A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Lytton, British Columbia
Lytton in British Columbia, sits at the confluence of the Thompson River and Fraser River on the east side of the Fraser. The location has been inhabited by the Nlaka'pamux people for over 10,000 years, it is one of the earliest locations settled by non-natives in the Southern Interior of British Columbia. It was founded during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858–59, when it was known as "The Forks"; the community includes the Village of Lytton and the surrounding community of the Lytton First Nation, whose name for the place is Camchin spelled Kumsheen. Lytton was on the route of the Gold Rush in 1858; the same year, Lytton was named for Edward Bulwer-Lytton, the British Colonial Secretary and a novelist. For many years Lytton was a stop on major transportation routes, the River Trail from 1858, Cariboo Wagon Road in 1862, the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, the Cariboo Highway in the 1920s, the Trans Canada Highway in the 1950s. However, it has become much less important since the construction of the Coquihalla Highway in 1987 which uses a more direct route to the BC Interior.
Novelist Bulwer-Lytton was a friend and contemporary of Charles Dickens and was one of the pioneers of the historical novel, exemplified by his most popular work, The Last Days of Pompeii. He is best remembered today for the opening line to the novel Paul Clifford, which begins "It was a dark and stormy night..." and is considered by some to be the worst opening sentence in the English language. However, Bulwer-Lytton is responsible for well-known sayings such as "The pen is mightier than the sword" from his play Richelieu. Despite being a popular author for 19th-century readers, few people today are aware of his prodigious body of literature spanning many genres. In the 21st century he is known best as the namesake for the Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest, sponsored annually by the English Department at San Jose State University, which challenges entrants "to compose the opening sentence to the worst of all possible novels". On August 30, 2008, the Village of Lytton invited Henry Lytton-Cobbold, the great-great-great grandson of Edward Bulwer-Lytton, to defend the great man's honour by debating Professor Scott Rice, the sponsor of the BLFC, on the literary and political legacies of his great ancestor.
The debate received wide media coverage including The Globe and Mail, The New York Times, The Guardian, CBC's As It Happens and many local and regional newspapers and radio and TV stations. The debate was moderated by Mike McArdell of Global TV. Lytton-Cobbold provided a spirited and crowd-inspiring defense of his ancestor, despite a factual and well-researched presentation by Rice, Lytton-Cobbold emerged as the crowd favorite by a wide margin. In the end, Rice begrudgingly admitted to an admiration of Bulwer-Lytton; this event was held as part of the Village of Lytton's 150BC celebrations, as it was the 150th anniversary of the community receiving its name. The population of the village municipality as of the 2016 census was 249, with another 1,700 in the immediate area living in rural areas and on reserves of the neighbouring six Nlaka'pamux communities.802 members out of 1,970 registered members of the Lytton First Nation live on reserves adjacent to the municipality. Lytton experiences a Cold semi-arid climate.
During summer heat waves, Lytton is the hottest spot in Canada, despite being north of 50° in latitude. Due to the dry summer air and a low elevation of 230 m, summer afternoon shade temperatures sometimes reach 35 °C and up and top 40 °C. Lytton, along with the nearby community of Lillooet, share the second-highest temperature recorded in Canada. On July 16 and 17, 1941, the temperature reached a record 44.4 °C on both days in both communities. Lytton holds the record for the hottest temperature recorded in the province during August after the temperature reached 41.8 °C on August 14, 2004. The coldest temperature recorded in Lytton was -31.7 °C on 18 January 1950. Hot summer temperatures are made more tolerable by low humidity. However, the heat can be intense with clear blue skies and blazing sunlight – heat radiates from the valley's slopes, forest fires are not uncommon during the summer. Lytton's climate is characterized by short and mild winters, with Pacific maritime influence during the winter ensuring thick cloud cover much of the time.
Cold snaps originating from arctic outflow occur from time to time, but tend to be short-lived, mountains to the north block extreme cold from penetrating the Fraser Canyon. Lytton receives 430.6 mm of annual precipitation on average, making Lytton much drier than communities to the south, but wetter than some of the driest spots in the BC interior such as Spences Bridge and Osoyoos. However, Lytton has the driest summers in the interior of British Columbia, indeed, one of the driest summers of all places in Canada. Maximum precipitation occurs in the cooler months, with the late autumn and early winter constituting the wettest time of the year. Open coniferous forests of ponderosa pine dominate the slopes around Lytton; some black cottonwood is scattered among the conifers. Bunchgrass dominates the forest floor. Non-native trees cultivated in Lytton include Manitoba Maple. Lytton lies on the Trans Canada Highway as well as both the Canadian Pacific and Canadian National Railways; the Canadian National Railway Crosses both the Fraser and Thompson Rivers on two large steel bridges at Lytton.
Via the Trans-Canada, Lytton is 265 km from t
Stein Valley Nlaka'pamux Heritage Park
Stein Valley Nlaka'pamux Heritage Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada. Nearly the complete Stein River watershed from the mountains to the Fraser River is protected in this park, though there are some areas of the watershed that were left out. In the 1980s there was a plan to log the valley; this was protested by the environmentalists who argued that this was the last untouched watershed in the southern Coast Mountains. In 1988 Fletcher Challenge announced a moratorium on logging the Stein. After strong public support, an annual music festival that raised awareness, the Stein Valley was protected as a park on November 22, 1995, it is jointly administered by the Lytton First BC Parks. The name "Stein" comes from the Nlaka'pamux word "stagyn", which means "hidden place"; this land is an important spiritual land for the First Nations in the area. There are a number of pictographs in the park; some are visible, others must be sought out, some are guarded secrets of the local people.
The park protects over 50 species of mammals, including mountain goat, wolverine, black bear and grizzly bear. Bird species include golden eagles, sharp shinned hawks, barred owls, pygmy owls, white-tailed ptarmigan, pileated woodpeckers and rufous hummingbirds, as well as several species of chickadees and nuthatches; the Stein River contains Dolly Varden char, rainbow trout and Rocky Mountain whitefish, as well as steelhead trout, coho and Chinook salmon. This park has 150 km of a number of wilderness camping areas. There are a suspension bridge across the river; the Lower Stein Valley from the Lytton trailhead to the Suspension Bridge Camp has become popular for school outdoor education groups. Located near Lytton, British Columbia, or 185 kilometres west of Kamloops, British Columbia. 1,071.91 km2 "Stein Valley Nlaka'pamux Heritage Park". BC Geographical Names. Stein Valley Nlaka'pamux Heritage Park, BC Parks UN database entry
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
The Bendor Range is a small but once-famous subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains, about It is 7,000 square kilometres in area and about 40 km long and about 18 km at its widest. It lies between Anderson Lake on the southeast and the Carpenter Lake Reservoir or the Bridge River Power Project on the north, with the gold-rich valley of Cadwallader Creek on its southwest; the range's western flank is the site of a series of now-semi-abandoned mining towns. One of these, Bralorne, is among the deepest mines in Canada and in its heyday was the third-richest gold mine in the world, its shafts plunge a mile beneath sea level under the range. The name "Bendor" is believed by some locally to be a Gaelic-French hybrid - ben d'or - mountain of gold - and while it does mean that, more or less, the name was conferred in honour of Bend Or, a famous racehorse of the 1890s; the range has only a few small icefields, but a number of high and difficult peaks. The highest is Whitecap Mountain 2918 m, visible from the Lillooet end of Seton Lake but, as it is located near the heart of the range, invisible from the towns and lakes around its perimeter.
At the northwest of the range, but invisible from the towns below because of the terrain of its flanks, is Mount Truax 2870 m. East of it are Mount Williams 2775 m and Mount Bobb 2821 m. Note: some classification systems assign the Bendor to the Chilcotin Ranges subgrouping of the Pacific Ranges, but this is incorrect as it is on the south side of the Bridge River, the limit of the Chilcotin Ranges. "Bendor Range". BC Geographical Names. Bridge River-Lillooet Country Archive Bendor Range entry in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
Mountain peaks of Canada
This article comprises three sortable tables of major mountain peaks of Canada. The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways: The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level; the first table below ranks the 100 highest major summits of Canada by elevation. The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings; the second table below ranks the 50 most prominent summits of Canada. The topographic isolation of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation; the third table below ranks the 50 most isolated major summits of Canada. Of the 100 highest major summits of Canada, five peaks exceed 5000 metres elevation, 19 peaks exceed 4000 metres, 67 peaks exceed 3000 metres, all 100 peaks equal or exceed 2706 metres elevation. Of these 100 peaks, 61 are located in British Columbia, 28 in Yukon, 13 in Alberta, one in the Northwest Territories.
Five of these peaks lie on the international border between Yukon and Alaska, four lie on the international border between British Columbia and Alaska, three lie on the border between British Columbia and Alberta, one lies on the border between British Columbia and Yukon. Of the 50 most prominent summits of Canada, only Mount Logan exceeds 4000 metres of topographic prominence, five peaks exceed 3000 metres, 41 peaks exceed 2000 metres, all 50 peaks equal or exceed 1866 metres of topographic prominence. All of these peaks are ultra-prominent summits. Of these 50 peaks, 34 are located in British Columbia, nine in Yukon, six in Nunavut, three in Alberta. Three of these peaks lie on the international border between Yukon and Alaska, one lies on the international border between British Columbia and Alaska, two lie on the border between British Columbia and Alberta, two lie on the border between British Columbia and Yukon. Of the 50 most isolated major summits of Canada, 12 peaks exceed 500 kilometres of topographic isolation, 31 peaks exceed 200 kilometres, all 50 peaks exceed 100 kilometres of topographic isolation.
Of these 50 peaks, 17 are located in British Columbia, 13 in Nunavut, seven in Yukon, four in Newfoundland and Labrador, four in Quebec, three in the Northwest Territories, two in Alberta, one each in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Two of these peaks lie on the international border between British Columbia and Alaska, two lie on the border between British Columbia and Alberta. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Greenland List of mountain peaks of Canada List of the highest major summits of Canada List of the major 4000-metre summits of Canada List of the major 3000-metre summits of Canada List of the most prominent summits of Canada List of the ultra-prominent summits of Canada List of the most isolated major summits of Canada List of extreme summits of Canada List of mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of México List of mountain peaks of Central America List of mountain peaks of the Caribbean Canada Geography of Canada Category:Mountains of Canada commons:Category:Mountains of Canada Physical geography Topography Topographic elevation Topographic prominence Topographic isolation Natural Resources Canada Canadian Geographical Names @ NRC Bivouac.com Peakbagger.com Peaklist.org Peakware.com Summitpost.org