Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion
The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion is a Jewish seminary with several locations in the United States and one location in Jerusalem. It is the oldest extant Jewish seminary in the Americas and the main seminary for training rabbis, cantors and communal workers in Reform Judaism. HUC-JIR has campuses in Cincinnati, New York City, Los Angeles and Jerusalem; the Jerusalem campus is the only seminary in Israel for training Reform Jewish clergy. HUC was founded in Cincinnati in 1875 under the leadership of Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise. Jacob Ezekiel was Secretary of the Board and treasurer from the College's inception until just before his death in 1899; the first rabbinical class graduated in 1883. The graduation banquet for this class became known as the Trefa Banquet because it included food, not kosher, such as clams, soft-shell crabs, frogs' legs and dairy products served after meat. At the time, Reform rabbis were split over the question of whether the Jewish dietary restrictions were still applicable.
Some of the more traditionalist Reform rabbis thought the banquet menu went too far, were compelled to find an alternative between Reform Judaism and Orthodox Judaism. This was a major cause of the founding of American Conservative Judaism. In 1950, a second HUC campus was created in New York through a merger with the rival Reform Jewish Institute of Religion. Additional campuses were added in Los Angeles in 1954, in Jerusalem in 1963; as of 2009, the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion is an international seminary and university of graduate studies offering a wide variety of academic and professional programs. In addition to its Rabbinical School, the College-Institute includes Schools of Graduate Studies, Jewish Non-Profit Management, sacred music, Biblical archaeology and an Israeli rabbinical program; the Los Angeles campus operates many of its programs and degrees in cooperation with the neighboring University of Southern California, a partnership that has lasted over 35 years.
Their productive relationship includes the creation of the Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement, an interfaith think tank through the partnership of HUC, USC and Omar Foundation. CMJE holds religious text-study programs across Los Angeles. No classrooms on this campus have windows. Rabbi Alfred Gottschalk was appointed as HUC's sixth president, following the death of Nelson Glueck; as president, Gottschalk oversaw the growth and expansion of the HUC campuses, the ordination of Sally Priesand as the first female rabbi in the United States, the investiture of Reform Judaism's first female hazzan and the ordination of Naamah Kelman as the first female rabbi to be ordained in Israel. In 1996, Rabbi Sheldon Zimmerman was appointed as the 7th President of the College-Institute, he was succeeded in 2000 by Rabbi David Ellenson. The 12th president of HUC-JIR, elected in 2014, was Rabbi Aaron D. Panken, Ph. D. A noted authority on rabbinic and Second Temple literature, with research interests in the historical development of legal concepts and terms, Rabbi Panken was killed in a plane crash on May 5, 2018, while piloting a single-engine Aeronca 7AC over New York's Hudson Valley.
The cantorial school of the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion was founded in 1947. The school is located on the New York campus of HUC-JIR at One West Fourth Street, it offers a five-year graduate program, conferring the degree of Master of Sacred Music in the fourth year and ordination as cantor in the fifth year. Cantorial School at HUC-JIR continues for the next four years in New York. While in Israel, students study Hebrew, Jewish music, get to know Israel. Cantorial students study alongside Education students. In New York, the program includes professional learning opportunities as a student-cantor, in which students serve congregations within and outside of the NY area; the curriculum includes liturgical music classes covering traditional Shabbat, High Holiday and Festival nusach, Musicology, Reform Liturgy and Composition. Each student is assigned practica during the 2nd, 3rd, 4th year of school culminating with a Senior Recital during the 5th year. Rabbi David Ellenson President of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, announced on January 27, 2011 that the School of Sacred Music would be renamed the Debbie Friedman School of Sacred Music in honor of Debbie Friedman.
The renaming occurred on December 7, 2011. HUC has both male and female students including rabbinic and cantorial studies. Since its founding, the College-Institute has ordained over 400 cantors; as of 2007, 520 ordained rabbis and 179 invested cantors have been women.. The first female rabbi to be ordained by HUC was Sally Priesand, ordained in 1972, the only woman in a class with 35 men; the first female cantor to be invested by HUC was Barbara Ostfeld-Horowitz in 1975. After four years of deliberation, HUC decided to give women a choice of wording on their ordination certificates beginning in 2016, including the option to have the same wording as men. Up until male candidates' certificates identified them by the Reform movement’s traditional "morenu harav," or "our teacher the rabbi," while female candidates' certificates only used the term "rav u’morah," or "rabbi and teacher." Sally Priesand herself was unaware that her certificate referred to her any differently than her male colleagues until it was brought to her attention years later.
Rabbi Mary Zamore, executive director of th
Skirball Center for the Performing Arts
The Jack H. Skirball Center for the Performing Arts is an 850-seat theater at 566 LaGuardia Place in Manhattan, New York, owned by New York University, it was named after philanthropist Jack H. Skirball; the theatre was completed in October 2003 and cost $40 million. The architect was John Dinkeloo and Associates; the Center has hosted speeches on foreign policy and answer sessions by John Kerry, Al Gore, Justin Trudeau and Mohammad Javad Zarif among others. The third-season finale of The Apprentice and each season finale of The Celebrity Apprentice was filmed here; the Center is host to performing arts productions in theatre, ballet and burlesque. It shows theatre film broadcasts like National Theatre Live and hosts talks by speakers from politics, sciences and more. Official website
Philanthropy means the love of humanity. A conventional modern definition is "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life", which combines an original humanistic tradition with a social scientific aspect developed in the 20th century; the definition serves to contrast philanthropy with business endeavors, which are private initiatives for private good, e.g. focusing on material gain, with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public good, e.g. focusing on provision of public services. A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist. Philanthropy has distinguishing characteristics separate from charity. A difference cited is that charity aims to relieve the pain of a particular social problem, whereas philanthropy attempts to address the root cause of the problem—the difference between the proverbial gift of a fish to a hungry person, versus teaching them how to fish. In the second century CE, Plutarch used the Greek concept of philanthrôpía to describe superior human beings.
During the Roman Catholic Middle Ages, philanthrôpía was superseded by Caritas charity, selfless love, valued for salvation and escape from purgatory. Philanthropy was modernized by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1600s, credited with preventing the word from being owned by horticulture. Bacon considered philanthrôpía to be synonymous with "goodness", correlated with the Aristotelian conception of virtue, as consciously instilled habits of good behaviour. Samuel Johnson defined philanthropy as "love of mankind; this definition still survives today and is cited more gender-neutrally as the "love of humanity." In London prior to the 18th century and civic charities were established by bequests and operated by local church parishes or guilds. During the 18th century, however, "a more activist and explicitly Protestant tradition of direct charitable engagement during life" took hold, exemplified by the creation of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge and Societies for the Reformation of Manners.
In 1739, Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, received a royal charter to establish the Foundling Hospital to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This was "the first children's charity in the country, one that'set the pattern for incorporated associational charities' in general." The hospital "marked the first great milestone in the creation of these new-style charities."Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763, the society had recruited over 10,000 men and it was incorporated in 1772. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard—some charities received state recognition in the form of the Royal Charter.
Philanthropists, such as anti-slavery campaigner William Wilberforce, began to adopt active campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded in ending the slave trade throughout the Empire starting in 1807. Although there were no slaves allowed in Britain itself, many rich men owned sugar plantations in the West Indies, resisted the movement to buy them out until it succeeded in 1833. Financial donations to organized charities became fashionable among the middle-class in the 19th century. By 1869 there were over 200 London charities with an annual income, all together, of about £2 million. By 1885, rapid growth had produced with an income of about £ 4.5 million. They included a wide range of religious and secular goals, with the American import, the YMCA as one of the largest, many small ones such as the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association.
In addition to making annual donations wealthy industrialists and financiers left generous sums in their wills. A sample of 466 wills in the 1890s revealed a total wealth of £76 million, of which £20 million was bequeathed to charities. By 1900 London charities enjoyed an annual income of about £8.5 million. Led by the energetic Lord Shaftesbury, philanthropists organized themselves. In 1869 they set up the Charity Organisation Society, it was a federation of one in each of the 42 Poor Law divisions. Its central office had experts in coordination and guidance, thereby maximizing the impact of charitable giving to the poor. Many of the charities were designed to alleviate the harsh living conditions in the slums; such as the Labourer's Friend Society founded in 1830. This included the promotion of allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement, in 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company—an organization that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, while at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment.
This was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavor that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century, brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust, t
Moshe Safdie, CC, FAIA is an Israeli-Canadian architect, urban designer, educator and author. He is most identified with Habitat 67. Safdie was born in Mandatory Palestine, to a Syrian Jewish family, his family moved to Montreal, Canada, in 1954. In 1959, Safdie married a Polish-born Israeli; the couple had a daughter and a son. His son Oren Safdie is a playwright who has written several plays about architecture including Private Jokes, Public Places, his daughter Taal is an architect in a partner of the firm Safdie Rabines Architects. In 1961, Safdie graduated from McGill University with a degree in architecture. In 1981, Safdie married Michal Ronnen, a Jerusalem-born photographer, with whom he has two daughters and Yasmin. Carmelle Safdie is an artist, Yasmin Safdie is a social worker. Safdie is the uncle of Dov Charney and former CEO of American Apparel. After apprenticing with Louis Kahn in Philadelphia, Safdie returned to Montreal to oversee the master plan for Expo 67. In 1964, he established his own firm to undertake an adaptation of his McGill thesis.
Habitat 67, which pioneered the design and implementation of three-dimensional, prefabricated units for living, was a central feature of Expo 67 and an important development in architectural history. He was awarded the 1967 Construction Man of the Year Award from the Engineering News Record and the Massey Medal for Architecture in Canada for Habitat 67. In 1970, Safdie opened a branch office in Jerusalem. Among the projects he has designed in Jerusalem are Yad Vashem and the Alrov Mamilla Quarter, which includes the Mamilla Mall, David's Village luxury condominiums, the 5-star Mamilla Hotel. In 1978, after teaching at McGill, Ben Gurion, Yale universities, Safdie moved his main office to Boston and became director of the Urban Design Program at Harvard University's Graduate School of Design, until 1984. From 1984 to 1989, he was Urban Design at Harvard. Since the early 1990s, Safdie, a citizen of Canada and the United States, has focused on his architectural practice, Safdie Architects, based in Somerville, MA, has branches in Toronto and Singapore.
Safdie has designed six of Canada's principal public institutions—including the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, Vancouver Library Square—as well as many other notable projects around the world, including the Salt Lake City Main Public Library. Moshe Safdie's works are known for their dramatic curves, arrays of geometric patterns, use of windows, key placement of open and green spaces, his writings and designs stress the need to create meaningful and inclusive spaces that enhance community, with special attention to the essence of a particular locale and culture. He is a self-described modernist. Gold Medal, American Institute of Architects Companion of the Order of Canada Gold Medal, Royal Architectural Institute of Canada Richard Neutra Award for Professional Excellence Mt. Scopus Award for Humanitarianism, Jerusalem Wolf Prize in Arts, 2019 In November 2011, Punjab Chief Minister honoured Safdie at the inauguration ceremony of the Khalsa Heritage Museum, he said. Safdie said he wanted the museum to look 300 years old and he thought he had succeeded in this objective.
1967 Habitat 67 at Expo 67 World's Fair, Quebec, Canada 1980 Robina Gold Coast City, Australia 1981 Coldspring New Town, Maryland, USA 1987 Musée de la Civilisation, Quebec City, Canada 1988 The National Gallery of Canada, Ontario, Canada 1988 Hebrew Union College, Israel 1989 City plan for Modi'in, Israel 1989 The Esplanade condominium complex in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 1991 The Jean-Noël Desmarais Pavilion of the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Quebec, Canada 1992 The Class of 1959 Chapel, Harvard Business School, Massachusetts, USA 1993 Mamilla Centre and David's Village, Israel 1994 Former Ottawa City Hall, Ontario, Canada 1995 Vancouver Library Square, British Columbia, Canada 1995 The Centre in Vancouver for the Performing Arts, British Columbia, Canada 2000 The Exploration Place Science Museum in Wichita, Kansas, USA 2002 The campus of Hebrew College in Newton, Massachusetts, USA 2003 Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts, USA 2003 Main Branch of the Salt Lake City Public Library, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA 2003 Eleanor Roosevelt College campus, UC San Diego, USA 2003 Pantages Tower, Ontario, Canada 2003 Corrour Lodge, Inverness-shire, Scotland 2004 Airside building of Terminal 3, Ben Gurion International Airport, Tel Aviv, Israel 2005 Yad Vashem Holocaust History Museum, Israel.
C. USA 2009 Asian University for Women, Bangladesh 2009 Mamilla Mall, Israel 2010 Yitzhak Rabin Center, Tel Aviv, Israel 201