1972 Summer Olympics
The 1972 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972. The sporting nature of the event was overshadowed by the Munich massacre in the second week, in which eleven Israeli athletes and coaches and a West German police officer at Olympic village were killed by Black September terrorists; the 1972 Summer Olympics were the second Summer Olympics to be held in Germany, after the 1936 Games in Berlin, which had taken place under the Nazi regime. The West German Government had been eager to have the Munich Olympics present a democratic and optimistic Germany to the world, as shown by the Games' official motto, "Die Heiteren Spiele", or "the cheerful Games"; the logo of the Games was a blue solar logo by Otl Aicher, the designer and director of the visual conception commission. The Olympic mascot, the dachshund "Waldi", was the first named Olympic mascot; the Olympic Fanfare was composed by Herbert Rehbein.
The Olympic Park is based on Frei Otto's plans. The competition sites, designed by architect Günther Behnisch, included the Olympic swimming hall, the Olympics Hall and the Olympic Stadium, an Olympic village close to the park; the design of the stadium was considered revolutionary, with sweeping canopies of acrylic glass stabilized by metal ropes, used on such a large scale for the first time. Munich won its Olympic bid on April 26, 1966, at the 64th IOC Session at Rome, over bids presented by Detroit and Montréal. Montréal would host the following Olympic games in 1976; the Games were overshadowed by what has come to be known as the "Munich massacre". Just before dawn on September 5, a group of eight members of the Black September terrorist organization broke into the Olympic Village and took eleven Israeli athletes and officials hostage in their apartments. Two of the hostages who resisted were killed in the first moments of the break-in. Late in the evening of September 5 that same day, the terrorists and their nine remaining hostages were transferred by helicopter to the military airport of Fürstenfeldbruck, ostensibly to board a plane bound for an undetermined Arab country.
The German authorities planned to ambush them there, but underestimated the numbers of their opposition and were thus undermanned. During a botched rescue attempt, all of the Israeli hostages were killed. Four of them were shot incinerated when one of the terrorists detonated a grenade inside the helicopter in which the hostages were sitting; the 5 remaining hostages were machine-gunned to death. All but three of the terrorists were killed as well. Although arrested and imprisoned pending trial, they were released by the West German government on October 29, 1972, in exchange for a hijacked Lufthansa jet. Two of those three were hunted down and assassinated by the Mossad. Jamal Al-Gashey, believed to be the sole survivor, is still living today in hiding in an unspecified African country with his wife and two children; the Olympic events were suspended several hours after the initial attack, but once the incident was concluded, Avery Brundage, the International Olympic Committee president, declared that "the Games must go on".
A memorial ceremony was held in the Olympic stadium, the competitions resumed after a stoppage of 24 hours. The attack prompted heightened security at subsequent Olympics beginning with the 1976 Winter Olympics. Security at Olympics was heightened further beginning with the 2002 Winter Olympics, as they were the first to take place after the 2001 September 11 attacks; the massacre led the German federal government to re-examine its anti-terrorism policies, which at the time were dominated by a pacifist approach adopted after World War II. This led to the creation of the elite counter-terrorist unit GSG 9, similar to the British SAS, it led Israel to launch a campaign known as Operation Wrath of God, in which those suspected of involvement were systematically tracked down and assassinated. The events of the Munich massacre were chronicled in the Oscar-winning documentary, One Day in September. An account of the aftermath is dramatized in three films: the 1976 made-for-TV movie 21 Hours at Munich, the 1986 made-for-TV movie Sword of Gideon and Steven Spielberg's 2005 film Munich.
In her film 1972, Artist Sarah Morris interviews Dr. Georg Sieber, a former police psychiatrist who advised the Olympics' security team, about the events and aftermath of Black September; these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Avery Brundage. Mark Spitz set a world record when he won seven gold medals in a single Olympics, bringing his lifetime total to nine. Being Jewish, Spitz was asked to leave Munich before the closing ceremonies for his own protection, after fears arose that he would be an additional target of those responsible for the Munich massacre. Spitz's record stood until 2008, when it was beaten by Michael Phelps who won eight gold medals in the pool. Olga Korbut, a Soviet gymnast, became a media star after winning a gold medal in the team competition event, failing to win in the individual all-around after a fall, winning two gold medals in the Balance Beam and the floor exercise events. In the final of the men's basketball, the United States lost to the Soviet Union in what is widely
Rønne is the largest town on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. It has a population of 13,579. Once a municipality in its own right from 1970 until 2002, when Bornholm was a county with an area of 29.11 square kilometres, it is now the administrative centre of the Bornholm municipality. As of 2018 11,539 inhabitants live in Rønne Parish, a narrow piece of land on the westernmost of the island and stretching north and southward comprising around a third of the area of the former municipality. Knudsker Parish made up the rest of the former municipality. Not all inhabitants of either Rønne or Knudsker parishes live in the city of Rønne. Owing to its natural harbour and its strategic position in the Baltic Sea, Rønne has an interesting history coming under German and Swedish influence during its development as a herring fishing port. Today, with its cobbled streets, half-timbered houses and interesting museums, it attracts visitors from Denmark, Germany and Poland. Rønne originated around the year 1000 when a small fishing community grew up around the natural harbour.
Around 1275, a small chapel dedicated to St Nicolas was built on the site where Rønne's church now stands. The community was soon granted the status of a market town with its own mayor and council and its own law court. However, by the beginning of the 14th century, the King of Denmark, the Archbishop of Lund and various north German princes were all competing for control of the town; the Germans took a special interest in Bornholm because of its strategic position in the Baltic Sea between the German coast and Visby in Gotland, off the coast of southern Sweden, at times establishing their own interests in the town. After the church's expansion in 1360, the parish of Rønne was established; as its trade prospered, by the beginning of the 15th century Rønne was plundered and burnt by men from Lübeck. In 1525, they took control of Bornholm as compensation for the large debts that Denmark was unable to repay, they allowed their own merchants to establish businesses in Rønne. Though the Lübeckers contributed to the success of the fishing trade, they demanded ever-higher taxes from the local population.
The citizens took revenge, chasing the Lübeckers off while allowing other German communities to remain. The result was; however the Baltic Sea had by this time lost much of its strategic importance. The fishing industry declined and after the town was twice struck by the plague in 1619 and 1655, it took decades for it to recover. A further setback occurred in April 1658 when, in the midst of the Dano-Swedish war, Denmark ceded Bornholm to Sweden under the Treaty of Roskilde; the occupation was however short-lived as the Swedes were overcome by the local population in December of the same year. In 1834, Rønne Town Hall was built on the town's main square; this important building was the centre of administration in Rønne and Bornholm for many years, the island's courthouse and jail were there. At the end of World War II, on 7 and 8 May 1945, the town was bombed by Soviet aircraft when the commandant of the German occupying forces refused to surrender; the air raid destroyed 212 houses, but only ten civilians were killed, the population having been alerted in advance.
Although the rest of Denmark had been liberated on 4 May, the Soviets occupied Bornholm on 9 May, sending the Germans back to Germany. The Soviet Union did not leave until 5 April 1946 when an agreement was reached with the Danish authorities and the island came under Danish rule once more. Most of the houses in Rønne were destroyed or damaged by the bombs and it took several years to rebuild the town, retaining its traditional architecture, quaint streets and half-timbered houses; the Swedes contributed 300 timber houses to the town while the rest of Denmark including Greenland and the Faroes raised the considerable sum of 8 million Danish kroner to help rebuild the town. Climate is temperate Oceanic climate with balanced temperatures year round. Island's climate allows local variety of common fig trees, Bornholm's Diamond, to thrive in locality lying far out of its normal habitats; the economic status of Rønne grew during the Middle Ages with the development of the herring industry. However, by the late 16th century, the fishing industry had begun to decline and for the next 300 years there was no further growth.
The ceramic industry in the town surpassed that of the fishing industry and has continued into modern times, with as many as 50 ceramics shops in Rønne today. However tourism is now the most important contributor to the local economy: there are several notable sandy beaches in the area used by tourists. Rønne became famous for its longcase clocks or Bornholmerure which were manufactured from the middle of the 18th century until around 1900. Interest in clock-making started when a Dutch ship sailing from England ran aground off Rønne in 1744 carrying five grandfather clocks which were damaged in the accident. In view of the clocks' value, the sailors called on Poul Ottesen Arboe, a local turner, able to repair them; as a result of the experience he gained in the repair work, he was able to manufacture clocks himself, giving birth to a new local industry. Several workshops soon began to produce Bornholm clocks which became popular as they were cheaper than the more authentic models produced elsewhere.
There were about 30 different clockmakers in the town at the beginning of the 19th century. By the 1840s, some 2,000 cl
Horsens is a city on the east coast of Jutland region of Denmark. It is the seat of the Horsens municipality; the city's population is 58.646 and the municipality's population is 87,736, making it the 8th largest city in Denmark. Horsens is best known for its entertainment events. Horsens New Theatre is a cultural centre, it has managed to draw major names such as Bob Dylan and The Rolling Stones. Horsens lies at the end of Horsens Fjord in eastern Jutland; the city is surrounded by typical moraine landscape with low hills and valleys created by glaciers during the last ice ages. Horsens is 50 km south of Aarhus and 30 km north of Vejle, 200 km from Copenhagen, it is believed the name Horsens derives from næs. From the 12th century the name Horsens is known; the earliest traces of a city are remains of a pagan burial site and houses dating back to the 10th century. In the 12th century, the kings Sweyn III and Valdemar I issued coins in the city. In the 13th century the city got its own legal code. Excavations have shown that the city was expanded around 1300, with a moat going around the city and its harbour.
Industrialization started from the middle of the 19th century. The population rose when people from the countryside moved to the city to work in the factories; the first Danish iron foundry outside of Copenhagen was opened as well as tobacco and textile factories. The city is undergoing a positive development with new industry moving to Horsens, or expanding their activities in Horsens. A lot of electronics and graphical companies are based there. Horsens has the only Industrial Museum in Denmark; the city is home to VIA University College. In recent years, much effort has been made to improve cultural events. Several internationally known artists, such as Madonna, Iron Maiden, Joe Cocker, Elton John, The Beach Boys, Bob Dylan, Tom Jones, Bryan Adams, David Bowie, José Carreras, Helmut Lotti, Westlife, R. E. M. Paul McCartney, Robbie Williams, The Rolling Stones, Dolly Parton, AC/DC, U2, Rammstein and Snow Patrol have performed, or have performances planned in Horsens. Metallica has performed several times in Horsens.
Hard Rock/Heavy Metal band Pretty Maids is from Horsens. One of the largest cultural events in Denmark is the annual European Medieval Festival on the last Friday and Saturday in August; the town centre of Horsens is transformed into the largest medieval market town in Northern Europe with activities and entertainment for families and children of all ages. Every March, Horsens hosts a Crime Festival; the Crime Festival - in Danish called Krimimessen - is an event for literary crime and thrillers. The Crime Festival is organized by Horsens Public Library; every year, many well-known crime writers visit Horsens. The city is home to a museum showing the history of the industrial society; the museum shows technological development and developments in living conditions for workers. European route E45 runs by the city of Horsens. Peter Sørensen from the Social Democrats is mayor of Horsens. Vitus Bering, the famous Russian Navy captain was born here; the largest educational institution in Horsens is VIA University College, which offers a wide range of engineering and business programmes for Danish and International students.
Horsens is the home to professional football club AC Horsens. Their home ground is the 10,400 capacity CASA Arena Horsens. In 2015, the CASA Arena will host Motorcycle speedway when it holds the Speedway Grand Prix of Denmark for the first time, taking over as host from the Parken Stadium in Copenhagen which had held the Speedway Grand Prix event from 2003-2014. Horsens is home to professional basketball team Horsens IC who play in Basketligaen; the team plays at Forum Horsens which has a capacity of 3,300. The team has won the league 6 times most in 2014-15 and 2015-16 as well as winning the Danish Basketball Cup 3 times most in the 2014-15 season. From 1853 to 2006 the city housed the Horsens Statsfængsel prison, which held prisoners serving longer sentences. A notable prisoner was former minister of justice Peter Adler Alberti; the last execution in peacetime in Denmark happened in the prison in 1892 when Jens Nielsen was decapitated in the courtyard. Carl August Lorentzen was a safe cracker who became famous for his escape from the prison in 1950 when he dug a tunnel from his cell and out to freedom with a spoon.
When the guards discovered he was missing they found a note from him with the words "Where there is a will there is a way". Lorentzen was captured a few days on a nearby farm; the old run-down buildings were not fit for a modern prison. In 2006 the prison was closed and the newly built State Prison of East Jutland was opened; the new prison, placed near Horsens, held the mass murderer Peter Lundin for a period. Since its closure as a prison, Horsens Statsfængsel has housed a crime and prison museum, conference and business facilities; the prison grounds have been used for concerts. It was considered as the venue of the Eurovision Song Contest 2014, along with two other cities in Denmark. VisitHorsens moved to the Prison in 2013 and in 2015 a hotel called SleepIn has opened in the Prison. Hans Svane a Danish statesman and ecclesiastic Vitus Bering, naval officer and explorer, the Bering Strait was named after him Poul Vendelbo Løvenørn a Danish military officer and landowner Catherine Antonovna of Brunswick daughter of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick lived under
Ikast is a Danish town in the Mid Jutland Region. It has been part of the municipality of Ikast-Brande since 2007, it was the seat of the former Ikast Municipality. The town is situated in the middle of Jutland; the town is situated 5 km from Hammerum, the Eastern outskirts of Herning Municipality. Ikast is situated 28 km from Silkeborg, 69 km away from Aarhus; as of 1 January 2017, the population of the town is 15,462. Up until late in the nineteenth century, Ikast was nothing more than a few buildings surrounding the church. During the industrialization, Ikast established a strong presence in Denmark as one of the main towns for the textile industry, the main industry in the area until the start of globalization, where production jobs were outsourced; the opening of the railway in the 1850s led to an increase in population, as the existing part of town surrounding the church, the new part of town, built around the railway, grew into each other. The church was a Roman church, built in the 13th century.
The old church burned down in 1904, was rebuilt into the new church, finished in 1907. The church was expanded several times, with the latest expansion happening in 2005. Bo Skovhus a Danish baritone opera singer Kurt Aust an author and freelance writer living in Horten in Norway Jens Reno Møller is a Danish racing driver Henning Boel a Danish former footballer, who played in the United States and Scotland Anders Nøhr a former Danish professional football player Sune Kiilerich a Danish footballer who plays as a defender for Arendal Pernille Harder a Danish professional footballer who plays as a striker for VfL Wolfsburg Anne-Sofie Ernstrøm a Danish handball player who plays for Aarhus United Frederik Møller a Danish footballer who plays as a left back for AGF Julie Gantzel Pedersen a Danish handballer who plays for FC Midtjylland Håndbold Jens Martin Gammelby a Danish footballer, who plays as a right back for Silkeborg IF Tobias Salquist a Danish footballer, who plays as a left back for Silkeborg IF Lasse Mølhede a Danish badminton player Line Skak a Danish handball player who plays for TTH Holstebro Media related to Ikast at Wikimedia Commons Website of Ikast
Hvidovre is the main town in Hvidovre Municipality, Denmark. The town, a suburb of Copenhagen, is about 10 km southwest of the capital's center. Hvidovre has been inhabited since prehistoric times. In 1929, a 3,500-year-old sword from the Bronze Age was excavated in Hvidovre. A farm, was located in the area in about 1160 when Esbern Snare gave it to Sorø Abbey that passed it on to Bishop Absalon. A church was built during the Romanesque period; the name Hvidovre, meaning White Ovre, refers to the colour of the church, built in white chalk, as opposed to the one in Rødovre, Red Ovre, built in red brick. At the turn of the 20th century, Hvidovre was still a quiet rural community. In 1901, the parish still only had a population of 500; some of the land closest to the border with Copenhagen was converted into allotments in the 1920s. At the end of World War One, Copenhagen suffered from severe housing shortage. Many of the farmers in Hvidovre saw it as an opportunity to make a substantial profit by selling their land off in small lots.
3,226 out of the 3,899 lots that existed in Hvidovre in 1924 had been sold off since 1918. The buyers were workers from Copenhagen and the houses built out of Chevrolet or Ford boxes, used in the shipping of car parts from America; the boxes were cheap and delivered on the site. Others lived in existing summer houses; the settlement was not legal but by 1923 accounted for 34% of the population in the municipality. In May 1945, a few days before the end of World War II, a gun fight took place on the street of Hvidovrevej between Resistance fighters and members of the HIPO Corps; the city is well known for its football team, Hvidovre IF. It is the birthplace of Daniel Agger, Thomas Kahlenberg, Michael Krohn-Dehli and Jannik Vestergaard. A film-production camp Filmbyen is located in Hvidovre, described as "a peculiar post-industrial filmmaking hub". Elsaesser, Thomas. European Film Industries: Face to Face with Hollywood. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, 2005. ISBN 90-5356-594-9Twin city: Rydułtowy
Frederikssund is a Danish town, seat of the Frederikssund Municipality, in the Region Hovedstaden with a population of 15,865. It received the status of market town in 1810; the town is famous for its annual Viking Games as well as for the J. F. Willumsen museum. Since 1935, it has been connected to Hornsherred via the Kronprins Frederik Bridge. There is evidence of communities dating right back to the stone age with a number of burial sites in the area, it seems probable that there was a small settlement at the present location of Frederikssund in the Middle Ages but the development of the town began in the 12th century with the construction of a church at what was known as Ude Sundby or Sundby Færge. Located at a narrow point on Roskilde Fjord, Sundby Færge became the harbour for the nearby market town of Slangerup. In 1809-10, the status of market town was transferred from Slangerup to Frederikssund, named after King Frederik III. In 1868, a pontoon bridge linking Frederikssund to Hornsherred was opened.
This was replaced by today's Kronprins Frederik Bridge in 1935. Frederikssund's rapid expansion from a small town at the end of the 19th century is due in large part to the railway connection with Ballerup in 1879, upgraded to a frequent suburban service to Copenhagen in 1989. Frederikssund is located on the east coast of Roskilde Fjord, about 45 km north-west of Copenhagen, 20 km south of Hillerød and 30 km north of Roskilde, it is less than an hour from Copenhagen by either rail. S-trains leave about once every 10 minutes. Copenhagen Airport can be reached by rail in about an hour; the low hills on which Frederikssund lies are formed of moraines from the last Ice Age. The shallow Roskilde Fjord which separates Frederikssund from Hornsherred originated in the same period; the fertile land surrounding Frederikssund is used for mixed farming - with an emphasis on cereals, root crops and pigs. The recent development of the town center and the old commercial harbour have given Frederikssund a new look which reflects its growing popularity as a residential area with connections to Copenhagen and surroundings.
It has all the facilities associated with a modern Danish town: museums, a public library, supermarkets, a hospital and sports and recreation centers. With a location facing west over the Roskilde Fjord, it has many footpaths along the shores and up into the higher ground to the east; the local rail and bus services are well developed. Cultural attractions include the J. F. Willumsens Museum, the Færgegården local history museum at the far end of the bridge over to Hornsherred, the annual Viking plays held in a large outdoor theatre. Activities range from sailing, cycling, golfing or gliding to sitting out on the main pedestrian street. There are several sports clubs and facilities in Frederikssund covering soccer, American football, basketball and cycling. Albert Jensen a Danish architect Georg Achen a Danish naturalist painter, from the 1890s he specialized in portraits Knud Larsen was a Danish painter, becoming a popular portraitist Oluf Pedersen a Danish politician and member of the Folketing 1932-45 and 1950–60 Povl Søndergaard a Danish sculptor of lifelike busts and female figures Peter Alsing Nielsen a Danish painter, using subdued colour and simple yet precise lines Regin Prenter a Danish Lutheran priest and parish priest of Branderup Gunnar Bech a Danish linguist, studied the German verb Annie Birgit Garde a Danish film actress since 1955 appearing in 31 films Grethe Ingmann a Danish singer.
Countess Anne Dorte of Rosenborg a Danish countess and widow of the late Count Christian of Rosenborg, the grandson of King Christian X of Denmark Jens Galschiøt a Danish sculptor, best known for the Pillar of Shame Morten Messerschmidt a Danish politician and Member of the European Parliament Vilhelm Johansen a Danish sports shooter, competed at the 1936 Summer Olympics Morian Hansen a former motorcycle speedway rider Vagn Andersen a Danish sports shooter, competed at the 1972 Summer Olympics Kresten Bjerre a Danish footballer played in the USA and won 22 caps for Denmark Martin Haldbo Hansen a Danish rower. Anders Kristiansen a Danish male badminton player Mathias Boe a male badminton player Mie Skov a retired table tennis player, competed in the 2012 Summer Olympics Aurskog-Høland Catoira Kumla Ramsgate Sipoo Frederikssund station Frederikssundbanen Media related to Frederikssund at Wikimedia Commons
Albertslund is a Copenhagen suburb in Albertslund Municipality, Denmark. It is 15 km west from central Copenhagen, with a population of around 30,000. Albertslund is a planned community or new town build in the 1960s and 1970s; the suburb is known for its experimental and innovative low rise urban planning, integrating water and green spaces in the architecture. Albertslund is connected to the Copenhagen S-train system and has an open air shopping centre, Albertslund Centrum Albertslund is nicknamed A-Town. Website