2002 Winter Olympics
The 2002 Winter Olympics the XIX Olympic Winter Games and known as Salt Lake 2002, was a winter multi-sport event, celebrated from 8 to 24 February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, United States. 2,400 athletes from 78 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout 165 sporting sessions. The 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2002 Paralympic Games were both organized by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee. Utah became the fifth state in the United States to host the Olympic Games and the 2002 Winter Olympics were the last Olympics to be held in the United States until the 2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles; these were the first Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The opening ceremony was held on February 8, 2002, sporting competitions were held up until the closing ceremony on February 24, 2002. Production for both ceremonies was designed by Seven Nielsen, music for both ceremonies was directed by Mark Watters. Salt Lake City became the most populous area to have hosted the Winter Olympics, although the two subsequent host cities' populations were larger.
Following a trend, the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were larger than all prior Winter Games, with 10 more events than the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. Norway won the most gold medals; the Salt Lake Games faced a bribery scandal and some local opposition during the bid, as well as some sporting and refereeing controversies during the competitions. From sporting and business standpoints, this was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours; the Games were financially successful raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues; the Games were a major factor in the political rise to power of Mitt Romney, elected Governor of Massachusetts in 2002, was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 2012 and has served as the junior United States Senator from Utah since 2019.
Salt Lake City was chosen over Canada. Salt Lake City had come in second during the bids for the 1998 Winter Olympics, awarded to Nagano and had offered to be the provisional host of the 1976 Winter Olympics when the original host, Colorado, withdrew; the 1976 Winter Olympics were awarded to Innsbruck, Austria. 1Because of the no-commercialization policy of the Olympics, the Delta Center, now the Vivint Smart Home Arena, was labeled as the "Salt Lake Ice Center". The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics at US$2.5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 24% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Salt Lake City 2002 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of US$51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. A total of 78 National Olympic Committees sent athletes to the 2002 Olympics. Cameroon, Hong Kong, Nepal and Thailand participated in their first Winter Olympic Games; the 2002 Winter Olympics featured 78 medal events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline. In the following calendar for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day.
The yellow boxes represent days. The number in each box represents the number of finals. All dates are in Mountain Standard Time * Host nation Several medals records were tied, they included: Norway tied the Soviet Union at the 1976 Winter Olympics for most gold medals at a Winter Olympics, with 13. Germany set a record for most total medals at a Winter Olympics, with 36; the United States set a record for most gold medals at a home Winter Olympics, with 10, tying Norway at the 1994 Winter Olympics. The opening ceremonies included Grammy Award-winning artist LeAnn Rimes singing "Light the Fire Within", the official song of the 2002 Olympics; the Grammy Award-winning Mormon Tabernacle Choir performed the "Star-Spangled Banner", national anthem of the United States, for the opening ceremonies. John Williams composed a five-minute work for orchestra and chorus, "Call of the Champions", that served as the official theme of the 2002 Winter Olympics, his first for a Winter Oly
Curling at the 2002 Winter Olympics
Curling at the 2002 Winter Olympics took place from February 11 to February 18 in Ogden, Utah: * Hammy McMillan was replaced by Warwick Smith as skip after Draw 4. February 11, 9:00 February 11, 19:00 February 12, 14:00 February 13, 9:00 February 13, 19:00 February 14, 14:00 February 15, 9:00 February 15, 19:00 February 16, 14:00 February 17, 9:00 February 17, 19:00 February 18, 14:00 February 20, 14:00 February 21, 9:00 February 22, 14:30 February 11, 14:00 February 12, 9:00 February 12, 19:00 February 13, 14:00 February 14, 9:00 February 14, 19:00 February 15, 14:00 February 16, 9:00 February 16, 19:00 February 17, 14:00 February 18, 9:00 February 18, 19:00 February 19, 9:00 February 19, 14:00 February 20, 9:00 February 21, 9:00 February 21, 14:00 Official Olympic Report
Freestyle skiing at the 2002 Winter Olympics
Four freestyle skiing events were held at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, at the venue in Deer Valley. There were both women's competition in both aerials and moguls events. In moguls, the athletes ski down a slope littered with moguls, attempting to get down in as fast a time as possible while attempting to get points for technique and their two aerial jumps during the course; the aerials events consisted of two jumps, which were judged by air and landing. Freestyle Skiing History: Olympics 1988-2002
St. Moritz is a high Alpine resort town in the Engadine in Switzerland, at an elevation of about 1,800 metres above sea level, it is Upper Engadine's major village and a municipality in the district of Maloja in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. St. Moritz lies on the southern slopes of the Albula Alps below the Piz Nair overlooking the flat and wide glaciated valley of the Upper Engadine and eponymous lake: Lake St. Moritz, it hosted the Winter Olympics in 1928 and 1948. Votive offerings and needles from the Bronze Age found at the base of the springs in St. Moritz indicate that the Celts had discovered them. St. Moritz is first mentioned around 1137–39 as ad sanctum Mauricium; the village was named after Saint Maurice, an early Christian saint from southern Egypt said to have been martyred in 3rd century Roman Switzerland while serving as leader of the Theban Legion. Pilgrims traveled to Saint Mauritius to the church of the springs, where they drank from the blessed, bubbling waters of the Mauritius springs in the hopes of being healed.
In 1519, the Medici pope, Leo X, promised full absolution to anyone making a pilgrimage to the church of the springs. In the 16th century, the first scientific treatises about the St. Moritz mineral springs were written. In 1535, the great practitioner of nature cures, spent some time in St. Moritz. Although it received some visitors during the summer, the origins of the winter resort only date back 154 years ago to September 1864, when St. Moritz hotel pioneer Caspar Badrutt made a wager with four British summer guests: they should return in winter and, in the event that the village was not to their liking, he would reimburse their travel costs. If they were to find St. Moritz attractive in winter, he would invite them to stay as his guests for as long as they wished; this marked not only the start of winter tourism in St. Moritz but the start of winter tourism in the whole of the Alps; the first tourist office in Switzerland was established the same year in the village. St. Moritz developed in the late nineteenth century.
The first European Ice-Skating Championships were held at St. Moritz in 1882 and first golf tournament in the Alps held in 1889; the first bob run and bob race was held in 1890. By 1896, St. Moritz became the first village in the Alps to install electric trams and opened the Palace Hotel. A horse race was held on snow in 1906, on the frozen lake the following year; the first ski school in Switzerland was established in St. Moritz in 1929. St. Moritz hosted the 1928 Winter Olympics, the stadium still stands today, again in 1948, it has hosted over 20 FIBT World Championships, three FIS Alpine World Ski Championships and over 40 Engadin Skimarathons since 1969. It has hosted many other events since, including some unlikely ones on the frozen lake in the 1970s and 1980s such as a golf tournament, a polo tournament and cricket. St. Moritz has been the venue for many Sailing and Windsurfing World Championships. Since the early 1980s St. Moritz is promoted and known as Top of the World; the expression was registered as a trademark by the tourist office in 1987.
Between 9–12 June 2011, St. Moritz was the site of the Bilderberg Group conference, an annual, invitation-only conference of 120 to 140 guests from North America and Western Europe, most of whom are people of influence. St. Moritz had an area, of 28.69 km2. Of this area, about 26.3 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 9.0% is settled and 44.8% is unproductive land. In the 2004/09 survey a total of 160 ha or about 5.6% of the total area was covered with buildings, an increase of 23 ha over the 1985 amount. Over the same time period, the amount of recreational space in the municipality increased by 3 ha and is now about 1.15% of the total area. Of the agricultural land 149 ha is fields and grasslands, 643 ha consists of alpine grazing areas. Since 1985 the amount of agricultural land has decreased by 37 ha. Over the same time period the amount of forested land has increased by 33 ha. Rivers and lakes cover 91 ha in the municipality; the highest summit in the Eastern Alps is Piz Bernina at 4,048.6 m, located 15 km southeast of the village.
Before 2017, the municipality was located in the Oberengadin sub-district of the Maloja district, after 2017 it was part of the Maloja Region. It consists of the settlements of St. Moritz-Dorf, Champfèr, the village section of Suvretta. St. Moritz has been a resort for winter sport vacations since the 19th century. Students from Oxford and Cambridge went there to play each other. St. Moritz was the host city for the Winter Olympic Games in 1928 and 1948, one of three cities to host twice, along with Innsbruck and Lake Placid in the United States, it hosted the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships in 1934, 1974, 2003, 2017. Additionally, St. Moritz has hosted the FIBT World Championships a record 21 times. Since 1985, it has hosted polo tournaments played on snow, featuring many of the world's finest team and played on a specially-marked field on the
Alpine skiing at the 2002 Winter Olympics
Alpine skiing at the 2002 Winter Olympics consisted of ten events held February 10–23 in the United States near Salt Lake City, Utah. The downhill, super-G, combined events were held at Snowbasin, the giant slaloms at Park City, the slaloms at adjacent Deer Valley. Source: Source: Source: Snowbasin hosted the downhill, super-G, combined events.
Utah Olympic Park
The Utah Olympic Park is a winter sports park built for the 2002 Winter Olympics, is located 28 miles east of Salt Lake City near Park City, United States. During the 2002 games the park hosted the bobsleigh, luge, ski jumping, Nordic combined events, it still serves a training center for Olympic and development level athletes. Other facilities in addition to the ski jumps and bobsled track located on site include a 2002 Winter Olympics and Ski Museum, day lodge, summer aerial training splash pool, a mountain coaster. Like the Utah Olympic Oval and Soldier Hollow, the park was designed and built for the Olympic games, under the supervision of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee; the 1989 Olympic referendum, passed by Utahns, allowed for tax payer money to fund a winter sports park, which would be used if Salt Lake City won its bid for either the 1998 or 2002 Winter Olympics. In 1990 the Utah Sports Authority announced their plans to build the park, which included ski jumps and a bobsled-luge track, in Bear Hollow near Park City.
Before construction on the park began, it faced criticism from local landowners and citizens of Summit County, concerned over traffic and environmental effects. Construction got underway following a groundbreaking ceremony on May 29, 1991; the original estimated cost of the park was $26.3 million and included the ski jumps, bobsled-luge track, a day lodge, all to be completed by September 1992. The majority of the park was designed and engineered by Eckhoff and Preator Engineering and its joint venture partner, Van Boerum & Frank Associates, all of Salt Lake City. After Salt Lake City lost its bid to host the 1998 Winter Olympics in 1991, the Utah Sports Authority gained permission from the United States Olympic Committee to slowdown construction on the park, extending its planned opening date. Four of the park's ski jumps were completed and opened on December 12, 1992, were formally dedicated in a ceremony on January 9, 1993. On July 31, 1993 the summer training facilities at the park, which included a ski jumping pool, were dedicated.
The park's day lodge, located near the base of the jumps, was completed in late summer 1993. A groundbreaking ceremony on June 3, 1994 signaled the start of construction on the bobsled-luge track; the track was completed December 28, 1996 and its grand opening ceremony was held on January 25, 1997. The first run on the new track was by luger Jon Owen on January 10, 1997. Following the completion of the track it was decided to reintroduce skeleton as an Olympic event during the 2002 Winter Olympics and plans called to use the track to host all three sliding events. While construction was progressing on the track, Salt Lake City won its 1995 bid to host the 2002 Winter Olympics, plans were developed to expand the park. On October 9, 1997 SLOC okayed the plan to spend an additional $48 million to upgrade and expand the completed park; the plans called for replacing and moving the existing 90-meter ski jump, building a brand new 120-meter jump. The construction of starting houses on the track, storage buildings, new access roads, pedestrian bridges, parking lots, sewer and water lines were all part of the expansion plan.
The transform of the park began during the Summer of 1998, with the majority of expansion work completed by fall 2000. Ownership of the park was transferred from the Utah Sports Authority to SLOC on July 14, 1999. Soon after, in Spring 2000, the name "Utah Winter Sports Park" became the "Utah Olympic Park'; the park still serves a training center for Olympic and development level athletes, as well as a recreational highlight in the state. Other facilities in addition to the Nordic jumps and bobsled track located at the park include a 2002 Winter Olympics Museum and Ski Museum in the Joe Quinney Winter Sports Center, a day lodge, summer aerial training jumps and splash pool, a mountain coaster. Located within the Utah Olympic Park is the Joe Quinney Winter Sports Center; the center stands next to the day summer splash pool. For many years the Alf Engen Ski Foundation had desired to construct a museum to honor legendary skier Alf Engen, display his winter sports collection, it was decided to do this inside a future building at the park named for a skier, Joe Quinney.
A site dedication ceremony for the funded Joe Quinney Winter Sports Center was held August 28, 1999, while construction didn't begin until after the actual groundbreaking on March 28, 2000. Following the building's completion, it was temporarily turned over to SLOC during a ceremony on September 18, 2001. During the games the center would be used by Olympic officials, members of the world media and athletes after the games, the building would be turned back over to the foundation; the cost of just the vacant building was $10 million, the majority of, funded, but SLOC did contribute a percentage of construction costs so the building could be used during the games. The completed building was 29,000 square feet in size with three stories, its concrete exterior was covered with Plexiglas. Following the Olympics the building was turned into a ski and Olympic museum at a cost of $2.5 million more, for a total of $12.5 million. The Alf Engen Ski Museum opened in a soft opening on May 20, 2002, with exhibits designed by Academy Studios.
The grand opening ceremony for the center was held July 5, 2002, the building included the Engen Ski Museum, a gift shop, café and a temporary Olympic photo exhibit. On September 27, 2002, two l