The Flxible Co. was an American manufacturer of motorcycle sidecars, funeral cars, intercity coaches and transit buses, based in the U. S. state of Ohio. It was founded in 1913 and closed in 1996; the company's production transitioned from highway coaches and other products to transit buses over the period 1953–1970, during the years that followed, Flxible was one of the largest transit-bus manufacturers in North America. In 1913, Hugo H. Young and Carl F. Dudte founded the Flxible Side Car Company in Loudonville, Ohio, to manufacture motorcycle sidecars with a flexible mounting to the motorcycle; the flexible mounting allowed the sidecar to lean on corners along with the motorcycle, was based on a design patented by Young. In 1919, the company's name was changed to The Flxible Company, dropping Side Car from the name as the business looked for new opportunities to expand. After low-priced automobiles became available in the 1920s, the motorcycle sidecar demand dropped and in 1924, Flxible turned to production of funeral cars, ambulances, which were manufactured on Buick chassis, but occasionally on Studebaker, Cadillac and REO chassis, intercity buses built on GMC truck chassis, powered with Buick Straight 8 engines.
In 1953, Flxible absorbed the bus-manufacturing portion of the Fageol Twin Coach Company, accepted its first order for transit buses from the Chicago Transit Authority. In 1964, Flxible purchased Southern Coach Manufacturing Co. of Evergreen and built small transit buses at the former Southern Coach factory until 1976. Flxible was purchased by Rohr Industries in 1970, a new factory and corporate headquarters were built in Delaware, Ohio, in 1974, with the original factory in Loudonville, being used to manufacture parts and sub-assemblies. Flxible became known as Grumman Flxible; the name reverted to Flxible when Grumman sold the company in 1983 to General Automotive Corporation. In 1996, Flxible declared its assets were auctioned; the last Flxible vehicles produced were eight 35 ft CNG-fueled Metro buses that went to Monterey-Salinas Transit in Monterey, California, in November 1995. The former Flxible factory in Loudonville, Ohio, is now a bus maintenance facility for Motor Coach Industries, while the former factory in Delaware, Ohio, is now a parts facility for New Flyer Industries subsidiary North American Bus Industries.
Flxible's intercity buses were popular in Latin American countries. However, high import duties into these countries limited sales. In the early 1960s, Flxible began licensing a producer in Mexico, DINA S. A. to manufacture Flxible-designed intercity coaches, this continued until the late 1980s. In 1965 and 1966, Flxible licensed its "New Look" transit bus design to Canadair Ltd. an aircraft manufacturer in Ville St-Laurent, Quebec. In 1994, Flxible's parent company, General Automotive Corporation, three other American companies, Roger Penske, Mark IV Industries, Carrier, entered into a joint venture with Changzhou Changjiang Bus, a Chinese manufacturer located in Changzhou, Jiangsu province, to produce buses based on the Flxible Metro design and with the Flxible name; the resulting company, China Flxible Auto Corporation, manufactured buses in a variety of lengths, from 8 m to 11 m. These buses, which include both front- and rear-engine designs, share only their general exterior appearance with the American-built Flxibles, were sold to many transit operators in major Chinese cities, including Beijing and Shanghai.
A trolleybus version was manufactured for only one operator, the Hangzhou trolleybus system, which bought 77 units between the late 1990s and 2001. For these vehicles, Changzhou Changjiang supplied the chassis and Metro-style bodies to the Hangzhou Changjiang Bus Company, that company equipped them as trolleybuses. Charles Kettering, a Loudonville, Ohio native and vice president of General Motors, was associated with Flxible for the entire first half of the company's existence. In 1914, Flxible was incorporated with the help of Kettering, who became president of the company and joined the board of directors. Kettering provided significant funding for the company in its early years after 1916, when Kettering sold his firm, the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, to GM for $2.5 million. Kettering continued to serve as president of Flxible, until he became chairman of the board in 1940, a position he held until his death in 1958. After selling Delco to GM in 1916, Kettering organized and ran a research laboratory at GM, by the 1950s, held the position of vice president at GM.
As a result of Kettering's close relationship with both GM and Flxible, many GM parts were used in the production of Flxible vehicles prior to GM's 1943 purchase of Yellow Coach. For example, most Flxible ambulances and buses from the mid-1920s to the early 1940s were built on Buick chassis, Flxible's "Airway" model buses of the mid-1930s were built on a Chevrolet chassis. In 1958, as a result of the consent decree from the 1956 anti-trust case, United States v. General Motors Corp. GM was mandated to sell their bus components and transmissions to other manufacturers, free of royalties. However, in the early 1950s and prior to the consent decree, Flxible built a small number of buses with GM diesel engines while Kettering still served on the board, it has been postulated that GM may have made its diesel engines available to Flxible to reduce the criticisms of GM's business practices that some felt were
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s
Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk blues. Country music consists of ballads and dance tunes with simple forms, folk lyrics, harmonies accompanied by string instruments such as banjos and acoustic guitars, steel guitars, fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, second most popular in the morning commute; the term country music is used today to describe many subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.
Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America brought the music and instruments of Europe along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon." The U. S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage; the first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music The Carter Family.
Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. During the second generation, radio became a popular source of entertainment, "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, as far west as California; the most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who appeared in Hollywood westerns, his mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie".
The third generation started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, dobro or steel guitar became popular among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma, it became known as honky tonk, had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, honky tonk was played by most country bands. Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre. Beginning in the mid-1950s, reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.
The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Fourth generation music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a se
Clarence White, was an American bluegrass and country guitarist and singer. He is best known as a member of the bluegrass ensemble the Kentucky Colonels and the rock band the Byrds, as well as for being a pioneer of the musical genre of country rock during the late 1960s. White worked extensively as a session musician, appearing on recordings by the Everly Brothers, Joe Cocker, Ricky Nelson, Pat Boone, the Monkees, Randy Newman, Gene Clark, Linda Ronstadt, Arlo Guthrie, Jackson Browne amongst others. Together with frequent collaborator Gene Parsons, he invented the B-Bender, a guitar accessory that enables a player to mechanically bend the B-string up a whole tone and emulate the sound of a pedal steel guitar. White was inducted into the International Bluegrass Music Association Hall of Fame in 2016. Clarence Joseph LeBlanc was born on June 1944 in Lewiston, Maine; the LeBlanc family, who changed their surname to White, were of French-Canadian ancestry and hailed from New Brunswick, Canada. Clarence's father, Eric LeBlanc, Sr. played guitar, banjo and harmonica, ensuring that his offspring grew up surrounded by music.
A child prodigy, Clarence began playing guitar at the age of six. At such a young age he was able to hold the instrument and as a result, he switched to ukulele, awaiting a time when his young hands would be big enough to confidently grapple with the guitar. In 1954, when Clarence was ten, the White family relocated to Burbank and soon after, Clarence joined his brothers Roland and Eric Jr. in a trio called Three Little Country Boys. Although they started out playing contemporary country music, the group soon switched to a purely bluegrass repertoire, as a result of Roland's burgeoning interest in the genre. In 1957, banjoist Billy Ray Latham and Dobro player LeRoy Mack were added to the line-up, with the band renaming themselves the Country Boys soon after. In 1961, the Country Boys added Roger Bush on double bass, as a replacement for Eric White, Jr; that same year and other members of the Country Boys appeared on two episodes of The Andy Griffith Show. Between 1959 and 1962, the group released three singles on the Sundown and Briar International record labels.
Following the recording sessions for the Country Boys' debut album, the band changed its name to the Kentucky Colonels in September 1962, at the suggestion of country guitarist and friend Joe Maphis. The band's album was released by Briar International under the title The New Sound of Bluegrass America in early 1963. Around this time, Clarence's flatpicking guitar style was becoming a much more prominent part of the group's music. After attending a performance by Doc Watson at the Ash Grove folk club in Los Angeles, where he met the guitarist, Clarence began to explore the possibilities of the acoustic guitar's role in bluegrass music. At that time, the guitar was regarded as a rhythm instrument in bluegrass, with only a few performers, such as Doc Watson, exploring its potential for soloing. White soon began to integrate elements of Watson's playing style, including the use of open strings and syncopation, into his own flatpicking guitar technique, his breathtaking speed and virtuosity on the instrument was responsible for making the guitar a lead instrument within bluegrass.
The Kentucky Colonels became well known on the bluegrass circuit during this period and made many live appearances throughout California and the United States. Between bookings with the Colonels, White made a guest appearance on Eric Weissberg and Marshall Brickman's New Dimensions in Banjo & Bluegrass album, which would be re-released in 1973 as the soundtrack album to the film Deliverance. Throughout 1964, the Colonels continued to make live appearances at various clubs, concert halls and festivals, as well as recruiting fiddle player Bobby Sloan into their ranks; the Colonels' second album, Appalachian Swing!, was a commercial success and saw White's flatpicking permanently expand the language of bluegrass guitar. Music critic Thom Owens has remarked that White's playing on the album, "helped pioneer a new style in bluegrass. Although the brothers were employed as session musicians, the album was credited to Tut Taylor and Clarence White upon release. Although they were a successful recording act, it was becoming difficult for the Colonels to make a living, due to the waning popularity of the American folk music revival due to the British Invasion and homegrown folk rock acts, such as the Byrds and Bob Dylan.
As a result, the Colonels hired a drummer. In spite of these changes, the Kentucky Colonels dissolved as a band following a show on October 31, 1965. Clarence and Eric Jr. formed a new line-up of the Colonels in 1966, with several other musicians, but this second version of the group was short-lived and by early 1967 they had broken up. During 1964, White began to look beyond bluegrass music towards rock'n' roll as an avenue for artistic expression. Although he was influenced by Country guitarists like Doc Watson, Don Reno and Joe Maphis, he idolized the playing of jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt, rock'n' roller Chuck Berry, studio musician James Burton. White anticipated the viability of a folk/rock hybrid when, in the summer of 196
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona. Founded in 1885, the UA was the first university in the Arizona Territory; as of 2017, the university enrolls 44,831 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, is affiliated with two academic medical centers; the University of Arizona is governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The University of Arizona is one of the elected members of the Association of American Universities and is the only representative from the state of Arizona to this group. Known as the Arizona Wildcats, the UA's intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. UA athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men's basketball and softball; the official colors of the university and its athletic teams are navy blue. After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew.
The Arizona Territory's "Thieving Thirteenth" Legislature approved the University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory's mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory's only university. Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson's legislators, by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize. With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, still in use today.
Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation. The University of Arizona offers bachelor's, master's, professional degrees. Grades are given on a strict 4-point scale with "A" worth 4, "B" worth 3, "C" worth 2, "D" worth 1 and "E" worth zero points; the Center for World University Rankings in 2017 ranked Arizona No. 52 in the world and 34 in the U. S; the 2018 Times Higher Education World University Rankings rated University of Arizona 161st in the world and the 2017/18 QS World University Rankings ranked it 230th. The University of Arizona was ranked tied for 77th in the "National Universities" category by U. S. News & World Report for 2018; the James E. Rogers College of Law Graduate School was ranked tied for 41st nationally; the College of Medicine was rated No. 7 among the nation's medical schools for Hispanic students, according to Hispanic Business Magazine. In 2017, the Eller MBA program was ranked 24th among public institutions and 49th nationally by U.
S. News & World Report, which placed the school's Management Information Systems program as 2nd, the Entrepreneurship program as 5th and the Part-time MBA 30th among U. S public schools. U. S. News & World Report rated UA as tied for 33rd for online MBA programs, tied for 49th for best online graduate nursing programs, tied for 33rd for best online graduate engineering programs nationally. UA graduate programs ranked in the top 25 in the nation by U. S. News & World Report for 2017 include Information Science, Geology and Seismology, Speech Pathology, Rehabilitation Counseling, Earth Sciences, Analytical Chemistry, Atomic/Molecular/Optical Sciences and Photography; the Council for Aid to Education ranked UA 12th among public universities and 24th overall in financial support and gifts. Campaign Arizona, an effort to raise over $1 billion for the school, exceeded that goal by $200 million a year earlier than projected. In April 2014, the "Arizona Now" campaign launched with a target of $1.5 billion.
As of 31 December 2016, the campaign has raised $1.59 Billion, two years ahead of schedule. In 2015, Design Intelligence ranked the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture's undergraduate program in architecture 10th in the nation for all universities and private; the same publication ranked. The School of Middle Eastern and North African Studies at the University of Arizona is one of the most ranked area studies programs focusing on the Middle East in the United States. In addition to offering language training in Arabic, Hebrew and Turkish, it is collocated with the Middle East Studies Association; the School of Geography and Development is ranked as one of the top geography graduate programs in the US. The UA is considered a "selective" university by U. S. News & World Report. In the 2014-2015 academic year, 68 freshman students were National Merit Scholars. UA students hail from all states in the U. S. While nearly 69% of students are from Arizona, nearly 11% are from California, 8% are international, followed by a significant student presence from Texas, Washington and New York..
Tuition at the University o
New Riders of the Purple Sage
New Riders of the Purple Sage is an American country rock band. The group emerged from the psychedelic rock scene in San Francisco, California, in 1969, its original lineup included several members of the Grateful Dead, their best known song is "Panama Red". The band is sometimes referred to as the New Riders, or as NRPS; the roots of the New Riders can be traced back to the early 1960s Peninsula folk/beatnik scene centered on Stanford University's now-defunct Perry Lane housing complex in Menlo Park, where future Grateful Dead guitarist Jerry Garcia played gigs with like-minded guitarist David Nelson. The young John Dawson played some concerts with Garcia and their compatriots while visiting relatives on summer vacation. Enamored of the sounds of Bakersfield-style country music, Dawson would turn his older friends on to the work of Merle Haggard and Buck Owens and provided a vital link between Timothy Leary's International Federation for Internal Freedom in Millbrook, New York and the Menlo Park bohemian coterie nurtured by Ken Kesey.
Inspired by American folk music and roll, blues, Garcia formed the Grateful Dead with blues singer Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, while Nelson joined the inclined New Delhi River Band shortly thereafter. Although they lacked the managerial acumen and cultural cachet of the Grateful Dead and elected to remain in East Palo Alto, California unlike the former group, who soon relocated to the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, the New Delhi River Band were considered to be the house band of The Barn in Scotts Valley, California by late 1966; the group continued to enjoy a cult following in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Counties through the Summer of Love until their dissolution in early 1968. After a period of inactivity, Nelson contributed to the Grateful Dead's Aoxomoxoa sessions and served as the caretaker of Big Brother and the Holding Company's rehearsal space while guitarist Peter Albin and drummer David Getz undertook a European tour with Country Joe & the Fish following the schismatic departure of Janis Joplin and Sam Andrew from the former band in December 1968.
During this period and Garcia played intermittently in an early iteration of High Country, a traditional bluegrass ensemble formed by the remnants of the Peninsula folk scene. It is believed that Nelson would have been lead guitarist in the reconstituted lineup of Big Brother that coalesced in 1969 and thus may have contributed to some of the recordings on Be a Brother during this transitional period. Dawson—who dropped out of Occidental College in December 1965 and remained in Los Angeles for several years thereafter, "hanging out with musicians and weirdos"—had returned to Los Altos Hills by early 1969, allowing him to contribute to the Aoxomoxoa sessions and enroll at Foothill College. After a mescaline experience at Pinnacles National Park with Torbert and Matthew Kelly, he began to compose songs on a regular basis; some were traditional country pastiches. "Henry", a traditional shuffle with contemporary lyrics about marijuana smuggling dates from this period. Dawson's vision was prescient, as 1969 marked the emergence of country rock via Bob Dylan, The Band, The Flying Burrito Brothers, the Dillard & Clark Band, the Clarence White-era Byrds.
Around this time, Garcia was inspired to take up the pedal steel guitar, an informal line-up including Dawson and Peninsula folk veteran Peter Grant began playing coffeehouse and hofbrau concerts together when the Grateful Dead were not touring. Their repertoire included country standards, traditional bluegrass, Dawson originals, a few Dylan covers. By the summer of 1969 it was decided that a full band would be formed and David Nelson was recruited to play lead guitar. In addition to Nelson and Garcia, the original line-up of the band that came to be known as the New Riders of the Purple Sage consisted of Alembic Studios engineer Bob Matthews on electric bass and Mickey Hart of the Grateful Dead. Lyricist Robert Hunter rehearsed with the band on bass in early 1970 before the permanent hiring of Torbert in April of that year; the most commercially successful configuration of the New Riders would come to encompass Dawson, Torbert, Spencer Dryden, Buddy Cage. After a few warmup gigs throughout the Bay Area in 1969, Dawson and Torbert began to tour in May 1970 as part of a tripartite bill advertised as "An Evening with the Grateful Dead".
An acoustic Grateful Dead set that included contributions from Dawson and Nelson would segue into New Riders and electric Dead sets, obviating the need to hire external opening acts. By the time the New Riders recorded their first album in late 1970, change was in the air. Due to an incipient opiate addiction that affected his performance, Hart was temporarily fired by the Grateful Dead in February 1971. Although he contributed to two tracks
The Flying Burrito Brothers
The Flying Burrito Brothers are an American country rock band, best known for their influential 1969 debut album, The Gilded Palace of Sin. Although the group is best known for its connection to band founders Gram Parsons and Chris Hillman, the group underwent many personnel changes and has existed in various incarnations. A lineup with no original members performs as The Burrito Brothers. Ian Dunlop and Mickey Gauvin of Gram Parsons' International Submarine Band, founded the original Flying Burrito Brothers and named it after Parsons informed them of his new country focus; this incarnation of the band never recorded as such, after heading East allowed Gram Parsons to take the name. With the original incarnation of the band out of the picture, the "West Coast" Flying Burrito Brothers were founded in 1968 in Los Angeles, California by Gram Parsons and Chris Hillman. Bassist/keyboardist Chris Ethridge, pedal steel guitarist Sneaky Pete Kleinow and session drummer "Fast" Eddie Hoh rounded out the lineup.
Though Hillman and Roger McGuinn had fired Parsons from the Byrds in July 1968, the bassist and Parsons reconciled that year after Hillman left the group. Parsons had refused to join his Byrds bandmates for a tour of South Africa, citing his disapproval of the apartheid policy of that nation's government. Hillman doubted the sincerity of Parsons' gesture, believing instead that the singer wanted to remain in England with Mick Jagger and Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones, whom he had befriended; the Flying Burrito Brothers recorded their debut album, The Gilded Palace of Sin, without a regular drummer. Hoh proved to be unable to perform adequately due to an incipient substance abuse problem and was dismissed after recording two songs, leading the group to employ a variety of session players, including former International Submarine Band drummer Jon Corneal and Popeye Phillips of Dr. Hook & the Medicine Show. Before commencing their first tour, the group settled upon original Byrd Michael Clarke as a permanent replacement.
Michael Clarke remained the band's permanent drummer until 1971. Critically acclaimed upon its release in February 1969 for its pioneering amalgamation of country, soul music and psychedelic rock, The Gilded Palace of Sin only managed to peak at #164 in Billboard. Although the band declined an invitation to perform at Woodstock, a comprehensive train tour of the United States ended in disaster due to drug and alcohol use. Dissatisfied by the band's lack of success and unable to reconcile his predilection for R&B and groove-based music with the more conservative tastes of Parsons and Hillman, Ethridge departed the group in the autumn of 1969. Hillman reverted to bass after the band hired lead guitarist Bernie Leadon, a Dillard and Clark veteran who had played with Hillman in the early 1960s bluegrass scene; this iteration of the band performed at the ill-fated Altamont Free Concert in December 1969, as documented in the film Gimme Shelter. The audience remained peaceful throughout their performance.
With mounting debt incurred from the first album and tour and a failed single, A&M Records hoped to recoup some of their losses by marketing the Burritos as a straight country group. To this end, manager Jim Dickson instigated a loose session where the band recorded several traditional country staples from their live act, contemporary pop covers in a countrified vein, Williams's rock and roll classic "Bony Moronie." This was soon scrapped in favor of a second album of originals on an reduced budget. Several of the tracks from the abandoned sessions would see the light of day in 1976 on Sleepless Nights, which featured outtakes from Parsons's post-Burritos solo career. Released in April 1970, Burrito Deluxe juxtaposed the band's inability to develop compelling new material with prominent covers of the Rolling Stones's hitherto unreleased "Wild Horses," Dylan's "If You Gotta Go, Go Now" and the Southern gospel standard "Farther Along." Unlike Gilded Palace, the album failed to chart entirely.
A month Parsons showed up for a band performance only minutes before they were to take the stage. Visibly intoxicated, he began singing songs which differed from what the rest of the band were performing. A furious Hillman fired him after the show, to which Parsons responded, "You can't fire me, I'm Gram!" According to Hillman, this incident was the final straw. Now fronted by Hillman and Leadon, the band appeared in June–July 1970 on the Festival Expr