 1965.
Gyllenhammar became Deputy CEO in 1968 in 1970 he replaced his father, Pehr Gyllenhammar Sr. as CEO. After only a few months he moved to Volvo where he became the CEO in 1971, he replaced his father-in-law Gunnar Engellau. Gyllenhammar became one of the most famous businessmen in Sweden at Volvo, he mixed success with failure. He oversaw a wide-reaching diversification of Volvo's business, among other things pharmaceutical company Pharmacia. What forced him to leave Volvo was a failed merger with French company Renault. After Volvo, Gyllenhammar withdrew from Swedish public life and moved to London where he became chairman of insurance company Aviva, he returned to Swedish business in 2004 as Chairman of Investment AB Kinnevik. Gyllenhammar is no longer a member of Investment AB Kinnevik's board. Gyllenhammar was the CEO of Svenska skeppshypotekskassan and Ship Transport Secondary Loan Fund in Gothenburg from 1970 to 1976, chairman there from 1976, board member of Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken from 1979 to 1994 including vice chairman from 1979 to 1994.
Gyllenhammar was board member of United Technologies in Hartford, Connecticut from 1981, Swedish Intercontinental Airlines from 1982, Kissinger Associates in New York City from 1982 to 1997, Atlas Copco from 1982, Hamilton Brothers Petroleum in Denver, Colorado from 1982, S. Pearson & Son in London from 1983 to 1997, Swedish Employers Association from 1979, Sveriges Industriförbund from 1979, FA-rådet from 1981, member of the Reuters Holdings PLC from 1984, he was a board member of Philips Electronics NV in Eindhoven from 1990 to 1995, Régie Nationale des Usines Renault SA in Paris from 1990 to 1993 and well as chairman of Procordia from 1990 to 1992. Gyllenhammar was board member of Polygram NV from 1996 and became chairman of the board of Commercial Union PLC in 1998 and senior advisor of Lazard Frères & Co LLC in New York City in 1996. Gyllenhammar was the chairman of Aviva and deputy chairman of Rothschild Europe, chairman of Reuters Founders Share Company Limited and of the European Financial Services Roundtable.
He was a member of the International Advisory Committee of Chase Manhattan Bank 1972-1995. Majid Al Futtaim Group, a major business chain in the United Arab Emirates, lists Mr Gyllenhammar as its Chairman, he became a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences in 1974, honorary member of Gothenburg nation at Lund University in 1975 and an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Medicine of the University of Gothenburg in 1981. Gyllenhammar conferred the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Technology at Brunel University London, England in 1987, the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Engineering at the Technical University of Nova Scotia, Canada in 1988, the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Social Sciences at the University of Helsinki in 1990, the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Law at the University of Vermont, USA, in 1993, the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Economics at the School of Business and Law, University of Gothenburg in 2003, he is a fellow of the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences. Gyllenhammar became an Honorary Master of the Bench of the Inner Temple in London in 2001.
Gyllenhammar has in the past been an outspoken supporter of the Liberal People's Party. In his 1973 book I Believe in Sweden he was steadfast in his support for the Scandinavian model and argued for the kind social liberalism the Liberal People's Party used to support. Gyllenhammar served on the Party board and was considered as a future leader of the party. At times, he revealed an ambition to become Prime Minister of Sweden. Gyllenhammar was married 1959–2008 to Christina Engellau, the daughter of Volvo CEO Gunnar Engellau and Margit, they had three daughters and one son: Cecilia, Charlotte and Oscar. He married the horse sports journalist Christel Behrmann in 2010, they divorced in 2012. In April 2013 he married the British-Canadian doctor of Lee Welton Croll, their first child was born in 2016. Cecilia von Krusenstjerna, his oldest daughter who grew up as the "Princess of Göteborg", has written a novel about the childhood of an upper class girl, the daughter of a business man in Göteborg, marked by eating disorder and self-disgust.
The novel is critical towards Cecilia's upper-class background and, she admits, contains critic of both her parents but purely fictional elements. In the novel, the father is described as unfaithful and the mother as failing to love her daughter. Cecilia refuses to give any detail of what is purely
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie