A post office operated at Skelly from 1916 to 1943, including a move in 1938.
|This Humboldt County, California–related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
A post office operated at Skelly from 1916 to 1943, including a move in 1938.
|This Humboldt County, California–related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Humboldt County, California – Humboldt County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 134,623, Humboldt County comprises the Eureka–Arcata–Fortuna, CA Micropolitan Statistical Area. It is located on the far North Coast ~270 miles north of San Francisco, Area cities and towns are known for hundreds of ornate examples of Victorian architecture. Humboldt County is a forested mountainous, and rural county with about 110 miles of coastline situated along the Pacific coast in Northern Californias rugged Coast Ranges. Andrés de Urdaneta found the coast near Cape Mendocino then followed the coast south to Acapulco in 1565, Spanish traders made unintended visits to California with the Manila Galleons on their return trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565. Humboldt County was formed in 1853 from parts of Trinity County, the first recorded entry by people of European origin was a landing by the Spanish in 1775 in Trinidad. The first recorded entry of Humboldt Bay by non-natives was an 1806 visit from a sea otter hunting party from Sitka employed by the Russian American Company, the hunting party included Captain Jonathan Winship, an American, and some Aleut hunters. The bay was not visited again by people of European origin until 1849 when Josiah Greggs party visited, the area around Humboldt Bay was once solely inhabited by the Wiyot Indian tribe. One of the largest Wiyot villages, Tolowot, was located on Indian Island in Humboldt Bay, founded around 900 BC, it contains a shell midden 6 acres in size and 14 feet deep. It was the site of the February 26,1860 massacre of the Wiyot people that was recorded by Bret Harte, then living in Union, between 60 and 200 Wiyot men, women, and children were murdered that night. Tolowot is now a site and a National Historic Landmark. They were put on two steamships and shipped to San Francisco, no-one was killed in the expulsion. Another Chinese expulsion occurred during 1906 in a cannery on the Eel River, however, some Chinese remained in the Orleans area, where some white landowners sheltered and purchased food for the Chinese mineworkers until after racial tension passed. Chinese did not return to the cities until the 1950s. The coastal zone of the county experiences very wet, cool winters and dry, in the winter, temperatures range from highs of 40–59 °F to lows of 32–49 °F. Coastal summers are cool to mild, with highs of 60–69 °F. Coastal summer temperatures range from highs of 64–70 °F to lows of 46–55 °F, in these locations summer highs are 70–75 °F. The coastal zone experiences a number of frosty nights in winter and early spring, though snowfall, coastal winters are cool and wet
2. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California also has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence. The western portion of Alta California then was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their organization with bands, tribes, villages. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
3. Arcata, California – Arcata, originally Union Town or Union, is a city adjacent to the Arcata Bay portion of Humboldt Bay in Humboldt County, California, United States. At the 2010 census, Arcatas population was 17,231, Arcata, located 280 miles north of San Francisco, is home to Humboldt State University. Arcata has been progressive in its political makeup, and was the first city in the United States to elect a majority of its city council members from the Green Party. As a result of the majority, Arcata capped the number of chain restaurants allowed in the city. Arcata was also the first municipality to ban the growth of any type of Genetically Modified Organism within city limits, with exceptions for research and educational purposes. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 11.0 square miles. Arcata contains major public and shopping areas within the city and they include, the Downtown/Plaza Area, Northtown, and Valley West. Arcata also has the Arcata Marsh, a located on the Citys bay shore. Arcatas climate is dominated by marine influences associated with Humboldt Bay, on average, Arcata experiences 40 to 50 inches of rain per year, though there is a short but pronounced dry season from June to September. Northerly winds keep the very cool and create a coastal upwelling of deep. This upwelling in turn results in conditions throughout the summer, with high temperatures commonly in the 50s. Yet just a few miles inland the temperatures may be up to 25 degrees warmer in the summer, winter high temperatures average in the low 40s to mid-50s, with lows in the mid-30s to lower 40s. Temperatures infrequently dip below 30 °F in the winter, and nearly as infrequently climb above 72 °F in the summer, changing populations have happened in timber and mining towns in the American West as a result of boom and bust economic cycles. Some towns decrease in population following a bust, while some, like Arcata, in the case of Arcata, the peak and the bust were close due to Arcata’s relatively late entry into the timber industry, and its domination by mechanization. The population of the city of Arcata was 3,729 during its peak 1950, for the County of Humboldt, the age distribution for urban residents, which would include Arcata, had 23. 7% of the population under the age of 15. Those that would be considered young workers made up 14% of the population, “Normal” aged workers made up 23. 9% of the population. Older working age made up 19. 4% of the population, pre-retirement aged made up 9. 7% of the population. Those of retirement age made up 9. 1% of the population, for Arcata specifically, those age 65 and older were 8. 3% of the population in 1950, and the median age was 29.4 years
4. Ferndale, California – Ferndale is a city in Humboldt County, California, United States. Its population was 1,371 at the 2010 census, down from 1,382 at the 2000 census, the city contains dozens of well-preserved Victorian storefronts and homes. Before American settlement, Ferndale was a glade of giant ferns reaching more than six feet, surrounded by alder, willow, Sitka spruce, Douglas fir, coast redwood, swampy land and windswept prairies. The town was established in 1852 from settlement by Willard Allard, Seth Louis Shaw, in September 1852 they cleared a five-acre area of ferns and began building a cabin near the base of the Wildcat Road even though Allard was sick with the ague. By January 1853, twelve men were living in the Shaws cabin including Seth Kinman, who provided the group with meat, and Joe Russ, whose later holdings included the Fern Cottage Historic District. About this time, Stephen Shaw painted the portrait of Wiyot elder Kiwelattah, Seth Shaw settled in the area now marked by Main and Lewis streets where he began construction of the now-historic Shaw House on his property in 1854. The Shaw House served as the areas first polling place in 1854, post office in 1860, Seth Shaw was justice of the peace and postmaster, and his home served for many gatherings although it was not finished until 1866. Other small towns were established around Ferndale, including Centerville, Port Kenyon, Waddington, Grizzly Bluff, produce from Ferndale was shipped out via Centerville and transferred to ships at anchor offshore prior to the opening of docks at Port Kenyon in 1876. In 1865 the first shipment of oil from the Union Mattole Oil Company was shipped through Ferndale to San Francisco. While the earliest settlers were English speaking from England, New England, Canada or Ireland, waves of immigrants arrived in Ferndale from Denmark, Switzerland, Germany, Italy, Portugal and China. Danish settlers founded and built Our Saviors Lutheran Church in 1899 and dedicated Danish Hall, a later influx of Romansh Swiss included the ancestors of College Football Hall of Fame coach Len Casanova. Sausage, salami-making and wine-making can be traced to Italians who arrived later than the Danish and Swiss, the Germans arrived early, the first was businessman Arnold Berding in 1857. Most Germans worked on ranches or were dairymen, but at least one owned the Milwaukee Brewery Depot Saloon, congressman Don Clausen is descended from German settlers of Ferndale. Except for three Portuguese brothers who arrived in the 1870s and a few from mainland Portugal, most came from the Azores islands between 1900 and 1915, Ferndale Portuguese have celebrated their traditional Festival of the Holy Ghost since 1924. Chinese arrived in California in the earliest gold-rush days, and were settled in all parts of Humboldt County almost as soon as English-speaking whites. They worked in mining on the Klamath and Trinity Rivers, before settling mostly in Eureka. A year later, the Cutting Packing Company brought in a crew of Chinese for the season, Chinese crews were used again at the same cannery in 1887 and 1889. After threats of action, the Chinese were taken to an old cookhouse on Indian Island from which all whites were barred
5. Fortuna, California – Fortuna is a city the northeast shore of the Eel River, and is on U. S. Route 101 in west-central Humboldt County, California, United States. The population was 11,926 at the 2010 census, up from 10,497 at the 2000 census. In 1875, the name was changed to Springville during the construction of the Springville Mill, the mills owners were Henry Rohner, Alexander Masson, M. N. Weber and G. F. Gushaw. Springville was originally a town belonging to the mill. By the late 1870s Springville had grown enough to warrant a post office, the post office was named Slide on May 24,1876. In 1884 the residents petitioned the legislature for the name Fortuna, Spanish for fortune and Latin for chance. The name was chosen when settlers saw the proximity of the forests, the river and its valley, and the Pacific Ocean, as ideal for enjoying a good quality of life, and felt fortunate to live there. It is believed that a minister and real estate agent, desiring to sell lots to newcomers. Electricity came to Fortuna in 1883 when W. J. Swortzel and George W. Williams, owners of the Springville Mill Company, built a $4,000 power plant. The town was incorporated on February 20,1906, and, because of the Eel River, became known for its prowess in vegetable crops, berries and fruits. Although agricultural industry was expanding, the industry is what started the town. Rohnerville, a town founded to service the gold miners inhabiting the mountains to the north. The miners would come by ship to Eureka, and then head up the Eel River to the junction with the Van Duzen River, Rohnerville was at this junction, and looked to prosper from selling supplies to the miners. But when it was decided that the railroad would be routed through neighboring Fortuna, the Eel River and Eureka Railroad was built in 1884 to provide Humboldt Bay shipping access to the lumber mills and farms of the lower Eel River. Fortuna became the hub for smaller communities like Alton, Fernbridge, Ferndale, Hydesville, Newburg, Port Kenyon, Rohnerville. Fortuna was the location of one of two mills of the storied Pacific Lumber Company, headquartered ten miles south in Scotia. Since Fortunas earliest days in the 1800s, its nickname has been The Friendly City, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.8 square miles, all of it land. Fortuna is located 7 miles from the Pacific coast on the bank of the Eel River, the community is affected by coastal weather patterns with the Pacific Ocean to the west
6. Trinidad, California – Trinidad is a seaside city in Humboldt County, located on the Pacific Ocean 8 miles north of the Arcata-Eureka Airport and 15 miles north of the college town of Arcata. Situated at an elevation of 174 feet above its own North Coast harbor, Trinidad is noted for its spectacular coastline with ten public beaches and offshore rocks, part of the California Coastal National Monument, of which Trinidad is a Gateway City. Fishing operations related to Trinidad Harbor are vital to local tourism and commercial fishery interests in the region. Before 1700 AD, Yurok people established the village of Tsurai on bluffs overlooking Trinidad Bay, the first European sighting of Trinidad Harbor was by the Manila galleon captain Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeño, who did not make landfall. The next visit was by Bruno de Heceta and Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra of the Spanish Navy and their two ships anchored in Trinidad Bay on June 9,1775. On 11 June, which was Trinity Sunday, an act of possession was conducted. At the place where a cross was erected stands a carved stone cross bearing the inscription. Carolus III Dei G. Hyspaniorum Rex. in the name of King Carlos of Spain, the area was named la Santisima Trinidad. Settlers arrived on the James R. Whitting in 1850 and founded the town, the first post office opened in Trinidad in 1851. Trinidad was the county seat of the eponymous Trinity County from 1850 to 1851. At that time Trinidad became part of the newly created Humboldt County after its creation in 1853, Klamath County was finally dissolved in 1874. Trinidad was incorporated in 1870 as a City of the State of California, USA. Trinidad resident Henry A. Boyes was a First Sergeant with the Fifth Marines in World War II, his service was described by Eugene Sledge in the book, With the Old Breed, At Peleliu and Okinawa. Part of the wreck scene in The Majestic was shot at College Cove Beach on 19 March 2001. Trinidad has a climate and is relatively temperate compared with inland areas. Annual temperatures range from approximately 40 °F to 60 °F, winter months are rainy with the average amount being around 50 inches, Although rain falls in all months of the year, it is less pronounced in the summertime. Spring and fall cold fronts often form advection fog which pushes the marine layer towards the coast, in summer, low pressure troughs produced by intense heating inland can create strong pressure gradients pulling the marine layer ashore. Summer fogs, moderate precipitation, and mild temperatures are characteristic of Northern California coastal forests ecoregion and are vital to the growth of local Coast Redwood, protected stands of old growth redwoods can be visited 20 miles north of Trinidad, in Redwood National and State Parks
7. Unincorporated area – Occasionally, municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, and services become the responsibility of a higher administration. In some countries, such as in Brazil, Japan, France or the United Kingdom, unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government immediately beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area often contains several towns and even entire cities, thus, aside from very sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases, almost all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are often in locations, cover vast areas or have very small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in parts of Australia. Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory has no municipalities and is in some sense an unincorporated area, the territorial government is directly responsible for matters normally carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, a civil servant in the state capital manages such matters as are necessary. The second unincorporated area of state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory,1. 45% of the area and 4. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive services provided by a state agency. Firstly, the remote area that is unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands. Secondly, the unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to. In Canada, depending on the province, a settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs solely over the settlement. It is usually, but not always, part of a municipal government. This can range from hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries entirely, Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction
8. Shelter Cove, California – Shelter Cove is a census-designated place in Humboldt County, California. It lies at an elevation of 138 feet, Shelter Cove is on Californias Lost Coast where the King Range meets the Pacific Ocean. A 9-hole golf course surrounds the one-runway Shelter Cove Airport at the center of Shelter Coves commercial district, utilities are provided by the Humboldt County Resort Improvement District #1 and boating access to the sea is managed by the Humboldt Bay Harbor Recreation & Conservation District. The population was 693 at the 2010 census, Shelter Cove shares a ZIP code with the hamlet of Whitethorn, California, located to the southeast. The community is inside area code 707, Sinkyone Wilderness State Park is about 6 miles south of Shelter Cove on the coast. There are also state parks such as Black Sands Beach, Mal Coombs Park, Seal Rock Picnic Area, much of the land around Shelter Cove belongs to the Kings Range National Conservation Area, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Cove amenities include hiking trails, a community center, deli, coffee shop, restaurants, multiple inns, other amenities in Shelter Cove, a small aircraft airstrip, a boat launch, and RV parking. Whats not available in Shelter Cove are in the towns of Redway and Garberville in the U. S.101 corridor, the area around Shelter Cove was originally home to Native Americans known as the Sinkyone people. Near Shelter Cove on July 21,1907, the passenger steamer Columbia collided with the steam schooner San Pedro amidst dense fog. The Columbia subsequently sank, killing 88 people, although badly damaged, San Pedro stayed afloat and helped to rescue Columbias survivors. As a result of its seclusion, the Shelter Cove area has become a spot for those seeking quiet vacation respite or retirement area. Popular activities in the area include fishing, whale watching, hiking, diving for abalone, the Cape Mendocino Light, a lighthouse from Cape Mendocino, was moved by helicopter to Mal Coombs Park in 1998. A post office operated at Shelter Cove from 1892 to 1933, the 2010 United States Census reported that Shelter Cove had a population of 693. The population density was 118.9 people per square mile, the racial makeup of Shelter Cove was 630 White,3 African American,5 Native American,7 Asian,1 Pacific Islander,13 from other races, and 34 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 47 persons, the Census reported that 693 people lived in households,0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 were institutionalized. There were 47 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships,132 households were made up of individuals and 32 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.99, there were 181 families, the average family size was 2.48. The median age was 43.1 years, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 118.6 males
9. Eureka, California – Eureka is the principal city and county seat of Humboldt County in the Redwood Empire region of California. The city is located on U. S. Route 101 on the shores of Humboldt Bay,270 miles north of San Francisco and 100 miles south of the Oregon border. At the 2010 census, the population of the city was 27,191, Eureka is the largest coastal city between San Francisco and Portland, and the westernmost city of more than 25,000 residents in the 48 contiguous states. It is the center for government, health care, trade. Greater Eureka, one of Californias major commercial fishing ports, is the location of the largest deep-water port between San Francisco and Coos Bay, a stretch of about 500 miles. The headquarters of both the Six Rivers National Forest and the North Coast Redwoods District of the California State Parks System are in Eureka. As entrepôt for hundreds of mills that once existed in the area. Eureka is home to Californias oldest zoo, the Sequoia Park Zoo, Eurekas Pacific coastal location on Humboldt Bay, adjacent to abundant redwood forests, provided the reason for settlement of this 19th-century seaport town. Before the arrival of Euro-American settlers, including farmers, miners, fishermen, and loggers, the Wiyot people lived in Jaroujiji, now known as Eureka, for thousands of years prior to European arrival. They are the farthest-southwest people whose language has Algonquian roots and their traditional coastal homeland ranged from the lower Mad River through Humboldt Bay and south along the lower basin of the Eel River. The Wiyot are particularly known for their basketry and fishery management, an extensive collection of intricate basketry of the areas indigenous groups exists in the Clarke Historical Museum in Old Town Eureka. As of 2013, Eureka High School has the largest Yurok language program in California, the timing of this discovery would lead to the May 13,1850 founding of the settlement of Eureka on its shore by the Union and Mendocino Exploring companies. Eureka received its name from a Greek word meaning I have found it and this exuberant statement of successful gold rush miners is also the official Motto of the State of California. Eureka is the only U. S. location to use the seal as the state for its seal. In the United States, Eureka, California is the largest of about a dozen towns, the first Europeans venturing into Humboldt Bay encountered the indigenous Wiyot. Records of early forays into the bay in 1806 reported that the violence of the indigenous people made it nearly impossible for landing parties to survey the area. After 1850, Europeans ultimately overwhelmed the Wiyot, whose maximum population before the Europeans was in the hundreds in the area of what would become the primary city. The 1860 Wiyot Massacre took place on Indian Island in the spring of 1860, committed by a group of locals, thought to be primarily Eureka businessmen
10. Samoa, California – Samoa is a census-designated place in Humboldt County, California. It is located 1.5 miles northwest of Eureka, at an elevation of 23 feet, Samoa is located in the northern peninsula of Humboldt Bay and is the site of the Samoa Cookhouse, one of the last remaining original, lumber style cookhouses. The name Samoa is used interchangeably with the peninsula it occupies, the population was 258 at the 2010 census. George Reef Light from 1883 to 1891 at Paysonville, the nongovernmental settlement was known as Brownsville, after James Henry Brown a dairy farmer who settled his ranch on the present site of Samoa in 1865. James Brown was the first permanent white settler on the peninsula of Humboldt Bay. He was born in Quincy, Illinois, in 1830 and came to Humboldt county in 1853, until a group of Eureka businessmen formed the Samoa Land, vance Lumber Company purchased the Humboldt Bay frontage from Samoa Land and Improvement Company for construction of a large sawmill in 1892. Eureka and Klamath River Railroad was chartered in 1893 to connect the Samoa sawmill and associated worker housing facilities to the city of Arcata, the Samoa sawmill was the largest in Humboldt County when purchased by Andrew B. Hammond in 1900. The Samoa post office opened in 1894, a sash and door factory was added to the mill complex by 1909, and the company was reorganized as the Hammond Lumber Company in 1912. Hammond Lumber Company built a shipyard during World War I. Hammond Lumber Company railroads brought logs and lumber to Samoa from Little River, georgia-Pacific Corporation purchased the Samoa sawmill complex in 1956 and began operation of a plywood mill in 1958. A modern sawmill replaced the original facilities in 1964. A pulp mill began operation in 1965, some of the older worker housing was razed during construction of modern mill facilities, but the Samoa Cookhouse was preserved. The coastal bar separating Humboldt Bay from the Pacific Ocean has been breached by a channel to allow commercial shipping to enter the bay. The north jetty has unusual concrete breakers known as dolos, which resemble toy jacks, the breakers were built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers to withstand the areas heavy seas, and were featured by Huell Howser On PBSs Californias Gold. Samoa peninsula includes the Manila and Samoa Dunes, some of the most ecologically diverse areas in California, the peninsula is about 10 miles long by 1 mile. This area is vulnerable to tsunamis as its height above sea level is only 3 feet. It also contains the community of Manila and a United States Coast Guard station. Residential expansion is proposed that would double the size of Manila, the community is inside area code 707