Slottsbacken is a street in Gamla stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. It stretches east from the Stockholm Cathedral and the Royal Palace down to the street Skeppsbron which passes along the waterfront of the old town. South of this building was in medieval times a slope consisting of sand and gravel. Probably wider than the present slope, it stretched south to the royal stables, the kitchen gardens. In 1520, the burghers of the city were requested to relocate their stables and piggeries from the Stable Slope to the surrounding the city. New defensive walls were built around the palace during the 16th century on the expense of the open area surrounding it. Parts of the five metres deep moat was used as a theatre, while the exterior of the Palace was more or less completed in the 1750s, the work on the slope, the palaces main approach, was still proceeding by the end of that century. Though the four façades of the Royal Palace are all built in brick and bound by a unitary programme, the southern façade, representing the Nation and concealing the Royal Chapel and the Rikssal, is facing the palaces main approach and is consequently the most pompous of the four.
It is dominated by a Roman triumphal arch composition dressed in limestone and furnished with six war trophies, four scenes by Bouchardon. The balustrade over the part was originally intended to be furnished with a series of sculptures. The statues in the eight niches, dating from 1899–1902, depict prominent Swedes from the late 17th century, Dahlbergh, M. Stenbock, Polhem, Adelcrantz and von Dalin. The five sections of the eastern façade of the Stockholm Cathedral reflects the three original, medieval nave and aisles and the two aisles. He was the head of the church 1543-1552 and is buried in it, the building is, occupied by the Royal Household. The lime stone portal by Ferdinand Foucquet, one of the most prominent monumental sculptors of the Swedish Baroque era, the façade was originally flanked by two walls perpendicular to the façade. The building is today the residence of the county governor of Stockholm, finland was a part of Sweden until 1809, and the national parish of the Finnish Church was established in Stockholm in 1533, at the time accommodated in the old abbey of the Blackfriars.
In the interior, the organ loft still resembles the gallery of the old Boll House, as the church never had an accompanying graveyard, the Church of Catherine on Södermalm was of great importance to the Finnish parish until the 19th century. The 22 metres tall granite obelisk from 1800, is the design of architect Jean Louis Desprez, inspired by Egyptian obelisks, it tapers vertically to end in a pyramid-like shape, but is, in contrast, made of several stones. The Royal Coin Cabinet is an institution with a responsibility for the conservation and the historical studies of coins, medals
Johan Tobias Sergel
Johan Tobias Sergel was a Swedish neoclassical sculptor. Johan Tobias Sergel was born in Stockholm in 1740 and he was the son of the decorator, Christoffer Sergel and Elisabet, and was the brother of the decorator, Anna Brita Sergel. His first teacher was Pierre Hubert Larchevêsque, after studying in Paris, he went to Rome. He stayed in Rome for twelve years and sculpted a number of groups in marble and it was in Rome that he modelled the statue of King Gustav III, subsequently cast in bronze and purchased by the city of Stockholm in 1796. While primarily a sculptor, Sergel drew sequential picture stories, summoned by Gustav III, Sergel returned to Stockholm in 1779 and continued to work there. Among the monuments he created at this time are a tomb for Gustav Vasa, a monument to Descartes, and he was an important part of the artistic elite in Stockholm, drawing a portrait of Swedens bard Carl Michael Bellman among others. He had a relationship with the celebrated actress Fredrique Löwen and was possibly the father of one of her children and he died in his native city on 26 February 1814.
Sergels torg, the largest square in the centre of Stockholm, is named after him, thurston, H. T. Colby, F. M. eds. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Sergel. Johan Tobias Sergel at Lambiek artists archive
A mermaid is a legendary aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish. Mermaids appear in the folklore of cultures worldwide, including the Near East, Africa. The first stories appeared in ancient Assyria, in which the goddess Atargatis transformed herself into an out of shame for accidentally killing her human lover. Mermaids are sometimes associated with events such as floods, shipwrecks. In other folk traditions, they can be benevolent or beneficent, the male equivalent of the mermaid is the merman, a familiar figure in folklore and heraldry. Although traditions about and sightings of mermen are less common than those of mermaids, some of the attributes of mermaids may have been influenced by the Sirens of Greek mythology. Historical accounts of mermaids, such as reported by Christopher Columbus during his exploration of the Caribbean, may have been inspired by manatees. While there is no evidence that mermaids exist outside of folklore, reports of mermaid sightings continue to the present day, including 21st century examples from Israel and Zimbabwe.
Mermaids have been a subject of art and literature in recent centuries. They have subsequently been depicted in operas, books, the word mermaid is a compound of the Old English mere, and maid. The equivalent term in Old English was merewif and they are conventionally depicted as beautiful with long flowing hair. Sirenia is an order of aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, coastal marine waters, swamps. They look ponderous and clumsy but are actually fusiform and highly muscular, called mermaid syndrome, is a rare congenital disorder in which a child is born with his or her legs fused together and small genitalia. This condition is about as rare as conjoined twins, affecting one out of every 100,000 live births and is fatal within a day or two of birth because of kidney and bladder complications. Four survivors were known as of July 2003, many folklorists and mythographers deem that the origin of the mythic mermaid is the dugong, posing a theory that mythicised tales have been constructed around early sightings of dugongs by sailors.
The first known mermaid stories appeared in Assyria c.1000 BC, the goddess Atargatis, mother of Assyrian queen Semiramis, loved a mortal and unintentionally killed him. Ashamed, she jumped into a lake and took the form of a fish, the Greeks recognized Atargatis under the name Derketo. Sometime before 546 BC, Milesian philosopher Anaximander postulated that mankind had sprung from an animal species
Stortorget is a small public square in Gamla Stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. It is the oldest square in Stockholm, the centre on which the medieval urban conglomeration gradually came into being. Today, the square is frequented by tens of thousands of tourists annually and it is traditionally renowned for its annual Christmas market offering traditional handicrafts and food. The exception being the Stock Exchange Building taking up the side of the square and concealing the Cathedral. Today, Stortorget is the location of the Stock Exchange Building, which houses the Swedish Academy, the Nobel Museum, the plan of the building, French Rococo in style, is a trapezium, the rounded corner of which greatly widened the flanking alleys. While the building is designed much like a private palace, the central pediment. The closed first floor, accommodating the Swedish Academy, contrasts the openness of the ground floor - a contrast enhanced during the restoration in the 1980s, the present well on the square was designed by Palmstedt and built in connection to the new Stock Exchange Building.
It dried up in 1856 due to elevation, however. It was relocated to Brunkebergstorg but moved back to its location in the 1950s and is today connected to the city water conduit. He bought the building came to remain in the familys possession for more than a century. The cloverleaf-shaped gables were added in 1718 together with the blue livid colour, the Dynastys most prominent member was the merchant Claës Grill, leader of the East India Company, owner of several banks and many mining industries and shipping companies, and a great art collector. In the second shop on Number 5 are painted joists from the 1640s displaying animals, flowers. There are many such restored ceilings in Gamla stan, but this one is one of the few accessible to the general public, on the first floor is the so-called Bullkyrkan where the City Mission offers services every Sunday together with buns and coffee. Until the mid-15th century, the side of the square was lined with wooden shops, in the spacious basements of which peasants kept their provisions.
Among the numerous historical tenants in the building was adventurer Filip Kern from Meissen and he served as a barber and a master builder for King John III and is suspected to have poisoned King Eric XIV. During the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, the Dutch merchant Abraham Cabiljau, one of the founders and first mayors of Gothenburg, lived in the building. The French wig maker Jean Bedoire bought the building in 1682 and, just like his son and namesake who gave his name to the alley Bedoirsgränd, made a fortune in trading wine and iron. The building was rebuilt in 1937 when the façades of the three buildings located south of the square were united to form the present façade
Nicodemus Tessin the Elder
Nicodemus Tessin the Elder was an important Swedish architect. Nicodemus Tessin was born in Stralsund in Pomerania and came to Sweden as a young man, there he met and worked with the architect Simon de la Vallée. Back in Sweden he rebuilt Borgholm Castle, built Skokloster Castle and his most important work was Drottningholm Palace, now a world heritage site. Upon his death his son Nicodemus Tessin the Younger continued his projects, Borgholm Castle Drottningholm Palace Bonde Palace Skokloster Castle Strömsholm Palace Näsby castle Stenbock Palace Wrangel Palace Bååt Palace Kalmar Cathedral K. Neville, Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. Architecture in Sweden in the Age of Greatness, Brepols Publishers,2009, ISBN 978-2-503-52826-7 Halltorps
A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as spruce, pine, or fir or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas. The modern Christmas tree was developed in early modern Germany, in which devout Christians brought decorated trees into their homes and it acquired popularity beyond the Lutheran areas of Germany, during the second half of the 19th century, at first among the upper classes. The tree was decorated with roses made of colored paper, wafers, tinsel. In the 18th century, it began to be illuminated by candles which were replaced by Christmas lights after the advent of electrification. Today, there is a variety of traditional ornaments, such as garlands, tinsel. An angel or star might be placed at the top of the tree to represent the archangel Gabriel or the Star of Bethlehem from the Nativity. Edible items such as gingerbread and other sweets are popular, the Christmas tree is sometimes compared with the Yule-tree, especially in discussions of its folkloric origins.
The relevance of ancient pre-Christian customs to the 16th Century German initiation of the Christmas tree custom is disputed, resistance to the custom was often because of its confirmed Lutheran origins. Other sources have tried to make a connection between the first documented Christmas trees in Alsace around 1600 and pre-Christian traditions. For example, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, The use of trees and garlands to symbolize eternal life was a custom of the ancient Egyptians, Chinese. During the Roman mid-winter festival of Saturnalia, houses were decorated with wreaths of evergreen plants, the modern Christmas tree is frequently traced to the symbolism of trees in pre-Christian winter rites, wherein Viking and Saxon worshiped trees. The story of Saint Boniface cutting down Donars Oak illustrates the pagan practices in 8th century among the Germans. Alternatively, it is identified with the tree of paradise of medieval mystery plays that were given on 24 December, in such plays, a tree decorated with apples and wafers was used as a setting for the play.
Like the Christmas crib, the Paradise tree was placed in homes. The apples were replaced by objects such as shiny red balls. Modern Christmas trees originated during the Renaissance of early modern Germany and its 16th-century origins are sometimes associated with Protestant Christian reformer Martin Luther who is said to have first added lighted candles to an evergreen tree. The first recorded Christmas tree can be found on the sculpture of a private home in Turckheim, Alsace. The Georgians have their own traditional Christmas tree called Chichilaki, made from dried up hazelnut or walnut branches that are shaped to form a small coniferous tree and these pale-colored ornaments differ in height from 20 cm to 3 meters