The Aryan race is a racial grouping that emerged in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of Indo-European heritage. It derives from the idea that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendants up to the present day constitute a distinctive race or subrace of the Caucasian race; the term Aryan has been used to describe the Proto-Indo-Iranian language root *arya, the ethnonym the Indo-Iranians adopted to describe Aryans. Its cognate in Sanskrit is the word ārya, in origin an ethnic self-designation, in Classical Sanskrit meaning "honourable, noble"; the Old Persian cognate ariya- is the ancestor of the modern name of Iran and ethnonym for the Iranian people. In the 18th century, the most ancient known Indo-European languages were those of the ancient Indo-Iranians; the word Aryan was therefore adopted to refer not only to the Indo-Iranian peoples, but to native Indo-European speakers as a whole, including the Romans and the Germans.
It was soon recognised that Balts and Slavs belonged to the same group. It was argued that all of these languages originated from a common root – now known as Proto-Indo-European – spoken by an ancient people who were thought of as ancestors of the European and Indo-Aryan peoples; this usage was common among knowledgeable authors writing in the late early 20th century. An example of this usage appears in The Outline of a bestselling 1920 work by H. G. Wells. In that influential volume, Wells used the term in the plural, but he was a staunch opponent of the racist and politically motivated exploitation of the singular term by earlier authors like Houston Stewart Chamberlain and was careful either to avoid the generic singular, though he did refer now and again in the singular to some specific "Aryan people". In 1922, in A Short History of the World, Wells depicted a diverse group of various "Aryan peoples" learning "methods of civilization" and by means of different uncoordinated movements that Wells believed were part of a larger dialectical rhythm of conflict between settled civilizations and nomadic invaders that encompassed Aegean and Mongol peoples inter alia, "subjugat" – "in form" but not in "ideas and methods" – "the whole ancient world, Semitic and Egyptian alike".
However, in a climate of burgeoning racism it proved difficult to maintain such nuanced distinctions. Max Mueller, a linguist who wrote in 1888 that "an ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as great a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a brachycephalic grammar", was on occasion guilty of using the term "Aryan race". In the 1944 edition of Rand McNally's World Atlas, the Aryan race is depicted as one of the ten major racial groupings of mankind; the science fiction author Poul Anderson, an anti-racist libertarian of Scandinavian ancestry, in his many works used the term Aryan as a synonym for "Indo-Europeans". The use of "Aryan" as a synonym for Indo -European may appear in material, based on historic scholarship. Thus, a 1989 article in Scientific American, Colin Renfrew uses the term "Aryan" as a synonym for "Indo-European"; the term Indo-Aryan is still used to describe the Indic half of the Indo-Iranian languages, i.e. the family that includes Sanskrit and modern languages such as Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, Romani, Kashmiri and Marathi.
In the context of 19th-century physical anthropology and scientific racism, the term "Aryan race" has been misapplied to all people descended from the Proto-Indo-Europeans – a subgroup of the Europidor "Caucasian" race, in addition to the Indo-Iranians. This usage was considered to include most modern inhabitants of Australasia, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Latin America, North America, South Asia, Southern Africa, West Asia; such claims became common during the early 19th century, when it was believed that the Aryans originated in the south-west Eurasian steppes. Max Müller is identified as the first writer to mention an "Aryan race" in English. In his Lectures on the Science of Language, Muller referred to Aryans as a "race of people". At the time, the term race had the meaning of "a group of tribes or peoples, an ethnic group". Müller's concept of Aryan was construed to imply a biologically distinct sub-group of humanity, by writers such as Arthur de Gobineau, who argued that the Aryans represented a superior branch of humanity.
Müller objected to the mixing of linguistics and anthropology. "The Science of Language and the Science of Man cannot be kept too much asunder... I must repeat what I have said many times before, it would be wrong to speak of Aryan blood as of dolichocephalic grammar", he restated his opposition to this method in 1888 in his essay Biographies of words and the home of the Aryas. By the late 19th century the steppe theory of Indo-European origins was challenged by a view that the Indo-Europeans originated in ancient Germany or Scandinavia – or at least that in those countries the original Indo-European ethnicity had been preserved; the word Aryan was used more restrictively – and less in keeping with its Indo-Iranian origins – to mean "Germanic", "Nordic" or Northern Europeans. This implied division of Caucasoids into Aryans and Hamites was based on linguistics, rather than based on physical anthropology.
Slik were a Scottish pop group of the mid-1970s, most notable for their UK no. 1 hit "Forever and Ever" in 1976. Glam rock, the band changed their style to soft rock/bubblegum, it was the first band with whom singer and guitarist Midge Ure began to experience musical success, before joining new wave band Ultravox. Slik were formed as the Glasgow based band'Salvation' in June 1970, comprising Kevin and Jim McGinlay, Nod Kerr, Mario Tortolano, Ian Kenny. Brian Deniston replaced Ian Kenny in December 1970 and Nod Kerr departed in May 1971, followed by Tortolano and they were replaced by Matt Cairns on drums and Robin Birrel on keyboards. Deniston left shortly after this change and they were forced to continue as a four-piece outfit for a year. Birrel and Cairns left in March 1972 and they recruited Kenny Hyslop on drums, Billy McIsaac on keyboards and Jim "Midge" Ure on guitar, they reverted to a four-piece band. They changed their name to Slik in November 1974, linked up with the pop songwriters Bill Martin and Phil Coulter, who were writing for the Bay City Rollers who were teen favourites at the time.
Now signed to Polydor, the band members all adopted pseudonyms - Midge, Oil Slik, Jim Slik and Lord Slik. These were dropped after the failure of "Boogiest Band in Town", their debut single, their suits were exchanged for baseball shirts. A change of record label saw them signing with Bell Records; this was followed by their greatest success when their single "Forever And Ever" reached number one in the UK Singles Chart in February 1976. As a result of the single, readers of The Sun newspaper voted Slik the best new band of the year; the song formula was repeated with their next single, "Requiem", which made the UK top 30 but failed to repeat the success of "Forever and Ever". Ure was injured in a car accident shortly after the release of the single, resulting in the cancellation of television appearances and a planned UK tour. "Requiem" opens with the first accordes of Joaquín Rodrigo's "Concierto de Aranjuez", a number 3 hit just two months before in the UK for Geoff Love's orchestra, billed as'Manuel & the Music of the Mountains'.
Following the "Requiem" single, the band's self-titled album was released but this was a commercial failure, peaking only at no.58 in the UK. Subsequent Slik singles failed to chart. In March 1977 Jim McGinlay left the group and was replaced by Russell Webb, a university drop-out, who continued for the final Slik gigs. Shortly after Webb joined and a last tour, the band decided to change both name, they chose to call themselves PVC2, play punk music, growing in popularity at that time. In the latter half of 1977, PVC2 released "Put You in the Picture", on Zoom Records, whose eponymous song joined the repertoire of The Rich Kids, Ure's next band. Slik/PVC2 moved to London to join The Rich Kids. Following Ure's departure, Hyslop and McIsaac added Alex Harvey's cousin Willie Gardner to their next band, called Zones. Webb and Hyslop joined The Skids, McIsaac retired from the pop music scene. In the 1990s he formed the Billy McIsaac Band. Slik — UK number 58 The following is a sortable table of all songs by Arrows: The column Song list the song title.
The column Writer lists. The column Album lists the album; the column Producer lists the producer of the song. The column Year lists the year. Slik biography at Allmusic website
The Absolute Game
The Absolute Game is the third studio album by Scottish punk rock and new wave band Skids. Recorded in 1980 and produced by Mick Glossop, it was released in September 1980 by record label Virgin, it became their most commercially successful album. This album marks the first collaborative effort between Richard Jobson and new bassist Russell Webb, who continued to work together in the band The Armoury Show and on Jobson's solo album Badman. Alex Ogg of AllMusic opined "Musically, the Skids were branching out and writing some illustrious pop tunes." Initial copies came with a limited edition second disc entitled Strength Through Joy, a collection of material recorded during The Absolute Game sessions but omitted from the album. Its songs feature members of the band playing each other's instruments. Richard Jobson, the Skids' lead singer stated that this title had been taken from Dirk Bogarde's autobiography and was not based on the Nazi slogan "Kraft durch Freude". However, it continued in the controversial theme of the first release of Days in Europa, withdrawn after accusations of Nazi glorification.
The Absolute Game was released in September 1980. It reached No. 9 in the UK Albums Chart. Around this time the band was riven by internal rifts and disagreements, leading to various changes in personnel. Soon after the release and tour of The Absolute Game and Baillie left the band. Shane Baldwin of Record Collector called it "their finest work, despite the fact that, by Jobson and Adamson's relationship had begun to founder. Endlessly inventive and executed, it deservedly became their most successful release". Ira Robbins of Trouser Press wrote "Parts of The Absolute Game are just arty pretense, but the inclusion of substantial, engaging material makes it a reasonable addition to the collection." All tracks written except "Out of Town", written by Jobson and Adamson. SkidsRichard Jobson – vocals, guitar Stuart Adamson – guitar, keyboards, percussion Russell Webb – bass guitar, keyboards, percussion Mike Baillie – drums, percussionAdditional personnelJude Nettleton – vocals Julius Newell – vocals Andrew Sigsworth – vocals John Sigsworth – vocals Alison Pipkin – vocals David Pipkin – vocals Hannah Yeadon – vocals Esther Marshall – vocals Chloe Dymott – vocals Marlis Dunklau – vocals Gracie Benson – vocals Sally Nettleton – vocals Harriet Bakewell – vocals Mary Volke – vocals Derek Wadsworth – didgeridoo The Absolute Game at Discogs
Session musicians, studio musicians, or backing musicians are musicians hired to perform in recording sessions or live performances. Session musicians are not permanent members of a musical ensemble or band, they work behind the scenes and achieve individual fame in their own right as soloists or bandleaders. However, top session musicians are well known within the music industry, some have become publicly recognized, such as the Wrecking Crew and Motown's The Funk Brothers. Many session musicians specialize in playing common instruments such as guitar, bass, or drums. Others are specialists, play brass and strings. Many session musicians play multiple instruments, which lets them play in a wider range of musical situations and styles. Examples of "doubling" include electric bass. Session musicians are used. Session musicians are used by recording studios to provide backing tracks for other musicians for recording sessions and live performances. In the 2000s, the terms "session musician" and "studio musician" are synonymous, though in past decades, "studio musician" meant a musician associated with a single record company, recording studio or entertainment agency.
During the 1950s and 1960s, session players were active in local recording scenes concentrated in places such as Los Angeles, New York City, Memphis and Muscle Shoals. Each local scene had its circle of "A-list" session musicians, such as The Nashville A-Team that played on numerous country and rock hits of the era, the two groups of musicians in Memphis, both the Memphis Boys and the musicians who backed Stax/Volt recordings, the Funk Brothers in Detroit, who played on many Motown recordings. At the time, multi-tracking equipment, though common, was less elaborate, instrumental backing tracks were recorded "hot" with an ensemble playing live in the studio. Musicians had to be available "on call" when producers needed a part to fill a last-minute time slot. In the 1960s, Los Angeles was considered the top recording destination in the United States — studios were booked around the clock, session time was sought after and expensive. Songs had to be recorded in the fewest possible takes. In this environment, Los Angeles producers and record executives had little patience for needless expense or wasted time and depended on the service of reliable standby musicians who could be counted on to record in a variety of styles with minimal practice or takes, deliver hits on short order.
A studio band is a musical ensemble, in the employ of a recording studio for the purpose of accompanying recording artists who are customers of the studio. The Nashville A-Team Studio musicians, their contributions began in the 1950s with artists such as Elvis Presley. The original A-Team includes bassist Bob Moore. Cramer, McCoy and Randolph, along with A-Teamer and producer Chet Atkins, would emerge as part of Hee Haw's Million Dollar Band in the 1980s. Booker T. & the M. G.'s The house band at Stax records in Memphis during the 1960s and 1970s, playing behind Otis Redding, Eddie Floyd and Dave, Isaac Hayes, The Staple Singers, others. MGs guitarist Steve Cropper co-wrote many of Redding's hits and the MGs produced albums and hit singles such as "Green Onions" in their own right while being the house band at Stax; the Wrecking Crew Prolific, established studio musicians based in Los Angeles. They have recorded many albums since the 1960s; the Ron Hicklin Singers was a vocal session group associated with the Wrecking Crew and appeared as backing vocalists on many of the Crew's recordings.
The Funk Brothers Session musicians who backed many Motown Records recordings from the late 1950s to the early 1970s, as well as a few non-Motown recordings, notably on Jackie Wilson's " Higher and Higher."The Andantes The Memphis Boys The Section A Los Angeles singer/songwriter scene associated with the Troubadour nightclub and Laurel Canyon in the late 1960s to mid-1970s was supported by musicians Russ Kunkel, Danny Kortchmar, Leland Sklar and Craig Doerge. This session combo, nicknamed "the Section" or "the Mafia", backed many musicians, among others: Carole King, James Taylor, Jackson Browne, Warren Zevon, Kris Kristofferson and David Crosby; the Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section A group comprising Barry Beckett, Roger Hawkins, David Hood, Jimmy Johnson known as the Swampers, became known for the "Muscle Shoals Sound." Many of the recordings done in the Memphis area, which included Muscle Shoals, used The Memphis Horns in their arrangements. MFSB MFSB was a group of soul music studio musicians based in Philadelphia at the Sigma Sound Studios.
The Hillside Singers A vocal group commissioned to provide vocals for Mayoham Music, formed by husband and wife Al Ham and M
Bill Nelson (musician)
Bill Nelson is an English singer, songwriter, painter, video artist and experimental musician. He rose to prominence as the chief songwriter and guitarist of the rock group Be-Bop Deluxe, which he formed in 1972. Nelson has been described as "one of the most underrated guitarists of the seventies art rock movement". In 2015, he was recognised with the Visionary award at the Progressive Music Awards. Nelson was born Wakefield to Jean and Walter Nelson, his father was an alto saxophone player. His mother, was a member of a dance troupe when younger. Nelson attended local schools in the Wakefield area and in the 1960s went to Wakefield College of Art. Nelson's younger brother, collaborated on the Be-Bop Deluxe song "Ships in the Night" and formed the band Fiat Lux. Nelson has three children and Elle and Elliot, both born with Bill’s second wife, Jan. Elle and Elliot played in their own band, Honeytone Cody, between the late 1990s and 2014; some time around April 1995 Nelson married Emiko, married to Yellow Magic Orchestra drummer Yukihiro Takahashi.
Nelson was educated at the Wakefield College of Art, where he developed an interest in the work of poet and filmmaker Jean Cocteau. At this time, he was developing as a musician, drawing upon Duane Eddy as a primary guitar influence, his first record was a brief contribution on the album A-Austr: Musics from Holyground, with Brian Calvert, Chris Coombs, Ted Hepworth, Mike Levon and Brian Wilson. Levon recorded and produced the album which appeared on Levon's own Holyground Records label in 1970. After that, Nelson appeared in a much more substantial role with Lightyears Away on Astral Navigations released in 1971. On one track, "Yesterday", written by Coombs, Levon recorded Nelson's lead guitars in an acid rock style, supporting Coombs' stylophone riff; this track gave Nelson his first airplay by John Peel on his national BBC Radio 1 programme in the United Kingdom. Nelson's Holyground recordings were released in February 2001 as Electrotype; the same year, Nelson's debut solo album Northern Dream, released on his own independent Smile label, drew further attention from Peel which led to Nelson's band Be-Bop Deluxe signing to EMI's Harvest Records subsidiary and releasing Axe Victim in 1974.
Nelson replaced the original band members for Futurama in 1975. The lineup of Bill Nelson, Andrew Clark, Charlie Tumahai and Simon Fox recorded Sunburst Finish and Modern Music in 1976, the live album Live! In The Air Age in 1977 and their final studio album Drastic Plastic in 1978. However, Nelson found the structure of a permanent band constricting. An instrumental on Drastic Plastic performed by Nelson and Clark anticipated Nelson's solo ambient work. Other tracks on that album required Fox record drum parts for use as repeating loop backing tracks in the studio.. This sowed the seeds for experimentation by Nelson. 1983's Invisibility Exhibition tour would see Bill Nelson and Ian Nelson improvise to the former's self-produced backing audio tracks, an approach Nelson would repeat for many solo live performances throughout his career. Playing guitar over pre-recorded backing tracks would bear further fruit in studio recordings, notably the Painting With Guitars series and And We Fell Into A Dream.
In Autumn 1978, Nelson halted the Be-Bop Deluxe project, removed Tumahai and Fox from his immediate working band and replaced the name with the moniker Red Noise. Harvest, who had insisted on naming it "Bill Nelson's Red Noise", refused to release the second Red Noise album Quit Dreaming And Get On The Beam, recorded by Nelson with contributions on sax from his brother Ian rather than the more-obviously marketable five-piece band Harvest's execs had understandably expected, it remained unreleased in record company limbo. Meanwhile, with his producer from Harvest John Leckie, Nelson did some production work for the band Skids, whose guitarist Stuart Adamson was an admirer of Nelson's musicianship. Fruitful friendships followed. Vocalist Richard Jobson would appear as a support act reading poetry on the Invisibility Exhibition tour. After Adamson's untimely death in 2001, Nelson composed a piece in memory of his departed friend, called "For Stuart", which appeared on 2003's The Romance of Sustain Volume One: Painting With Guitars and on 2011's live at Metropolis Studios DVD.
Nelson's manager Mark Rye negotiated with Harvest to buy back some of the unreleased songs for Nelson to release under his own name on his own label, Cocteau Records, which Nelson and Rye had set up. In July 1980, Nelson was able to release the single "Do You Dream in Colour?", which after airplay on BBC Radio 1 reached No. 52 in the UK Singles Chart. This debut release on the label persuaded Phonogram to acquire the remaining tracks for Cocteau in order to release Quit Dreaming And Get On The Beam as a Bill Nelson album on their subsidiary label Mercury Records in 1981; the release contained bonus disc Sounding The Ritual Echo featuring experimental, ambient instrumentals which Nelson ha
Bruce Watson (guitarist)
Bruce William Watson is a Canadian-born Scottish guitarist, best known for being a member of Big Country. Watson was born in Timmins, Canada, he moved with his family to Scotland as a toddler. Prior to joining Big Country, Watson had been a member of several Fife-based New Wave bands including the Delinquents and Eurosect. Watson has played guitar on every Big Country album. In the summer of 2007, Watson played in the Skids who had reformed to play two gigs in Dunfermline prior to a set on the main stage at T in the Park. In 2007, to celebrate 25 years of Big Country, he reunited with founding members Tony Butler and Mark Brzezicki to embark on a tour of the UK with dates in Scotland and England. Fellow band co-founder Stuart Adamson died in December 2001. Starting in 2008, Watson began performing with his son Jamie Watson, as well as releasing an album, The Portastudio Diaries, which chronicled a series of recordings in Bruce Watson's home recording studio. Watson's role in the band was as a supporting guitarist.
He contributed rhythmic textures and repetitive melodic fills which underpinned verses, contrasting with Adamson's more straightforward chord work in these sections. During solos, as Adamson played the main melody, Watson contributed a counter-melody. Watson played slide guitar on some of the band's early material, including "Rain Dance" and "Red Fox." On, Adamson played much of the slide guitar work on the band's songs. Watson is an accomplished mandolin player, put this skill to use on several of Big Country's more country and western-influenced songs, including "Broken Heart." During recent tours, Watson has played many of Adamson's lead guitar parts live, while his son, fulfils his old role. Watson co-wrote many Big Country songs with Adamson, he sang live backing vocals. Big Country website Official Casbah Club website Official website of Bruce and Jamie Watson The Skids Fans Website The Skids Official Website
Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural and human resources; the term "management" may refer to those people who manage an organization. Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership; some people study management at universities. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management, the Doctor of Business Administration, or the PhD in Business Administration or Management. Larger organizations have three levels of managers, which are organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure: Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors and a Chief Executive Officer or a President of an organization.
They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are executive-level professionals, provide direction to middle management who directly or indirectly report to them. Middle managers, examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers. Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees and provide direction on their work. In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or all of the roles observed in a large organization. Views on the definition and scope of management include: According to Henri Fayol, "to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control."
Fredmund Malik defines it as "the transformation of resources into utility." Management included as one of the factors of production – along with machines and money. Ghislain Deslandes defines it as “a vulnerable force, under pressure to achieve results and endowed with the triple power of constraint and imagination, operating on subjective, interpersonal and environmental levels”. Peter Drucker saw the basic task of management as twofold: innovation. Innovation is linked to marketing. Peter Drucker identifies marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are understood as two different branches of business administration knowledge. Management involves identifying the mission, procedures and manipulation of the human capital of an enterprise to contribute to the success of the enterprise; this implies effective communication: an enterprise environment implies human motivation and implies some sort of successful progress or system outcome. As such, management is not the manipulation of a mechanism, not the herding of animals, can occur either in a legal or in an illegal enterprise or environment.
From an individual's perspective, management does not need to be seen from an enterprise point of view, because management is an essential function to improve one's life and relationships. Management is therefore everywhere and it has a wider range of application. Based on this, management must have humans. Communication and a positive endeavor are two main aspects of it either through enterprise or independent pursuit. Plans, motivational psychological tools and economic measures may or may not be necessary components for there to be management. At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plans, meeting goals; this applies in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol considers management to consist of five functions: planning organizing commanding coordinating controllingIn another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett defined management as "the art of getting things done through people", she described management as philosophy.
Critics, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs suggesting the difficulty of defining management without circularity, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or of a class. One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More broadly, every organization must "manage" its work, processes, etc. to maximize effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments that teach management as "business schools"; some such institutions use that name, while others employ the broader term "management". English-speakers may use the term