Slalom is an alpine skiing and alpine snowboarding discipline, involving skiing between poles or gates. These are spaced more than those in giant slalom, super giant slalom and downhill, necessitating quicker and shorter turns. Internationally, the sport is contested at the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships, at the Olympic Winter Games; the term may refer to waterskiing on one ski. The term slalom comes from the Morgedal/Seljord word "slalåm": "sla", meaning inclining hillside, "låm", meaning track after skis; the inventors of modern skiing classified their trails according to their difficulty. Slalåm was a trail used in Telemark by boys and girls not yet able to try themselves on the more challenging runs. Ufsilåm was a trail with one obstacle like a jump, a fence, a difficult turn, a gorge, a cliff and more. Uvyrdslåm was a trail with several obstacles. A Norwegian military downhill competition in 1767 included racing downhill among trees "without falling or breaking skis". Sondre Norheim and other skiers from Telemark practiced uvyrdslåm or "disrespectful/reckless downhill" where they raced downhill in difficult and untested terrain.
The 1866 "ski race" in Oslo was a combined cross-country and slalom competition. In the slalom participants were allowed use poles for braking and steering, they were given points for style. During the late 1800s Norwegian skiers participated in all branches with the same pair of skis. Slalom and variants of slalom were referred to as hill races. Around 1900 hill races are abandoned in the Oslo championships at Holmenkollen. Mathias Zdarsky's development of the Lilienfeld binding helped change hill races into a specialty of the Alps region; the rules for the modern slalom were developed by Arnold Lunn in 1922 for the British National Ski Championships, adopted for alpine skiing at the 1936 Winter Olympics. Under these rules gates were marked by pairs of flags rather than single ones, were arranged so that the racers had to use a variety of turn lengths to negotiate them, scoring was on the basis of time alone, rather than on both time and style. A course is constructed by laying out a series of gates, formed by alternating pairs of red and blue poles.
The skier must pass between the two poles forming the gate, with the tips of both skis and the skier's feet passing between the poles. A course has 40 to 60 for women; the vertical drop for a men's course is 180 to 220 m and less for women. The gates are arranged in a variety of configurations to challenge the competitor; because the offsets are small in slalom, ski racers take a direct line and knock the poles out of the way as they pass, known as blocking. Racers employ a variety of protective equipment, including shin pads, hand guards and face guards. Traditionally, bamboo poles were used for gates, the rigidity of which forced skiers to maneuver their entire body around each gate. In the early 1980s, rigid poles were replaced by hard plastic poles, hinged at the base; the hinged gates require, according to FIS rules, only that the skis and boots of the skier go around each gate. The new gates allow a more direct path down a slalom course through the process of cross-blocking or shinning the gates.
Cross-blocking is a technique in which the legs go around the gate with the upper body inclined toward, or across, the gate. Cross-blocking is done by pushing the gate down with hands, or shins. By 1989, most of the top technical skiers in the world had adopted the cross-block technique. With the innovation of shaped skis around the turn of the 21st century, equipment used for slalom in international competition changed drastically. World Cup skiers skied on slalom skis at a length of 203–207 centimetres in the 1980s and 1990s but by the 2002 Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City, the majority of competitors were using skis measuring 160 cm or less; the downside of the shorter skis was that athletes found that recoveries were more difficult with a smaller platform underfoot. Out of concern for the safety of athletes, the FIS began to set minimum ski lengths for international slalom competition; the minimum was set at 155 cm for men and 150 cm for women, but was increased to 165 cm for men and 155 cm for women for the 2003–2004 season.
The equipment minimums and maximums imposed by the International Ski Federation have created a backlash from skiers and fans. The main objection is that the federation is regressing the equipment, hence the sport, by two decades. American Bode Miller hastened the shift to the shorter, more radical sidecut skis when he achieved unexpected success after becoming the first Junior Olympic athlete to adopt the equipment in giant slalom and super-G in 1996. A few years the technology was adapted to slalom skis as well. In the following table men's slalom World Cup podiums in the World Cup since first season in 1967. Media related to Slalom skiing at Wikimedia Commons
Grandstand (TV programme)
Grandstand was a British television sport programme. Broadcast between 1958 and 2007, it was one of the BBC's longest running sports shows, alongside BBC Sports Personality of the Year, its first presenter was Peter Dimmock. There were only five main presenters of the programme during its long history: David Coleman, Frank Bough, Des Lynam and Steve Rider. Changes in the structure of the programme during its last few years, meant it did not have a regular main presenter during this time. Among the more occasional hosts were Alan Weeks, David Icke, Clare Balding, Hazel Irvine, Bob Wilson, David Vine, Barry Davies, Dougie Donnelly, Harry Carpenter, Harry Gration, John Inverdale, Tony Gubba, Helen Rollason, Ray Stubbs and Sue Barker; the last editions of Grandstand were broadcast over the weekend of 27–28 January 2007. During the 1950s sports coverage on television in the United Kingdom expanded; the BBC broadcast sports programmes with an outside studio team from two or three separate locations.
Production assistant Bryan Cowgill put forward a proposal for a programme lasting three hours. Outside Broadcast members held a meeting in April 1958 and Cowgill further detailed his plans taking timing and newer technical facilities into consideration. During the development of the programme, problems arose over the proposed schedule which would result in the programme ending at 4:45pm to allow the recreational programme Children's Hour to broadcast. Paul Fox insisted. Three weeks before the debut of the programme, sports broadcaster Peter Dimmock favoured naming the show Out and About! with Fox persuading Dimmock to agree on a new name Grandstand. Grandstand launched on 11 October 1958 from Lime Grove Studios with Dimmock as the presenter. Dimmock presented the first two editions and three weeks he was replaced by sports commentator David Coleman. In the autumn of 1959, Grandstand was extended by an extra 15 minutes and would finish at 5:00pm every Saturday; the show was one of the most recognisable on British television, dominating Saturday afternoons on the BBC's main channel and covering nearly every major sporting event in Britain such as the FA Cup Final, the Grand National and the University Boat Race, as well as major international events like the Olympic Games, the Paralympic Games, the Commonwealth Games and the FIFA World Cup.
A Sunday edition named Sunday Grandstand, launched in 1981 and ran on BBC Two. Until 1997, the Sunday edition was only broadcast during the summer months but from February 1998 Sunday Grandstand aired all year round, incorporating the Ski Sunday and Rugby Special programmes. Grandstand was not shown on 20 May 2000 as no major sporting events broadcast by the BBC were taking place. Grandstand did not broadcast when a major national event took place or if Christmas or New Year's Day fell on a Saturday. From the programme's launch until the lifting of restrictions on broadcasting hours by the Postmaster General in 1972, sports coverage was one of the few programming areas, exempt from the broadcasting hours restrictions. Sporting coverage and outside broadcasts were provided with a separate quota of broadcasting hours per year by the Postmaster General. By the mid 1960s this amounted to 350 hours per year; this meant Grandstand was a key part of the BBC's Saturday afternoon schedules, as the five or so hours the programme was on the air did not count to the overall 50 hour a week restriction on normal broadcasting hours.
In October 2001, the head of BBC Sports and Programming Pat Younge announced plans to revamp Grandstand by placing emphasis on showing one particular sport rather than switching back to another every few minutes. In the late afternoon, with many Football League and Scottish Football League matches approaching full-time, the programme would draw to a close with Final Score; this covered not only the results from all the matches, but gave the results of the football pools. The segment's most famous feature is the vidiprinter, a digital device which printed out the results as they came through, with the characters in each result appearing one by one. Remarkably, only two people read out the classified results on Final Score when it was part of Grandstand: the Australian Len Martin and Tim Gudgin. For twenty years Grandstand faced competition from ITV's World of Sport, but by the end of the 1980s ITV had stopped broadcasting Saturday afternoon sport in favour of other programmes. In August 2001 the Football Focus section, having been the first feature on Grandstand since 1974, separated to become a programme in its own right.
This meant that Grandstand's start time was now 13:00 rather than 12:15. At the same time, Final Score was separated from Grandstand becoming a programme in its own right, running from 16:30 meaning that Grandstand only broadcast between 13:00 and 16:30 rather than 12:15 to 17:15. "Around the Grounds" and the half time sequence did remain within the Grandstand programme. In 2004, following the success of Sky Sports' Soccer Saturday programme featuring reports from the afternoon's football matches, the BBC introduced its own football scores programme called Score, it ran for the full duration of the afternoon's football matches, beginning at 14:30, was available as an add-on service on the Red Button until 16:30 when BBC One joined the programme and at that point Score would become Final Score. In its final few years
Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565
The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, is a piece of organ music written, according to its oldest extant sources, by Johann Sebastian Bach. The piece opens with a toccata section, followed by a fugue, it is one of the most famous works in the organ repertoire. Scholars differ as to, it could have been as early as c. 1704. To a large extent the piece conforms to the characteristics deemed typical for the north German organ school of the baroque era with divergent stylistic influences, such as south German characteristics, described in scholarly literature on the piece. Despite a profusion of educated guesswork, there is not much that can be said with certainty about the first century of the composition's existence other than that it survived that period in a manuscript written by Johannes Ringk; the first publication of the piece, in the Bach Revival era, was in 1833, through the efforts of Felix Mendelssohn, who performed the piece in an acclaimed concert in 1840. Familiarity with the piece was enhanced in the second half of the 19th century by a successful piano version by Carl Tausig, but it was not until the 20th century that its popularity rose above that of other organ compositions by Bach.
That popularity further increased, due for example to its inclusion in Walt Disney's Fantasia, until this composition came to be considered the most famous work in the organ repertoire. A wide, conflicting, variety of analyses has been published about the piece: for instance, in literature on organ music, it is described as some sort of program music depicting a storm, while in the context of Disney's Fantasia, it was promoted as absolute music, nothing like program music depicting a storm. In the last quarter of the 20th century, scholars like Peter Williams and Rolf-Dietrich Claus published their studies on the piece, argued against its authenticity. Bach-scholars like Christoph Wolff defended the attribution to Bach. Other commentators ignored the authenticity considered the attribution issue undecided. No edition of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis listed the Toccata and Fugue among the doubtful works, nor does its entry on the website of the Bach Archiv Leipzig mention alternative views on the attribution issue.
The only extant near-contemporary source for BWV 565 is an undated copy by Johannes Ringk. A broad estimate is that the manuscript was written somewhere in the period from ten years before Bach's death in 1750 to ten years after it. Ringk produced his first copy of a Bach score in 1730 when he was 12. Taking into consideration the evolution of Ringk's handwriting, one can infer that his copy of BWV 565 was written soon after his first copy of a Bach composition, which would narrow the date of his BWV 565 manuscript to between 1730 and 1735, when Ringk was around 15. At the time Ringk was a student of Bach's former student Johann Peter Kellner at Gräfenroda, faithfully copied what his teacher put before him. There are some errors in the score such as note values not adding up to fill a measure correctly; such defects show a carelessness deemed typical of Kellner, who left over 60 copies of works by Bach. The title page of Ringk's manuscript writes the title of the work in Italian as Toccata con Fuga, names Johann Sebastian Bach as the composer of the piece, indicates its tonality as "ex. d. #.", seen as the key signature being D minor.
However, in Ringk's manuscript the staves have no ♭ accidental at the key. In this sense, in Ringk's manuscript, the piece is written down in D Dorian mode. Another piece listed as Bach's was known as Toccata and Fugue in D minor, was entitled to the "Dorian" qualification, it was that piece, BWV 538, that received the "Dorian" nickname, that qualifier being used to distinguish it from BWV 565. Most score editions of BWV 565 use the D minor key signature, unlike Ringk's manuscript. Ringk's manuscript does not use a separate stave for the pedal part, common in the 18th century. Printed editions of the BWV 565 organ score invariably write the pedal line on a separate stave. In Ringk's manuscript the upper stave is written down using the soprano clef, where printed editions use the treble clef. All other extant manuscript copies of the score date from at least several decades later: some of these, written in the 19th century, are related with each other in that they have similar solutions to the defects in the Ringk manuscript.
Whether these derive from an earlier manuscript independent from Ringk's is debated by scholars. These near-identical 19th-century copies, the version Felix Mendelssohn knew, use the treble clef and a separate stave for the pedal. In general, the copies show a less excessive use of fermatas in the opening measures and are more correct in making the note values fit the measures, but that may as well be from polishing a defective source as from deriving from a cleaner earlier source. In the copies the work is named for instance "Adagio" and "Fuga", or "Toccata" for the work as a whole; the name "Toccata" is most a addition, similar to the title of Toccata and Fugue, BWV 564, because in the Baroque era such organ pieces would most be called Prelude (Praeludium, etc
Winter sports or winter activities are competitive sports or non-competitive recreational activities which are played on snow or ice. Most are variations of ice skating and sledding. Traditionally, such games were only played in cold areas during winter, but artificial snow and artificial ice allow more flexibility. Artificial ice can be used to provide ice rinks for ice skating, ice hockey, bandy in a milder climate. Common individual sports include cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating, skeleton, ski orienteering and snowmobiling. Common team sports include ice hockey and bandy. Based on the number of participants, ice hockey is by far the world's most popular winter sport, followed by bandy. Winter sports have their own multi-sport events, such as the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Universiade. Snow and ice during the wintertime has led to other means of transportation, such as sledges and skates; this led to different pastimes and sports being developed in the winter season as compared to other times of the year.
Winter sports are more popular in countries with longer winter seasons. While most winter sports are played outside, ice hockey, speed skating and to some extent bandy have moved indoors starting in the mid-20th century. Indoor ice rinks with artificial ice allow ice hockey to be played in hot climates. Note: the Olympic rings next to a sport indicates that this particular sport is included in the Winter Olympic Games, as of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi; the Paralympic logo indicates the same for a sport not in the Olympics but in the Winter Paralympic Games. Figure skating Short-track speed skating Speed skating Acroski Alpine skiing Biathlon Cross-country skiing Freestyle skiing Kite skiing Mogul skiing Monoskiing Newschool skiing Nordic combined Ski archery Skiboarding Skibob Skijoring Ski jumping Ski orienteering Snowkiting Speed skiing Speed riding Telemark skiing Winter pentathlon Sports that use sleds going down ice tracks or pulled by something: Bobsled Dogsled racing Ice blocking Luge Skeleton Wok racing Alpine snowboarding Boardercross Slalom Snowskating Slopestyle Free style Snocross Recreation Cross-country Hill climbing Bandy Broomball Curling Ice hockey Ice sledge hockey Ice stock sport Military patrol Ringette Rink bandy Snow rugby Snow snake Snow volleyball Synchronized skating Yukigassen Ice climbing Ice racing Ice speedway Snowbiking Ice canoeing Cold-weather biking Snow drifting Cross country running Some sports are competed in on a more casual basis by children: Building snowmen Building snow fortresses or digging snow caves Ice boating or ice sailing Ice fishing Ice swimming Shinny Snowball fight Tobogganing Snow bowling Snowshoeing Snow golf Winter Olympic Games Nordic Games World Cup Arctic Winter Games Asian Winter Games Winter Paralympic Games Winter Universiade Winter Dew Tour Winter X Games Winter X Games Europe Bandy World Cup Biathlon World Cup Bobsleigh World Cup FIS Alpine Ski World Cup FIS Cross-Country World Cup FIS Freestyle Skiing World Cup FIS Nordic Combined World Cup FIS Ski Jumping World Cup FIS Snowboard World Cup Luge World Cup Short Track Speed Skating World Cup Skeleton World Cup Speed Skating World Cup World Cup in Ski Orienteering Ice Hockey World Championships Curling World Championships Bandy World Championships Biathlon World Championships Bobsleigh World Championships FIS Alpine World Ski Championships FIS Freestyle World Ski Championships FIS Nordic World Ski Championships FIS Snowboarding World Championships FIL World Luge Artificial Track Championships FIL World Luge Natural Track Championships FIS Ski Flying World Championships World Figure Skating Championships World Long Track Speed Skating Championships World Short Track Speed Skating Championships Skeleton World Championships World Ski Orienteering Championships Winter carnival Outline of sports Outdoor activity Syers, Edgar.
The Book of Winter Sports, an attempt to catch the spirit of the keen joys of the winter season The Macmillan Company Jessup, Elon Huntington Snow and ice sports: a winter manual E. P. Dutton & company Cereghini Five Thousand Years of Winter Sports Edizioni del Milione Liebers, Arthur The Complete Book of Winter Sports NY: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan "Winter Sports: Sport guides". BBC Online. 20 February 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2010. Media related to Winter sports at Wikimedia Commons Winter sports travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh
BBC Online known as BBCi, is the BBC's online service. It is a large network of websites including such high-profile sites as BBC News and Sport, the on-demand video and radio services co-branded BBC iPlayer, the children's sites CBBC and CBeebies, learning services such as Bitesize; the BBC has had an online presence supporting its TV and radio programmes and web-only initiatives since 1994 but did not launch until December 1997, following government approval to fund it by TV licence fee revenue as a service in its own right. Throughout its short history, the online plans of the BBC have been subject to harassment from its commercial rivals, which has resulted in various public consultations and government reviews to investigate their claims that its large presence and public funding distorts the UK market; the website has gone through several branding changes. Named BBC Online, it was rebranded as BBCi before being named bbc.co.uk. It was renamed BBC Online again in 2008, however the service uses the branding "BBC".
The web-based service of the BBC is one of the most visited websites and the world's largest news website. As of 2007, it contained over two million pages. On 26 February 2010 The Times claimed that Mark Thompson Director General of the BBC, proposed that the BBC's web output should be cut by 50%, with online staff numbers and budgets reduced by 25% in a bid to scale back BBC operations and allow commercial rivals more room. On 2 March 2010, the BBC reported that it will cut its website spending by 25% and close BBC 6 Music and Asian Network. On 24 January 2011, the confirmed cuts of 25% were announced leaving a £34 million shortfall; this resulted in the closure of several sites, including BBC Switch, BBC Blast, 6-0-6, the announcement of plans to sell on the Douglas Adams created site h2g2. The service's original home was www.bbcnc.org.uk launched by BBC Education on 11 May 1994 as a non-profit paid subscription service. For a joining fee of £25 and a monthly subscription of £12, members of the club were given access to an early type of social networking site featuring a bulletin board for sharing information and real-time conversation, along with a dialup Internet connection service.
Within 12 months, the BBC offered "auntie" on-line discussion groups. The BBC Director General John Birt sought government approval to direct licence fee revenue into the service, describing planned BBC Internet services as the "third medium" joining the BBC's existing TV and Radio networks, achieving a change in the BBC Charter; this led to the official launch of BBC Online at the www.bbc.co.uk address in December 1997. As well as the licence fee funded www.bbc.co.uk, BBC Worldwide launched the commercially funded beeb.com, featuring entertainment focused content, with sites including Radio Times, Top Gear and Top of the Pops. BBC Online launched licence fee funded web sites for Top of the Pops and Top Gear, resulting in some duplication. Beeb.com was refocussed as an online shopping guide, was closed in 2002. Beeb.com redirected to the BBC Shop website, run by BBC Worldwide. In 1999, the BBC bought the www.bbc.com domain name for $375,000 owned by Boston Business Computing, but the price of this purchase was not revealed until 6 years later.
As of 2005, www.bbcnc.org.uk no longer exists. In 2001, BBC Online was rebranded as BBCi; the BBCi name was conceived as an umbrella brand for all the BBC's digital interactive services across web, digital teletext, interactive TV and on mobile platforms. The use of letter "i" prefixes and suffixes to denote information technology or interactivity was much in vogue at this time; as part of the rebrand, BBC website pages all displayed a standard navigation bar across the top of the screen, offering category-based navigation: Categories, TV, Communicate, Where I Live, A-Z Index and a search function. The navbar was designed to offer a similar navigation system to the i-bar on BBCi interactive television. After three years of consistent use across different platforms, the BBC began to drop the BBCi brand gradually. Interactive TV services continued under the BBCi brand until it was dropped in 2008; the BBC's online video player, the iPlayer has, retained an i-prefix in its branding. On 14 December 2007, a beta version of a new bbc.co.uk homepage was launched, with the ability to customise the page by adding and rearranging different categories, such as'News','Weather' and'Entertainment'.
The widget-based design was inspired by sites such as Facebook and iGoogle, allowed the BBC to add new content to the homepage while still retaining users' customisations. The new homepage incorporated the clock design used in the 1970s on the BBC's television service into the large header and a box containing featured content of the website; the new BBC homepage left beta on Wednesday, 27 February 2008 to serve as the new BBC Homepage under the same URL as the previous version. On 30 January 2010, a new webpage design became available as a beta version, that by May 2010, replaced the old homepage; this homepage expanded on the customisation theme. The website all