A stallion is a male horse that has not been gelded. Stallions follow the conformation and phenotype of their breed, but within that standard, the presence of hormones such as testosterone may give stallions a thicker, "cresty" neck, as well as a somewhat more muscular physique as compared to female horses, known as mares, castrated males, called geldings. Temperament varies based on genetics, training, but because of their instincts as herd animals, they may be prone to aggressive behavior toward other stallions, thus require careful management by knowledgeable handlers. However, with proper training and management, stallions are effective equine athletes at the highest levels of many disciplines, including horse racing, horse shows, international Olympic competition; the term "stallion" dates from the era of Henry VII, who passed a number of laws relating to the breeding and export of horses in an attempt to improve the British stock, under which it was forbidden to allow uncastrated male horses to be turned out in fields or on the commons.
"Stallion" is used to refer to males of other equids, including zebras and donkeys. Contrary to popular myths, many stallions do not live with a harem of mares. Nor, in natural settings, do they fight each other to the death in competition for mares. Being social animals, stallions who are not able to find or win a harem of mares band together in stallions-only "bachelor" groups which are composed of stallions of all ages. With a band of mares, the stallion is not the leader of a herd but defends and protects the herd from predators and other stallions; the leadership role in a herd is held by a mare, known colloquially as the "lead mare" or "boss mare." The mare determines the movement of the herd as it travels to obtain food and shelter. She determines the route the herd takes when fleeing from danger; when the herd is in motion, the dominant stallion herds the straggling members closer to the group and acts as a "rear guard" between the herd and a potential source of danger. When the herd is at rest, all members share the responsibility of keeping watch for danger.
The stallion is on the edge of the group, to defend the herd if needed. There is one dominant mature stallion for every mixed-sex herd of horses; the dominant stallion in the herd will tolerate both sexes of horses while young, but once they become sexually mature as yearlings or two-year-olds, the stallion will drive both colts and fillies from the herd. Colts may present competition for the stallion, but studies suggest that driving off young horses of both sexes may be an instinctive behavior that minimizes the risk of inbreeding within the herd, as most young are the offspring of the dominant stallion in the group. In some cases, a single younger mature male may be tolerated on the fringes of the herd. One theory is that this young male is considered a potential successor, as in time the younger stallion will drive out the older herd stallion. Fillies soon join a different band with a dominant stallion different from the one that sired them. Colts or young stallions without mares of their own form small, all-male, "bachelor bands" in the wild.
Living in a group gives these stallions the protective benefits of living in a herd. A bachelor herd may contain older stallions who have lost their herd in a challenge. Other stallions may directly challenge a herd stallion, or may attempt to "steal" mares and form a new, smaller herd. In either case, if the two stallions meet, there is a true fight. If a fight for dominance occurs do opponents hurt each other in the wild because the weaker combatant has a chance to flee. Fights between stallions in captivity may result in serious injuries. In the wild, feral stallions have been known to mate with domesticated mares; the stallion's reproductive system is responsible for his sexual behavior and secondary sex characteristics. The external genitalia comprise: the testes; the testes of an average stallion are ovoids 8 to 12 cm long, 6 to 7 cm high by 5 cm wide. Stallions have a vascular penis; when non-erect, it is quite flaccid and contained within the prepuce. The retractor penis muscle is underdeveloped.
Erection and protrusion take place by the increasing tumescence of the erectile vascular tissue in the corpus cavernosum penis. When not erect, the penis is housed within the prepuce, 50 cm long and 2.5 to 6 cm in diameter with the distal end 15 to 20 cm. The retractor muscle contracts to retract the penis into the sheath and relaxes to allow the penis to extend from the sheath; when erect, the penis doubles in length and thickness and the glans increases by 3 to 4 times. The urethra opens within a small pouch at the distal end of the glans. A structure called the urethral process projects beyond the glans; the internal genitalia comprise the accessory sex glands, which include the vesicular glands, the prostate gland and the bulbourethral glands. These contribute fluid to the semen at ejaculation, but are not necessary for fertility. Domesticated stallions are trained and managed in a variety of ways, depending on the region of the w
Belmont Park is a major Thoroughbred horse racing facility in the northeastern United States, located in Elmont, New York, just east of the New York City limits. Opened 114 years ago on May 4, 1905, it is operated by the non-profit New York Racing Association, as are Aqueduct and Saratoga Race Course; the group was formed in 1955 as the Greater New York Association to assume the assets of the individual associations that ran Belmont, Aqueduct and the now-defunct Jamaica Race Course. Belmont Park is open for racing from late April through mid-July, again from mid-September through late October, it is widely-known as the home of the Belmont Stakes in early June, regarded as the "Test of the Champion", the third leg of the Triple Crown. Along with Saratoga Race Course in Upstate New York and Churchill Downs in Kentucky, Del Mar and Santa Anita in California, Belmont is considered one of the elite racetracks in North America; the race park's main dirt track has earned the nickname, "the Big Sandy," given its prominent overall dimensions and the deep, sometimes tiring surface.
Belmont is sometimes known as "The Championship Track" because every major champion in racing history since the early 20th century has competed on the racecourse – including all of the Triple Crown winners. Belmont hosted its largest crowd in 2004, when 120,139 saw Smarty Jones upset by Birdstone in its Triple Crown bid. August Belmont Jr. and William Collins Whitney, along with other investors, built the original Belmont race track which opened on May 4, 1905. In its first 15 or so years, Belmont Park featured racing clockwise, in the "English fashion"—allowing the upper-class members of the racing association and their guests to have the races finish in front of the clubhouse, just to the west of the grandstand.. The original finish line was located at the top of the present-day homestretch. In his 1925 book, "The Big Town", Ring W. Lardner refers to the then-recent directional change, when he has a character at Belmont say "At that time, they run the wrong way of the track, like you would deal cards".
A innovation was created by Joseph E. Widener, who took over track leadership when August Belmont II died in 1924: the Widener Chute, it was a straightaway of just under 7 furlongs that cut diagonally through Belmont's training and main tracks, hitting near the quarter-pole of the main track. There are presently two features of Old Belmont Park remaining today. First is the display of four stone pillars on Hempstead Turnpike, a gift from the mayor and park commissioners of Charleston, South Carolina; the pillars had stood at the entrance of the Washington Course of the South Carolina Jockey Club in Charleston, which operated from 1792 to 1882. The stone pillars are now found at the clubhouse entrance. Lesser known-but more visible-are the racing motif iron railings seen bordering the walking ring; the railings, used as decoration on the south side of the old Belmont grandstand, were salvaged during the 1963 demolition. The original Belmont Park was not only unprecedented in its size, but had the then-new innovation of a Long Island Rail Road extension from the Queens Village station, running along the property, tunneling under Hempstead Turnpike terminating on the south side of the property.
The train terminal was moved to its present location north of the turnpike after the 1956 season. Near the railroad terminal was yet another track—Belmont Park Terminal, a steeplechase course operated by United Hunts until 1927. In addition to racing history, Belmont Park made history in another industry native to the Hempstead Plains – aviation; some 150,000 people were drawn to the track in 1910 on October 30, at the climax of a Wright Brothers-staged international aerial tournament, which had started eight years earlier. The event came at the beginning of a period. Eight years Belmont and aviation were reunited when the racetrack served as the northern point of the first U. S. air mail route, between the New York area and Washington, D. C. Today, two displays in the clubhouse of the current Belmont Park commemorate the history of the racetrack: a long mural by Pierre Bellocq featuring the dominant jockeys and racing personalities of the track's history; the last race at the old Belmont Park was run in October 1962.
The following spring, NYRA Chairman James Cox Brady announced that two separate engineering surveys found the grandstand/clubhouse was unsafe due to age-induced structural defects and needed to be rebuilt. The book Belmont Park: A Century of Champions noted the comment of NYRA President Edward T. Dickinson: "When you sighted down the stands, you could see some of the beams were twisted, they were in something of an S-shape."The old structure was demolished in 1963. The new grandstand was built 1964–1968; the Belmont race meetings were moved to Aqueduct Racetrack in South Ozone Park, during that time. The new $30.7 million Belmont Park grandstand, designed by Arthur Froehlich, was opened May 20, 1968 and is the largest in Thoroughbred racing. It has a total attendance capacity of more than 100,000, with the adjoining backyard being able to accommodate more than 10,000; the seating portion totals nearly 33,000. Unlike Churchill and Pimlico, Belmont does not allo
Gulfstream Park is a racetrack and county-approved casino in Hallandale Beach, Florida. During its annual meet, which spans December through October, it is one of the most important venues for horse racing in America. Gulfstream Park was opened on Wednesday February 1939 conducting a four-day meeting; the initial meeting had a crowd of 18,000. In 1944, the track was reopened by Sr. for a 20-day meeting in December. The Gulfstream Park Handicap was first run in 1946 and the Florida Derby began in 1952. In that year the clubhouse was built and the Grandstand seating was expanded. Gulfstream Park introduced turf racing for the first time in 1959. In 1952 the clubhouse was erected and a new addition was put on the grandstand, it marked the first running of the Florida Derby. The following year, the Florida Derby became the first stakes in Florida with a $100,000 purse; the 1955 Kentucky Derby winner and Horse of the Year Swaps set a world-record of 1:39 3/5 for a mile and 70 yards while carrying 130 pounds in the Broward Handicap.
The following year was just as exciting at Gulfstream when Gen. Duke equaled the world record of 1:46 4/5 in defeating Bold Ruler in the Florida Derby. In 1959, a new era at Gulfstream began with the opening of its world-acclaimed turf course. In 1961, James Donn Jr. became president of Gulfstream. It marked the construction of what was the world's largest tote board. Following the death of his father, James Donn Jr. Doug Donn was elected Gulfstream Park's president. In 1961, James Donn Jr. succeeded his father as president of Gulfstream Park. In this year the Clubhouse was enlarged and the then-world's largest totalisator board was installed in the infield. A big break for Gulfstream Park came in 1972, when the track was awarded "middle dates" for a 40-day January through April meet. In 1980, Hall of Fame rider Angel Cordero Jr. set a meeting record with 60 winners. In 1982, the Grandstand was renovated with new architecture and in 1984 the renovation of the clubhouse was completed. In 1986, the renovation of the track was completed with a domed dining terrace.
In 1989 Gulfstream Park hosted the Breeders Cup for the first time. Gulfstream played host its first Breeders' Cup World Championships in 1989, highlighted by the Classic match-up between Kentucky Derby and Preakness winner Sunday Silence and Belmont Stakes winner Easy Goer. Gulfstream would host the Breeders' Cup again in 1992. In 1990, the track was purchased by Bertram R. Firestone. Jockey Julie Krone took the jockey's title in 1993 with 98 winners. In 1994, Holy Bull won the Florida Derby while, in 1995, Cigar won the Donn Handicap and Gulfstream Park Handicap on his way to a perfect season. Meanwhile,'95 Florida Derby winner Thunder Gulch would go on to win the Kentucky Derby. Monarchos would repeat Thunder Gulch's feat in 2001. In 1994, a half interest in the track was sold to Nigashi Nihon; the track was purchased in 1999 for $95 million. In 2010, the ownership of the track was taken over by Magna parent MI Developments Inc.. The track is owned by The Stronach Group since July 3, 2011. Hal's Hope, winner of the 2000 Florida Derby, would return in 2002 to win the Gulfstream Park Handicap.
The 2002 season was highlighted by the first running of the popular Sunshine Millions, pitting Florida-breds vs. California-breds for purses totaling $3.6 million. Palm Meadows, Gulfstream's state-of-the-art training facility in Palm Beach County, was opened on Nov. 29, 2002. Trainer Todd Pletcher started his unprecedented run of nine consecutive training titles in 2004; the track began a $130 million renovation of the grandstand and clubhouse in 2004 and slot machines were approved for the track in 2004. It now hosts all of the races in the series of races known as the Sunshine Millions; the series now consists of the: Sunshine Millions Classic Sunshine Millions Turf Stakes Sunshine Millions Distaff Sunshine Millions Filly & Mare Turf Sunshine Millions SprintIn 2006, Hall of Fame jockey Jerry Bailey rode his last race aboard Silver Tree in the Sunshine Millions and the great Barbaro would win the Florida Derby before making headlines with his victory in the Kentucky Derby. The renovation, first effective for the 2006 spring meeting, was criticized by racegoers and commentators, who felt that the new racino laid its emphasis on the casino part, destroying the racetrack's atmosphere.
In June, 2011, Tim Ritvo was named General Manager of Gulfstream Park Racing & Casino. He was a prominent jockey and racing official at Suffolk Downs in the 1980s before establishing himself in the 1990s as a leading Florida trainer. Ritvo has served as Vice President and Director of the Florida Horsemen's Benevolent & Protective Association. In April, 2012, Javier Castellano, who collected his first Gulfstream title by riding a record 112 winners, scored his 3000th career success aboard Virtuously on Feb. 24 and Todd Pletcher, who claimed an unprecedented ninth consecutive training title at Gulfstream with 72 trips to the winner's circle, recorded his 3,000 career victory when he saddled Spring Hill Farm for a winning performance on Feb. 11. 06/08/2012 Stronach Group named Tim Ritvo, Chief Operating Officer of its Racing Division Gulfstream Park is home to the following graded stakes: Grade I: Florida Derby Pegasus World Cup Pegagus World Cup Turf Grade II: Fountain of Youth Stakes Gulfstream Park Handicap Ft. Lauderdale Stakes Hutcheson Stakes Pan American Handicap Gulfstream Park Oaks Holy Bull Stakes Honey Fox Stakes Gulfstream Park Sprint Championship Inside Information Stakes Forward Gal St
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses that are known for their agility and spirit; the Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century and to a larger number of foundation mares of English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide. Thoroughbreds are used for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting.
They are commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Anglo-Arabian, various warmblood breeds. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs. Other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, research is ongoing; the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high. They are most bay, dark bay or brown, black, or gray. Less common colors recognized in the United States include palomino. White is rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray; the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, such as Pinto or Appaloosa, are not recognized by mainstream breed registries.
Good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are considered spirited and bold. Thoroughbreds born in the Northern Hemisphere are considered a year older on the first of January each year; these artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races and other competitions for horses in certain age groups. The Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred; the term for any horse or other animal derived from a single breed line is purebred. While the term came into general use because the English Thoroughbred's General Stud Book was one of the first breed registries created, in modern usage horse breeders consider it incorrect to refer to any animal as a thoroughbred except for horses belonging to the Thoroughbred breed.
Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species. The term is a proper noun referring to this specific breed, though not capitalized in non-specialist publications, outside the US. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, the BBC do not capitalize the word. Flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England, it was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horse's chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, began to be used. During the reigns of Charles II, William III, George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid; the term "thro-bred" to describe horses was first used in 1713. Under Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses.
With royal support, horse racing became popular with the public, by 1727, a newspaper devoted to racing, the Racing Calendar, was founded. Devoted to the sport, it recorded race results and advertised upcoming meets. All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian. Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed; these included the Alcock's Arabian, D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, Curwen's Bay Barb. Another was the Brownlow Turk, among other attributes, is thought to be responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds. In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred; the addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares led to the creation of the General Stud Book in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.
According to Peter Willett, about 50% of the foundation stallions appear to have been of Arabian bloodlines, wit
Gold Cup at Santa Anita Stakes
The Gold Cup at Santa Anita Stakes is a Grade I American thoroughbred horse race for horses age three and older over a distance of 1 1⁄4 miles on the dirt held at Santa Anita Park in Arcadia, California in May. The race offers a purse of $500,000; the race inaugurated in 1938 at Hollywood Park Racetrack in Inglewood, California as the Hollywood Gold Cup. Hollywood Park Racetrack opened its doors on June 10, 1938, Seabiscuit, under jockey George Woolf, won the $50,000 added race's inaugural running on July 16; the race was not run in 1942 or 1943, due to Hollywood Park being closed and used as an airplane parts storage depot during World War II. In 1949, the Hollywood Gold Cup, as well as the entire 1949 meeting, was held at Santa Anita Park, due to a devastating fire at Hollywood Park on the night of May 5, 1949. Solidarity won the 1949 running on July 16; the Hollywood Park grandstand was rebuilt and the facility reopened in time for a two-part split 1950 season. The 1950 Hollywood Gold Cup, won by Noor, was held in the second part or Fall–Winter part of the split, on December 9, 1950.
The following summer, the race returned to its usual mid-July running and Citation, in his final race, won the Hollywood Gold Cup on July 14, 1951, becoming the first thoroughbred racehorse to hit the career earnings mark of one million dollars. In 1980, Mary Lou Tuck became the first woman trainer to win the Hollywood Gold Cup with Go West Young Man. In 1999, the Blood-Horse magazine List of the Top 100 U. S. Racehorses of the 20th Century was published, fourteen horses on the list had won the Hollywood Gold Cup: Citation, Round Table, Swaps, Skip Away, Gallant Man, Ack Ack, Native Diver, Two Lea and Exceller. In the 73rd running of the Hollywood Gold Cup in 2012, Chantal Sutherland, aboard Game On Dude, became the first female jockey to win the race. Game On Dude had been Sutherland's mount in the previous year's running, finishing second by a nose to First Dude; the ride had given Sutherland the distinction of being the first female jockey to have a mount in the Hollywood Gold Cup. Only three fillies or mares have won the Gold Cup.
Happy Issue was the first in 1944, followed by Two Lea in 1952 and Princessnesian in 1968. Following the closure of Hollywood Park, the race moved to Santa Anita Park in 2014 and renamed the Gold Cup at Santa Anita Stakes; the event is a Breeders' Cup Classic. The event is one of the premier distance races on the West Coast of the United States, along with the Santa Anita Handicap from Santa Anita Park, the Pacific Classic Stakes at Del Mar Racetrack, it was run as a handicap race until 1997. In 2005, the Gold Cup returned to the original handicap format. Time record: 1:58.20 - Quack 2:00.75 - Rail Trip Most wins: 3 - Native Diver 3 - Lava Man Most wins by an owner: 3 - Charles S. Howard 3 - Calumet Farm 3 - Louis K. Shapiro 3 - STD Racing Stable/Jason Wood Most wins by a jockey: 9 - Laffit Pincay, Jr. Most wins by a trainer: 8 - Charles Whittingham Gold Cup at Santa Anita top three finishers The 2008 Hollywood Gold Cup at the NTRA The Hollywood Gold Cup at Pedigree Query Ten Things You Should Know About the Hollywood Gold Cup at Hello Race Fans
Mike E. Smith
Michael Earl Smith is an American jockey, one of the leading riders in U. S. Thoroughbred racing since the early 1990s, was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 2003, has won the most Breeders' Cup races of any jockey with 26 Breeders' Cup wins. Smith is the second leading jockey of all time in earnings with over $312 million. In 2018, Smith rode Justify to the Triple Crown, becoming the oldest jockey to win the title at age 52. Smith was born to George Smith, a one-time jockey, Vidoll Vallejos in New Mexico; the older of two sons, Smith's parents divorced. Smith spent most of his youth on his maternal grandparents' horse farm where he began breaking horses at eight years old. Smith began riding races in his native New Mexico at age 11, took out a jockey's license at age 16 in 1982. In the ninth grade, Smith dropped out of Dexter High School. Shortly thereafter, accompanied by his paternal grandfather, he began riding a Midwestern circuit which included races at Hawthorne Race Course in Chicago, Ak-Sar-Ben in Omaha and Oaklawn Park Race Track in Hot Springs, Arkansas.
On April 17, 1987, Smith married daughter of jockey John L. Lively, in Hot Springs; the marriage ended in divorce. Smith served his apprenticeship at Canterbury Downs in Minnesota before moving to New York in 1989. In 2000, he established his home base in Southern California. On January 13, 2019 Mike married Cynthia Naanouh at a private ceremony at St. Rita's Catholic Church in Sierra Madre, CA. In 1991, Smith became one of the few American jockeys to win a European classic by claiming victory in the Irish 2,000 Guineas aboard Fourstars Allstar; that year he got his big break by becoming leading jockey in New York for the first of three years from 1991 to 1993, with 330, 297 and 313 wins, respectively. The following year, he rode Lure, in the Breeders' Cup Mile; the year after that, 1993, Smith arrived as a top jockey, setting a North American record for stakes wins in a year with 62. Among his highlights were a win in the Preakness aboard Prairie Bayou-, euthanized after breaking down in the Belmont Stakes while being ridden by Smith – and a successful defense of the Breeders' Cup Mile aboard Lure.
That year, he won his first Eclipse Award for Outstanding Jockey, won an ESPY Award as top jockey. In 1994, he broke his own record for stakes wins with 68, 20 of them Grade I races. Several of those wins came while riding that year's Eclipse Award for Horse of the Year winner, Holy Bull, he rode two winners in that year's Breeders' Cup, again won the Eclipse Award as leading jockey. Smith went on to ride two Breeders' Cup winners in both 1995 and 1997. In 1994, he was voted the Mike Venezia Memorial Award for "extraordinary sportsmanship and citizenship"; the dangers of Smith's profession became evident in 1998, when he suffered major injuries in two separate spills. A broken shoulder in March took him out of action for two months. In August, while leading the Saratoga meeting, he broke two vertebrae in his back, requiring him to wear a body cast for several months, he came back six months after the fall. In 2000, he moved his home base from New York to Southern California; that year he won the George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award that honors a rider whose career and personal conduct exemplify the best example of participants in the sport of thoroughbred racing.
In 2002, he served as the regular rider for his second Horse of Azeri. He rode Azeri to a win in the Breeders' Cup Distaff, rode Vindication to a win in the Breeders' Cup Juvenile. In 2005, he rode 50–1 longshot Giacomo to victory in the Kentucky Derby; the win, Smith's first in the Derby, was something of a vindication for him. He was aboard Giacomo's sire Holy Bull, the 2–1 favorite in the 1994 Derby, but could finish only 12th after Holy Bull was bumped coming out of the starting gate. In 2008, he added two more Breeders' Cup victories first in the Breeders' Cup Juvenile Fillies with Stardom Bound, with the 4-year-old Zenyatta in the Ladies' Classic. A year Smith returned to the Breeders' Cup with Zenyatta, this time to capture the Breeders' Cup Classic. Smith partnered Zenyatta to 16 straight victories of a 19-for-20 career that saw her become the first horse to win two different Breeders' Cup races, the richest female racehorse with the earnings of $7,304,580. After capturing the Breeders' Cup Ladies Classic on Royal Delta in 2011, Smith became the all-time leader for most Breeders' Cup wins, with 17.
By 2016, his record rose to 25 Breeders' Cup wins. Smith was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 2003. Smith is one of the jockeys featured in Jockeys. Mike Smith earned the 5,000th victory of his Hall of Fame career when he teamed with 2011 sprint champion Amazombie to capture the $150,000 Potrero Grande Stakes at Santa Anita Park on April 7, 2012; as he became older, Smith chose to ride fewer but more lucrative races, his success in doing so his ability to stay calm in the most high-pressure races, earned him the nickname "Big Money Mike". In 2017, Smith became the 14th winner of the Laffit Pincay Jr. Award given by the Hall of Fame jockey it is named for. Recipients are given the award for having served the sport of horse racing "with integrity, extraordinary dedication and distinction." "When we started this award back in 2004, Mike Smith was the sort of person we had in mind as one of our winners," Pincay said. "I only got to
Cigar, was an American Thoroughbred racehorse. Campaigned on turf tracks he showed useful but unremarkable form, but he emerged as an outstanding performer when switched to racing on dirt in 1995. In 1996, he became the first American racehorse racing against top-class competition to win 16 consecutive races since Triple Crown winner Citation did so in 1948 and 1950. Cigar retired as the leading money earner in Thoroughbred racing history and was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame. After his retirement from racing he stood as a breeding stallion but proved to be infertile and was retired from stud duties, he enjoyed a long retirement at Kentucky Horse Park before dying at the age of 24. Cigar was foaled at Country Life Farm near Maryland, he was sired by a leading sire in Palace Music. His dam, Solar Slew, was by Seattle Slew. Cigar was a half-brother to Corridora Slew by Corridor Key and several other lesser performed horses. Madeleine A. Paulson was the original owner of Cigar.
In his 2003 book, Legacies of the Turf, noted race historian Edward L. Bowen wrote that according to Paulson family banter, she traded Cigar to husband Allen for the filly Eliza, the 1992 Breeders' Cup Juvenile Fillies winner and that year's Eclipse Award choice for American Champion Two-Year-Old Filly. Cigar was named after a navigational intersection for airplanes, not for the tobacco product. Owner Allen Paulson was a major figure in American aviation who had owned the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, which manufactured Gulfstream private business jets, he named many of his horses after the five-letter-long names given to intersections on aeronautical navigational charts. Cigar did not race as a two-year-old. Under his first trainer, Alex Hassinger Jr. he won twice in nine starts at age three, but failed to win in stakes competition. He did finish second in the Grade III Volante Handicap at the Oak Tree Racing Association fall meeting at Santa Anita, third in the Grade III Ascot Handicap at Bay Meadows.
During this period, Hassinger switched from racing him on dirt to racing him on turf tracks, but the horse remained a low-grade stakes/high-class allowance horse. As a three-year-old, Cigar earned $89,175; the following year, Cigar was sent to an east-coast trainer, Bill Mott, who gave him the first half of the year off, only bringing him back to racing in July. Cigar finished third in allowance races at Saratoga Race Course and Belmont Park before starting on dirt in an allowance race at Aqueduct Racetrack at 1-mile. Cigar won that race by 8 lengths on October 28, 1994, did not lose again for two years. After Cigar's dominating performance in the allowance race, Mott stepped him way up in class and ran him in the Grade I NYRA Mile, against top New York stakes winner Devil His Due. Cigar won by seven lengths; this race concluded his four-year-old campaign, which Cigar finished with two wins from six starts and earnings of $180,838. Cigar started 1995 in a 1 1⁄16 mile allowance race at Gulfstream Park in January, which he won by two lengths.
He faced champion Holy Bull in the Donn Handicap at one-and-one-eighth miles. Holy Bull was favored based on his dominant 1994 campaign. Cigar won the race but little attention was paid to the victory due to the breakdown of Holy Bull, which signaled the end of his racing career. Cigar’s winning streak stood at four, he ran once more at Gulfstream, in the Gulfstream Park Handicap at 1¼ miles. He won by 7½ lengths. Next Cigar went to Oaklawn Park in Hot Springs, Arkansas to face 1994 Breeders' Cup Classic winner Concern in the Oaklawn Handicap at 1⅛ miles, he won by 2½ lengths in a good time: 1:47 1/5. Next was the Pimlico Special at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore at 1 3/16 miles. Cigar again defeated Devil His Due and Concern, running a fast 1:53 3/5; the winning streak stood at seven. This race was followed by the Massachusetts Handicap at Suffolk Downs north of Boston at 1⅛ miles. Many great horses from the east, such as Kelso and Seattle Slew, suffered losses on the faster, harder California racing surfaces.
The Hollywood Gold Cup at Hollywood Park thus posed a particular challenge. Nonetheless, Cigar was the odds-on favorite. Carrying top weight of 126 pounds, he was kept on the outside all the way by jockey Jerry Bailey and won by 3½ lengths in 1:59 2/5. Cigar went to Belmont Park for two preparatory races and the year-end championship race, the Breeders' Cup Classic, he won them all: the Woodward Stakes at 1⅛ miles, the Jockey Club Gold Cup at 1¼ miles and the Breeders' Cup Classic at 1¼ miles in a stakes record time of 1:59.58. He had completed a perfect season, 10 for 10, with earnings of $4,819,800, his consecutive wins stood at 12, he was named Horse of the Year as well as American Champion Older Male Horse. He won a record eight Grade 1 events in a single season, equalled only by Lady's Secret in 1986, which has never been surpassed. Cigar's connections next targeted a new race: the inaugural Dubai World Cup, the world's richest horse race with a $4,000,000 purse. Great horses had traveled to another continent, duplicated their form, returned home in good shape.
Cigar started 1996 with a repeat win in the Donn Handicap