Steel (John Henry Irons)
Steel known as the Man of Steel is a fictional comic book superhero in DC Comics. Introduced in 1993 as one of several replacement characters for the then-deceased Superman, Steel continued to be an independent superhero after Superman's resurrection, he received his own ongoing series, which saw him move from Metropolis to Washington, D. C. and join the Justice League of America in Grant Morrison's JLA. He mentored his niece Natasha Irons, who became a superheroine herself. First appearing in The Adventures of Superman #500, he is the second character known as Steel and was created by Louise Simonson and artist Jon Bogdanove. Aspects of the character are inspired by the African American folk hero John Henry, as well as Superman. Doctor John Henry Irons was a brilliant weapons engineer for AmerTek Industries, who became disgusted when the BG-60, a powerful man-portable energy cannon he had designed, fell into the wrong hands and was used to kill innocent people; as the company would have coerced him to retain his services, John faked his death, came to Metropolis.
His own life was saved by none other than Superman. When John Irons asked how he could show his gratitude, Superman told him to "live a life worth saving". During Superman's fatal battle against Doomsday, Irons attempted to help Superman fight the deadly menace by picking up a sledge hammer, but was buried in rubble amidst the devastation. Shortly after Superman's death, he awoke and crawled from the wreckage and saying that he "must stop Doomsday", he recovered, but to discover that the gangs in inner-city Metropolis were fighting a devastating gang war using BG-80 Toastmasters, an upgraded version of his earlier AmerTek design. Irons created and donned a suit of powered armor in Superman's memory in order to stop the war, as well as the weapons, which were being distributed by Dr. Angora Lapin, a former partner and lover during his time at AmerTek Industries; the "Reign of the Supermen" story arc saw the rise of four "Supermen" who were differentiated from each other with nicknames applied to Superman.
Although Steel never claimed to be the "true Superman", Lois Lane considered the possibility that he was a walk-in—someone, now inhabited by Superman's soul. Lois met all four "Supermen" that appeared after the apparent death of Superman, while she never concluded that any of them was the one true Superman, she evinced less skepticism of Steel than she did of the others. Steel was spin off into a solo series, written by co-creator Louise Simonson and by Christopher Priest, from 1994–1998; the series began by having Steel leave Metropolis and return home to Washington, D. C. revealing that it had been five years since he had left. He erroneously believed that AmerTek, would no longer be interested in him; this turned out to be false. Between this attack and his knowledge that the Toastmasters were now being used on the streets of D. C. he reforged his armor. Steel decided not to use the "S" emblem, since he felt that his battle might take him outside the law. Steel's family was introduced in this series: his grandparents and Bess, his sister-in-law Blondell, her five children: Jemahl, Paco and Darlene.
Steel's early adventures pitted him against AmerTek and against the gangs that were using his weapons. His nephew, was involved in one of the gangs, which he thought offered him protection, he was proven wrong, when the gangs turned against him to get to Steel. Tyke was paralyzed by a bullet meant for Blondell was assaulted. Steel took down AmerTek and the gangs, focused on, helping AmerTek distribute the weapons; this led him to track down a group called Black Ops, led by the villain Hazard. Steel joined up with Maxima, still on Earth at the time and working with the Justice League, to help her with an alien warlord named De'cine. During this time, Steel developed the ability to teleport his armor off himself. At first, it appeared purely by reflex but he soon began to better control it, although he had no idea how it happened. Steel continued his battle against the return of the White Rabbit. A bounty hunter named Chindi attempted to take down Steel, but after realizing Hazard was experimenting with children, he ended up as an ally of Irons.
He was called away from Earth as part of the Superman "Rescue Squad" when Superman was put on trial for the destruction of Krypton. Tragedy would strike the Irons family upon his return from space. Tyke and angry over his handicap, revealed Iron's true identity to men working with Hazard. Hazard unleashed. Most of them received minor injuries, though Butter was wounded. Child protective services came to reclaim Darlene. Tyke was shown to end up in the custody of Hazard. Hardwire battled Steel at the Washington Monument. Steel had to send his armor away to save his life—this resulted in his secret identity being revealed to the world at large. Steel was taken by Hazard, but managed to escape. Steel retrieved an anti-matter weapon called the Annihilator, which he had designed and hidden years before, for his showdown with Hazard, he learned at this point that h
Batman is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Named the "Bat-Man," the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, the World's Greatest Detective. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman superpowers, he does, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment.
A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including the Joker. The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year; as the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller; the success of Warner Bros. Pictures' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture. Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel and video games. Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Anthony Ruivivar, Peter Weller, Bruce Greenwood, Jason O'Mara, Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations.
Batman has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, he had drawn a character who looked much like Superman with kind of... reddish tights, I believe, with boots... no gloves, no gauntlets... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings, and under it was a big sign... BATMAN"; the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, gloves. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name. I tried Adams, Hancock... I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar. Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, autobiographical details referring to Kane himself; as an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said,'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin wore, on Batman's face. Bill said,'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit. I thought that black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright:'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope, he didn't have any gloves on, we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Kane signed away ownership in
Mister Mind and the Monster Society of Evil
Mister Mind is a fictional supervillain who appears in comic books published by DC Comics. Created by Otto Binder and C. C. Beck for Fawcett Comics, Mister Mind first appeared as a voice only in Fawcett's Captain Marvel Adventures #22. One of Shazam!/Captain Marvel's primary villains, Mister Mind is a two-inch alien worm of high intelligence with telepathic powers. Mind carries out his villainous plans through an organization called the Monster Society of Evil, significant as one of the first supervillain teams in comics to contain villains that a superhero had fought previously; the Monster Society made its debut in Captain Marvel Adventures #22, the resulting "Monster Society of Evil" story arc continued for two years in Captain Marvel Adventures, ending with issue #46. Mister Mind appeared as a cameo in the film Shazam! Portrayed in CGI and voiced by the movie’s director David F. Sandberg. "The Monster Society of Evil" was published in 25 chapters in Fawcett Comics' Captain Marvel Adventures comics book.
Its serialized format was inspired by the success of the live-action serial adaptation of the Captain Marvel strip, Adventures of Captain Marvel, by Republic Pictures in 1941. Chapter One of the "Monster Society" in Captain Marvel Adventures #22 depicted Captain Marvel learning that a criminal genius known only as "Mister Mind" - and only heard as a voice over a radio receiver - had gathered many of Marvel's other rogues - including Captain Nazi, Doctor Sivana, Nippo, Mister Banjo, more - to form "The Monster Society of Evil." After a brief appearance in issue #26, Mister Mind is revealed in Captain Marvel Adventures #27 to be a cartoonish alien worm with spectacles and a talkbox around his neck to amplify his voice. Despite his small size, Mister Mind continues to use his powers of intellect and telepathy to battle Captain Marvel in subsequent chapters of the serial recruiting numerous other allies from Alligator-Men to Adolf Hitler and the all of the Axis Powers. "The Monster Society of Evil" serial concluded with Captain Marvel Adventures #46, in which Mind is captured and executed.
As the first and longest serialized story arc in comic book history, "The Monster Society of Evil" was hailed as a milestone of the Golden Age of Comics. Individual chapters would be reprinted, after the Captain Marvel characters were acquired from Fawcett by DC Comics in 1972, in various collections under the trademark Shazam! In 1989, American Nostalgia Library reprinted the serial as The Monster Society of Evil – Deluxe Limited Collector's Edition. Compiled by Mike Higgs, the collection was an oversized, slipcased hardcover book limited to 3,000 numbered copies. Fawcett ceased publication of Captain Marvel comics after settling a lawsuit from DC Comics in 1953. Twenty years DC acquired the rights to publish its own Captain Marvel stories under the title Shazam!, as well as the reprint rights to the Fawcett material. Mister Mind was reintroduced in a new story in Shazam! #2, which explained that he'd survived his execution and hid while Captain Marvel and his allies were stuck in suspended animation for 20 years.
Mister Mind would appear as part of Captain Marvel's rogue's gallery in his adventures in Shazam and World's Finest Comics through the 1970s and early 1980s. Mind appeared with some form of the Monster Society of Evil, as a guest villain in other DC publications such as Justice League of America and DC Comics Presents; the final appearance of Mister Mind and the Monster Society in the original DC/Fawcett continuity was in All-Star Squadron #51–54, an arc written by Roy & Dann Thomas was chronologically Mind's first appearance and the origin of his hatred of humans and superheroes. DC reset its comics' continuity with the Crisis on Infinite Earths in 1985-86, Mister Mind disappeared from DC publications for a decade, he re-emerged in The Power of Shazam! #13, now a more realistically depicted caterpillar-like being from the planet Venus possessing powers which include mind control and mental image projection. This Mind was the main villain of Power of Shazam's second major story arc, was depicted as the lead scout of a race of Venusian worms looking to conquer the Earth.
Though Captain Marvel destroys the other worms, Mind survives and becomes a recurring villain in The Power of Shazam!, JSA, other DC publications forming a Monster Society of Evil to do his bidding as in the original serial. The weekly maxiseries 52 featured Mister Mind as the series' final major adversary. In this story, Mind gains the ability to evolve into a gigantic "Hyperfly," able to eat space and time and inadvertently creating a new DC Multiverse in the process. Following 52, Mind appeared irregularly as a supervillain in DC comic series such as Action Comics, Booster Gold, more. In 2007, Cartoonist Jeff Smith, the creator of Bone and illustrated a four-issue miniseries, Shazam! The Monster Society of Evil, which offered an updated take on the classic Fawcett story. In 2011, DC again reset its continuity with The New 52. In subsequent stories, Mister Mind has appeared sparingly in cameo appearances as in Justice League #21 and Convergence: Shazam! #2. He appears as one of the villains in DC's current Shazam!
Ongoing comic series, with his first appearance in Shazam! #2. The first appearance of the Monster Society, was in All-Star Squadron #51–54. In the universe known as Earth-Two (where 1940s DC Stories a
Doctor Will Magnus is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. He first appeared in Showcase #37 alongside his creations, the Metal Men and was created by Robert Kanigher and Ross Andru. One of the most impressive geniuses of the DC Universe with doctorates in theoretical mathematics, mechanical engineering, particle physics, William Maxwell "Will" Magnus offers scientific advice to other characters, his greatest achievement is the one for which he first received renown: the creation of the Metal Men. The method through which Doc Magnus created the Metal Man has varied over years with various writers. At first they were just blank slate robots with responsometers, devices which generated their intelligence and personalities which just happened to be evocative of the metals from which they were formed. In an attempt to boost sales of the comic book, the characters underwent vast changes; the Metal Men all assumed human alter egos, while Doc Magnus became a fugitive scientist dedicated to global conquest.
His personality change was credited to having been kidnapped and brainwashed by a mad dictator. Sales plunged instead and the comic was not printed for a few years. Metal Men was picked up again with Doc's sanity restored and he returned to assist his Metal Men. At one point he saved Doom Patrol's Robotman, whose original body had been destroyed by Madame Rouge. Doc Magnus built him a new cybernetic body. In 1993, a four-part Metal Men mini-series retconned much of their backstory, it was revealed that the responsometers were not responsible for the Metal Men's sentience and that the Metal Men were imprinted with the intellects and personalities of real people: Magnus's own brother Mike, his fiancee Sharon, two lab workers Redmond Wilde and Randy Pressman, a janitor named Thomas Tinkham, a pizza-delivery man named Jack. These unfortunate personalities were accidentally transferred to blank robots in a lab accident. At the climax of the miniseries, one of his robots, was permanently killed and Doc Magnus mortally wounded.
Doc permanently transferred his personality into a blank robot known as Veridium, made of a green alien metal, becoming the new robotic leader of the Metal Men. With the advent of Identity Crisis, Gold is back and Doc Magnus is once again human and played an active role in the series 52; as revealed during Infinite Crisis, when Superboy-Prime pounded on the walls of reality, he caused the fabric of reality to shift and merging histories. The "blank robots with responsometers" origin is said to be the definitive origin while the "human personalities" origin and the 1993 mini-series has been described as the byproduct of a mental breakdown suffered by Magnus; when Booster Gold visited, asking for help with Skeets, Magnus commented that the Metal Men "don't quite work anymore." The responsometers are now described as containing an "artificial soul" invented by Doc Magnus, as inspired by T. O. Morrow, revealed to have taught him at college and to have been the only one not to laugh at Magnus's theories.
After the unexplained dismantling of the Metal Men, Doc Magnus is unable to recreate these souls and restore their personalities. He now takes Prozac for the bipolar disorder which caused his nervous breakdown and the depression which led to the creation of the Plutonium Man, a tremendous, nearly indestructible superweapon based upon the Metal Men, but with Magnus' then-own deranged, twisted worldview as its operating system, it is implied that although the medication is keeping Magnus from doing anything irrational, it is deadening his imagination and creativity and that this is the reason he can not recreate the Metal Men. Magnus is approached by government agents hoping to use the Metal Men as soulless smart weapons, an offer Magnus rejects. Through all of this, Magnus visits Morrow in his cell in Haven. Morrow warns Magnus that there have been numerous abductions of "mad" scientists, including Doctor Sivana, whose lair Magnus investigates. Morrow himself disappears, leaving a note for his former student with a string in machine code.
Using the code, Magnus is able to revive Mercury, but his robotic friend and creation is destroyed again while trying to save him from the conspiracy trying to kidnap every mad scientist in the DCU. During Week 22, mindless replicas of the Metal Men force Magnus to escape from his burned house before he is captured by what is revealed to be a separate group "Chang Tzu's Science Squad"; this would be the second time. A previous incarnation of the villain once managed to brainwash the Metal Men, but their loyalty to Magnus restored their rightful minds; this group has been responsible for the disappearing scientists. The group is being financed by Intergang with the collusion, it is implied, of the Chinese government; the assembled scientists have been given unlimited budgets to invent various super weapons including, in particular, various types of robots. During Week 23, a giant robot, piloted by animals from Intergang, delivers Doc Magnus to Oolong Island. Magnus is assigned to design and construct a new Plutonium Man robot, but deliberately makes little progress, saying to Morrow that the original Plutonium Man was an expression of his pain and rage brought on by his mental illness and that the reason he takes his medication is to prevent himself from doing something like that again.
Morrow reveals this to the Island's leaders and Magnus's medication is confiscated. Magnus proceeds to work on Plutonium Man, saying this time he will "do it right." Though he is unstable due to his lack of medication, Magnus is not co-operating with Ch
Maxwell Lord is a supervillain appearing in comic books published by DC Comics. The character first appeared in Justice League #1 and was created by Keith Giffen, J. M. DeMatteis, Kevin Maguire. Depicted as a shrewd and powerful businessman, Maxwell Lord was influential in the formation of the Justice League International in the DC Universe. Maxwell Lord appeared in an episode of Smallville played by Gil Bellows, he was in the first season of the television series Supergirl played by Peter Facinelli. In this version he is the founder of Lord Technologies and distrusts many government agencies and superheroes. Maxwell Lord IV is the son of Maxwell Lord III, a successful businessman and head of the Chimtech Consortium. Maxwell III set out to be a good example for his son by striving to always do; when Maxwell IV was 16, he came home to find his father dead in an apparent suicide. His father had discovered that his company had produced a carcinogenic product, could not bear to live with the guilt and shame caused by the realization.
Lord's mother was convinced by her husband to employ a similar practice, cajoling heroic metahumans to help Lord. Thus, he sparked the plans to bring the Justice League and broken after the Crisis on Infinite Earths event, under his exclusive control. Lord works behind the scenes to establish the Justice League, while under the control of a villainous computer created by Metron; the computer wanted Lord to set up a worldwide peacekeeping organization as part of its plan to dominate the world. A retcon changed his controller to the villainous computer program Kilg%re, which had taken over Metron's machine. A much post-Infinite Crisis retcon mitigated the Kilg%re's and the New Gods' influence, stating that Lord had plans for taking over the League, that he would have pursued them regardless. Lord's ruthlessness at this time is illustrated when he sets up a disturbed would-be terrorist as a villain for the League to defeat, resulting in the man's death. However, Lord rebels against the computer and destroys it.
Once free of the computer's influence, Lord is portrayed as an amoral businessman, but not a real villain. During the time that Giffen and DeMatteis were writing the Justice League, Lord is shown struggling with his conscience and developing heroic qualities, though he would remain a con-artist. A normal human, Lord is one of many people on Earth gifted with superpowers during the Invasion crossover, when a Gene Bomb is exploded by alien invaders; this bomb activates a latent metagene present in a small percentage of Earthlings. Lord gains the ability to control the minds of others, albeit at great difficulty. Despite being a metahuman himself, Lord never feels like one. After he is shot and placed in a coma at the start of the 15-part JLAmerica/JLEurope crossover Breakdowns, Dreamslayer, a supervillain who had once destroyed all life on the Extremists' planet, takes over Lord's body and supercharges Lord's power, allowing him to control thousands of minds at once. Using Lord's body and power, he causes the Justice League International to lose its charter and forces it to disband.
While the possessed Lord forces the JLI to battle itself, the mortally wounded Silver Sorceress manages to contain Dreamslayer, holds him within her mind as she dies, taking him with her. When Lord is freed, his power is burnt out. Lord is diagnosed with a brain tumor and dies. Kilg%re, had been waiting patiently for the right moment to reactivate its control of Lord. Kilg % re downloads his consciousness into a duplicate of one of Lord Havok. In this form, he spends some time testing the League for unknown reasons, he takes control of the secret organization known as the Arcana. His cyborg body comes to resemble his original human form. Lord pulls together several former JLI members, including L-Ron, Captain Atom, Blue Beetle, Booster Gold, Fire as the "Super Buddies", advertised as "Heroes the common man could call." These stories are told in the six-issue miniseries Formerly Known as the Justice League in 2003, its 2005 sequel, I Can't Believe It's Not the Justice League. During the JLI-era, Doomsday causes the death of Superman among others.
Due to Mongul's invasion and destruction of Coast City, Maxwell loses his mother, still residing in their Coast City home. This event fuels his hatred and paranoia against the metahumans, as well as leading him to believe that not only can metahumans not be trusted, but that their personal battles and scuffles are enough to shatter world safety. In Brad Meltzer's Identity Crisis, Lord attends Sue Dibny's funeral and speaks to Booster Gold, further denting his dwindling faith in superheroes; the 2005 80-page one-shot Countdown to Infinite Crisis reveals that Lord is no longer a cyborg, is a criminal mastermind who spent years running the JLI while gathering sensitive information about the world's superheroes, whom he considered a threat to the planet. He sabotaged JLI efforts in order to render the superhero team as ineffectual as possible. At the end of the prologue special issue, he shoots and kills one-time JLI member, Ted Kord, the second Blue Beetle, when the hero discovers Lord
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam