Nelson, New Zealand
Nelson is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay. Nelson is the oldest city in the South Island and the second-oldest settled city in New Zealand – it was established in 1841 and was proclaimed a city by royal charter in 1858. Nelson City is close to the geographical centre of New Zealand and bordered to the west and south-west by Tasman District Council and to the north-east and south-east by Marlborough District Council; the city does not include the area's second-largest settlement. Nelson City has a population of around 50,000, making it New Zealand's 12th most populous city; when combined with the town of Richmond, which has 15,000 residents, the whole conurbation is ranked as New Zealand's 9th largest urban area by population. Nelson is well known for its thriving local arts and crafts scene, Each year, the city hosts events popular with locals and tourists alike, such as the Nelson Arts Festival; the annual Wearable Art Awards began near Nelson and a local museum, World of Wearable Art now showcases winning designs alongside a collection of classic cars.
Nelson was named in honour of the Admiral Horatio Nelson who defeated both the French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Many roads and public areas around the city are named after people and ships associated with that battle and Trafalgar Street is the main shopping axis of the city. Inhabitants of Nelson are referred to as Nelsonians. Nelson's Māori name, Whakatū, means'build','raise', or'establish'. In an article to The Colonist newspaper on 16 July 1867, Francis Stevens described Nelson as "The Naples of the Southern Hemisphere". Today, Nelson has the nicknames of "Sunny Nelson" due to its high sunshine hours per year or the "Top of the South" because of its geographic location. In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by putting the index and middle fingers together which are raised to the nose until the fingertips touch the nose move the hand forward so that the fingers point forward away from oneself. Settlement of Nelson began about 700 years ago by Māori. There is evidence.
The earliest recorded iwi in the Nelson district are the Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri, Ngāti Apa and Rangitāne tribes. Raids from northern tribes in the 1820s, led by Te Rauparaha and his Ngāti Toa, soon decimated the local population and displaced them; the New Zealand Company in London planned the settlement of Nelson. They intended to buy cheaply from the Māori some 200,000 acres which they planned to divide into one thousand lots and sell to intending settlers; the Company earmarked future profits to finance the free passage of artisans and labourers and their families, for the construction of public works. However, by September 1841 only about one third of the lots had sold. Despite this the Colony pushed ahead, land was surveyed by Frederick Tuckett. Three ships, the Arrow and Will Watch, sailed from London under the command of Captain Arthur Wakefield. Arriving in New Zealand, they discovered that the new Governor of the colony, William Hobson, would not give them a free hand to secure vast areas of land from the Māori or indeed to decide where to site the colony.
However, after some delay, Hobson allowed the Company to investigate the Tasman Bay area at the north end of the South Island. The Company selected the site now occupied by Nelson City because it had the best harbour in the area, but it had a major drawback: it lacked suitable arable land. The Company secured a vague and undetermined area from the Māori for £800 that included Nelson, Motueka and Whakapuaka; this allowed the settlement to begin, but the lack of definition would prove the source of much future conflict. The three colony ships sailed into Nelson Haven during the first week of November 1841; when the four first immigrant ships – Fifeshire, Mary-Ann, Lord Auckland and Lloyds – arrived three months they found the town laid out with streets, some wooden houses and rough sheds. Within 18 months the Company had sent out 18 ships with 872 women and 1384 children. However, fewer than ninety of the settlers had the capital to start as landowners; the early settlement of Nelson province included a proportion of German immigrants, who arrived on the ship Sankt Pauli and formed the nucleus of the villages of Sarau and Neudorf.
These were Lutheran Protestants with a small number of Bavarian Catholics. In 1892 the New Zealand Church Mission Society was formed in a Nelson church hall. After a brief initial period of prosperity, the lack of land and of capital caught up with the settlement and it entered a prolonged period of relative depression; the labourers had to accept a cut in their wages. Organised immigration ceased. By the end of 1843, artisans and labourers began leaving Nelson; the pressure to find more arable land became intense. To the south-east of Nelson lay the wide and fertile plains of the Wairau Valley; the New Zealand Company tried to claim. The Māori owners stated adamantly that the Wairau Valley had not formed part of the original land sale and made it clear they would resist any attempts by the settlers to occupy the area; the Nelson settlers led by Arthur Wakefield and Henry Thompson attempted to do just that. This resulted in the Wairau Affray; the subsequent Government enquiry exonerated the Māori and
Batavia, Dutch East Indies
Batavia called Betawi in the city's local Malay vernacular, was the capital of the Dutch East Indies. The area corresponds to present-day Jakarta. Batavia can refer to the city proper, as well as its suburbs and hinterland, the Ommelanden, which included the much larger area of the Residency of Batavia in today's Indonesian provinces of DKI Jakarta and West Java. In Betawi Malay, the area constituting the former Residency of Batavia is called Tanah Betawi; the establishment of Batavia at the site of the razed city of Jayakarta by the Dutch in 1619 led to the Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II. Batavia became the center of the Dutch East India Company's trading network in Asia. Monopolies on local produce were augmented by non-indigenous cash crops. To safeguard their commercial interests, the company and the colonial administration progressively absorbed surrounding territory. Batavia lies on the north coast of Java, in a sheltered bay, over a flat land consisting of marshland and hills, crisscrossed with canals.
The city consisted of two centers: Oud Batavia, the oldest part of the city. Batavia was a colonial city for about 320 years until 1942 when the Dutch East Indies fell under Japanese occupation during World War II. During the Japanese occupation and again after Indonesian nationalists declared independence on August 17, 1945, the city was renamed Jakarta. After the war, the city remained internationally recognized under its Dutch name, until full Indonesian independence was achieved in 1949, whereafter the city was renamed Jakarta. Amsterdam merchants embarked on an expedition to the East Indies archipelago in 1595, under the command of Cornelis de Houtman; the expedition reached Bantam, capital of the Sultanate of Banten, Jayakarta in 1596 to trade in spices. The English East India Company's first voyage in 1602, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Bantam. There he was allowed to build a trading post that served as the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682.
The Dutch government granted a monopoly on Asian trade with the Dutch East India Company in 1602. A year the first permanent Dutch trading post in Indonesia was established in Bantam, West Java. In 1610, Prince Jayawikarta granted permission to Dutch merchants to build a wooden godown and houses on the east bank of the Ciliwung River, opposite to Jayakarta; this outpost was established in 1611. As Dutch power increased, Jayawikarta allowed the English to erect houses on the west bank of the Ciliwung River, as well as a fort close to his customs office post, to keep the forces balanced. Tense relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch escalated in 1618, Jayawikarta's soldiers besieged the Dutch fortress, containing the godowns Nassau and Mauritius. An English fleet of 15 ships arrived under the leadership of Sir Thomas Dale, an English naval commander and former governor of the Colony of Virginia. After a sea battle, the newly appointed Dutch governor, Jan Pieterszoon Coen, escaped to the Moluccas to seek support.
The Dutch had taken over the first of the Portuguese forts there in 1605. Meanwhile, the commander of the Dutch garrison, Pieter van den Broecke, along with five other men, was arrested during negotiations, as Jayawikarta believed that he had been deceived by the Dutch. Jayawikarta and the English entered into an alliance; the Dutch army was on the verge of surrendering to the English when, in 1619, Banten sent a group of soldiers to summon Prince Jayawikarta. Jayawikarta's friendship agreement with the English was without prior approval from the Bantenese authorities; the conflict between Banten and Prince Jayawikarta, as well as the tense relationship between Banten and the English, presented a new opportunity for the Dutch. Coen returned from the Moluccas with reinforcements on 28 May 1619 and razed Jayakarta to the ground on 30 May 1619, thereby expelling its population. Only the Luso-Sundanese padrão remained. Prince Jayawikarta retreated to the eventual place of his death, in the interior of Banten.
The Dutch established a closer relationship with Banten and assumed control of the port, which over time became the Dutch centre of power in the region. The area that became Batavia came under Dutch control in 1619 as an expansion of the original Dutch fort along with new building on the ruined area, Jayakarta. On 2 July 1619, Coen decided to expand the original fort into a larger fortress. Coen sent the draft of the Kasteel van Batavia to the Netherlands on 7 October 1619; this new castle was much larger than the previous castle, with two northern bastions protecting the castle from attack from the sea. The Dutch fortress garrison included hired soldiers from Japan, Scotland and Belgium; the godowns Nassau and Mauritius were expanded with the erection of a new fort extension to the east on March 12, 1619, overseen by Commander Van Raay. Coen wished to name the new settlement "Nieuw-Hoorn" after his birthplace, but was prevented from doing so by the board of the East India Company, the Heeren XVII.
"Batavia" was chosen to become the new name for the settlement. The official naming ceremony took place on January 18, 1621, it was named after the Germanic tribe of the Batavi — the inhabitants of the Batavian region during the Roman period. Jayakarta was called "Batavia" for more than 300 years. Over time, there were three governmental administrations within the Batavia region; the initial authority was established in 1609. This became the colonial government, consisting of the Governor-General and the Council of the Indies; the urban or civil administration of th
Sønderborg (Danish pronunciation: - is a Danish town in the Region of Southern Denmark. It is the administrative seat of Sønderborg Municipality; the town has a population of 27,434, in a municipality of 75,264. The town of Sønderborg is home to Sønderborg Castle, the Royal Danish Army's Sergeant School and Sandbjerg Estate. Sønderborg castle is in the centre of the town, houses a museum focusing on the history and culture of the area; the museum is open all year. Sandbjerg Estate, which had belonged for many years to the Dukes of Sønderborg, to the Reventlow family, was donated to Aarhus University in 1954. In addition Sønderborg has a castle-like barracks built by the German military in 1906, placed centrally by Als Fjord, opposite Alsion; the old part of Sønderborg is on the island of Als, but some of its western suburbs have spread onto the mainland of Jutland into what had been the interior of the fort of Dybbøl. Prior to the Second Schleswig War of 1864, Sønderborg was situated in the Duchy of Schleswig, a Danish fief, so its history is properly included in the contentious history of Schleswig-Holstein.
In the 1920 Schleswig Plebiscite returned Northern Schleswig to Denmark, 43.8% of the city of Sønderborg's inhabitants voted for the cession to Denmark and 56.2% voted for remaining part of Germany. Both University of Southern Denmark and University College South have a branch in Sønderborg; the town of Sønderborg lies on both sides of Alssund. Two road bridges connect the city across the strait: the 682-meter-long Als Strait Bridge, built in 1978-1981. Danfoss is in 25 km from Sønderborg The city is served by Sønderborg Airport. St. Mary's church Christian August Lorentzen a Danish painter and instructor of Martinus Rørbye Joachim Otto Voigt a Danish/German botanist and surgeon specializing in pteridophytes Richard Parkinson a Danish explorer and anthropologist Herman Bang a Danish author, one of the men of the Modern Breakthrough Jens Jensen was a Danish-American landscape architect Otto Gelert a Danish pharmacist and botanist, specialized in plant floristics and systematics Jakob Nielsen a Danish mathematician, worked on automorphisms of surfaces Christian Gerthsen was a Danish-German physicist, contributed to atomic and nuclear physics Johannes Iversen a Danish palaeoecologist K.
R. H. Sonderborg a contemporary new media artist and musician. Johannes Carstensen one of the neo-impressionistic Odsherred Painters Lothar Göttsche a German mathematician, known for his work in algebraic geometry Per Nielsen a popular Danish trumpet player Søren Solkær a Danish photographer Sune Rose Wagner a Danish songwriter and vocalist, playing in the rock group The Raveonettes Ludvig Harboe a Danish theologian and bishop Lars Frodesen a Danish writer and philosopher inspired by Blaise Pascal Else Roesdahl a Danish historian and educator and archaeologist Vibeke Vasbo a Danish writer and women's rights activist Lisbeth Bech Poulsen politician, member of the Danish folketing for Socialistisk Folkeparti Westye Egeberg a Danish-Norwegian timber and lumber businessman Andreas Hohwü a Danish clockmaker Peter Jebsen a Norwegian businessman, founded Dale of Norway Peder Moos a Danish furniture designer and cabinetmaker Jørgen Mads Clausen Chairman of the board of Danfoss Ludvig Drescher a Danish amateur football goalkeeper, won a silver medal at the 1908 Summer Olympics Verner Blaudzun a Danish former cyclist, bronze medalist in the men's team time trial at the 1976 Summer Olympics Palle Jensen former Danish handball player, in the 1976 and 1980 Summer Olympics Anders Hansen a semi-retired Danish professional golfer.
Lars Christiansen a former Danish team handball player, played 338 games for the Danish national team Dennis Lindskjold a Danish darts player Simon Poulsen a Danish professional footballer, has played 31 games for the Denmark national football team Nicki Thiim a professional Danish racecar driver Sara Keçeci a Turkish-Danish female handballer playing goalkeeper Sønderborg is home to the South Jutland Symphony Orchestra, link to Official Site Sønderjyllands Symfoniorkester. Sønderborg Castle is today a museum about the history of Southern Denmark. Media related to Sønderborg at Wikimedia Commons
Port Adelaide is a port-side region of Adelaide 14 kilometres northwest of the Adelaide CBD. It is the namesake of the City of Port Adelaide Enfield council, a suburb, a federal and state electoral division and is the main port for the city of Adelaide. Port Adelaide played an important role in the formative decades of Adelaide and South Australia, with the port being early Adelaide's main supply and information link to the rest of the world. Prior to European settlement Port Adelaide was covered with mangrove swamps and tidal mud flats, lay next to a narrow creek; the entrance to this creek, the Port River, was first reported in 1831. It was explored by Europeans when Captain Henry Jones entered in 1834; the creek's main channel was fed by numerous smaller creeks, was 2–4 fathoms deep. The navigable channel was narrow and the creek soon faded into swamps and sandhills. At low tide the channel was surrounded by mudbanks. Dry and solid land ended near present-day Alberton. Colonel William Light began exploring the area in late 1836 while deciding on a site for the colony of South Australia's port.
After initial trepidation, he reported to the Colonisation Commissioners that the location was a suitable harbour. By this time it had acquired the name "the port creek". Light's choice of separating the port and Adelaide was opposed by a few merchants, a newspaper and Governor John Hindmarsh; this opposition was based on the distance between them. The division of power in the colony meant, he kept the port separate principally due to the lack of fresh water at the port. The effective foundation day of Port Adelaide was 6 January 1837. On this day the first harbourmaster, Captain Thomas Lipson, took up residence with his family on the edge of Port Creek; the new port was used for shipping that month, passengers began disembarking the next. At this point the site was known as The Port Creek Settlement; when founded, the port's land was just higher than the surrounding tidal flats. The port had a significant problem—reported in letters from Light and complaints to the Governor from ship owners—of a lack of a fresh water supply.
At first the river was not used for larger ships. They had to land at Holdfast Bay; this early port was plagued by mosquitoes, was a comparative long distance from Adelaide, had few amenities and had a risk of inundation when the tide was high. By 1840 it had acquired the name "Port Misery", it was first coined in a book credited to T. Horton James a pseudonym, comes from a line stating: The original drawings of Adelaide City Plan by Light show that he envisaged a canal between Port Adelaide and the City of Adelaide; the canal was not built. A plan of a proposed "Grand Junction Canal" between Adelaide and the North Arm, by engineer Edward Snell was produced in 1851, with an exhibition of his "A Bird's Eye View of the Country Between Adelaide and the North Arm", showing the proposed canal. By early 1838, large vessels could only get as far as the end of Gawler Reach. Arrivals had to use smaller boats, traverse the mangrove swamps at low tide and climb sandhills to reach the road to Adelaide. A canal for the loading of sailing ships was constructed in 1838, town acreages nearby surveyed and sold.
By the years end deficiencies of the canal were clear. The canal was dry for most of the day and cargo movement slow. Seagoing ships had to stop some distance from the settlement due to the mudbanks. Cargo and passengers covered the remaining distance in ships' boats. All had to traverse 2–300 m of swamps after landing to reach sandhills, the road to Adelaide; the new port's first maritime casualty was the migrant ship Tam O'Shanter that ran aground on the outer sand bar. A small waterway in the port was named after the ship; the port's initial location was intended to be temporary. The location for a proper port was chosen by Governor George Gawler, between the original settlement and the Governor's preferred location at the junction of the North Arm and the Port River. One reason for the chosen site was Gawler's instructions on leaving England to limit expenditure. Gawler awarded a tender allowing the South Australian Company to construct a private wharf, again to limit government expenditure.
Along with the wharf they were to construct a roadway. The roadway was to be a 100 feet wide and run from the port to dry land, a distance of 1 mile; this first wharf was built near the end of the modern Commercial Road. The wharf, known as Maclaren Wharf, was finished in 1840. McLaren Wharf was 15 feet deep at low tide. Contrary to usual practice, it was allowed to be built at the low water mark, which made construction simpler; the Wharf and road were opened by Governor Gawler in October 1840. The opening procession from the old port to the new included over 1,000 people; the procession included 600 horsemen and 450 vehicles all of the colony's wheeled transportation. At the opening a parcel was ceremonially landed from the barque Guiana. Upon opening, the port could accommodate vessels up to 530 long tons. In May 1841 John Hill became the original holder of the land grant for all the land south of St Vincent Street, reaching to Tam O'Shanter Creek
Gotthard Daniel Fritzsche was a Prussian-Australian pastor who becoming instrumental in furthering that religion in South Australia. He was born in Liebenwerda, in the Electorate of Saxony and migrated to Australia in 1841. From 1842–1863, he was pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, he was buried at Lobethal, South Australia. Gotthard Fritzsche went to Breslau after his gymnasium training. There he studied under Johann Gottfried Scheibel; as was customary, after his university education, he served as a private tutor. At his first examination for entering the ministry, he declared himself to be against the Prussian Union, was banned from ministry in the State church, he joined the underground Old Lutheran church as a Flying Pastor, who travelled from place to place disguised as a travelling tradesman, performing secret worship services and rites to those opposed to the State church. After a time, he grew weary of the work, he travelled to Hamburg. Fritzsche arrived in Hamburg when a group of Prussian Old Lutherans were searching for financing and a pastor to join their group in emigrating to South Australia.
In 1840, at the synodical gathering of the newly constituted Lutheran Church in Australia, a request had been sent to the Old Lutherans in Prussia to send a second pastor to the young German settlement. A requirement had been imposed on them by the Prussian government, that they must be accompanied by a pastor before being allowed to emigrate. Fritzsche was not eager to emigrate, he had declined an invitation by Johannes Grabau to emigrate to the United States. However, he did relent to the requests of the people who were waiting to emigrate to South Australia. Fritzsche travelled to England to meet with George Angas in an attempt to gain financing for the balance of the fares, a sum of over £2000. Angas was unable to provide any financing to the group, it was in early June that a letter was received from a "Mrs. Richardson in Newcastle UK", with a sum of £270; the remainder of the required finances was donated by one of Mrs Anna Nehrlich. Fritzsche had become engaged to her daughter Johanna Dorothea, while in Hamburg.
The group set sail for Australia, on 11 July 1841 on the ship Skjold, arriving on 28 October 1841 at Port Misery, South Australia. The migrants settled at Lobethal, Bethanien. Fritzsche made his home at Lobethal. Fritzsche took on pastoral duties at Lobethal and the neighbouring communities, as part of the German settlement in Australia. Relations with the earlier Prussian settlers was harmonious, but soon deteriorated. In 1842 Pastor August Kavel, in an attempt to consolidate the settlers into one localised community urged the settlers in the early settlements at Klemzig and Hahndorf to relocate to the newly settled Langmeil. Many of the settlers in these towns refused, an underlying tension arose between these communities and Pastor Kavel. Over time, Fritzsche learned that Kavel had developed a millennialistic point of view, had the subject discussed at the synod gatherings in 1844 and 1845. No resolution was reached at these gatherings. In addition to this disagreement, Fritzsche differed with Kavel, in a proclamation released in 1846, regarding the power of civil government in the church.
These disagreements between the two pastors intensified a division which had developed in the Lutheran community. At the synodical gathering at Bethany, on 16 and 17 August 1846, the subject of millennialism was again raised, when the disagreement became heated, a divide was forged, when the Kavel followers left and formed their own synod. At this point, Fritzsche became the head of the Evangelical Church of South Australia; the Confessional Lutheran Emigrations From Prussia And Saxony Around 1839, Martin O. Records from the following Lutheran Churches, Lutheran Church of Australia ArchivesThe Diary of the Voyage, Private webpages of DIANE CUMMINGS Australia, and Fritzsche, Gotthard Daniel, Christian Cyclopedia, The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod
Altona is the westernmost urban borough of the German city state of Hamburg, on the right bank of the Elbe river. From 1640 to 1864 Altona was under the administration of the Danish monarchy and Denmark's only real harbour directly to the North Sea. Altona was an independent city until 1937. In 2016 the population was 270,263. Founded in 1535 as a village of fishermen in Holstein-Pinneberg. In 1640, Altona came under Danish rule as part of Holstein-Glückstadt, in 1664 received city rights from Danish King Frederik III ruling in personal union as duke of Holstein. Altona was one of the Danish monarchy's most important harbour towns; the railroad from Altona to Kiel, the Hamburg-Altona–Kiel railway, was opened in 1844. Because of the severe restrictions on the number of Jews allowed to live in Hamburg until 1864, a major Jewish community developed in Altona starting in 1611, when Count Ernest of Schaumburg and Holstein-Pinneberg granted the first permanent residence permits to Ashkenazic Jews. Members did business both in Altona itself.
All that remains after the Nazi Holocaust during World War II are the Jewish cemeteries, but in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, the community was a major center of Jewish life and scholarship. The Holstein-Pinneberg and Danish Holstein had lower taxes and placed fewer civil impositions on their Jewish community than did the government of Hamburg; the wars between Denmark and the German Confederation—the First Schleswig War and the Second Schleswig War —and the Gastein Convention of 1864, led to Denmark's cession of the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein to Prussian administration and Lauenburg to Austrian administration. Along with all of Schleswig-Holstein, Altona became part of the Hamburg Free City in 1867. In 1871 Hamburg became a part of the German Empire. In the same year the city was hit with a minimum of 16 casualties in Altona. During the Weimar era following World War I, the city of Altona was disturbed by major labor strikes and street disorders. Inflation in Germany was a major problem.
In 1923 Max Brauer, the mayor of Altona, directed that city personnel be paid in part with gas meter tokens, as these coins did not lose value from inflation. The most notable event at this time is the Altona Bloody Sunday on July 17, 1932 when several persons were shot by the police force securing a demonstration of Nazi groups. After police raids and a special court, on August 1, 1933 Bruno Tesch and others were found guilty and put to death by beheading with a hand-held axe. In the 1990s, the Federal Republic of Germany reversed the convictions of Tesch and the other men who were put to death, clearing their names; the Greater Hamburg Act removed Altona from the Free State of Prussia in 1937 and merged it with the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg in 1938. On 1 February 2007 the Ortsämter in Hamburg were dissolved. In Altona the precincts of Blankenese and Osdorf had existed and had local offices. On 1 March 2008 the Schanzenviertel neighborhood, which had spanned across parts of the boroughs of Altona, Eimsbüttel and Hamburg-Mitte, became the Sternschanze quarter, the entirety of, now in the Altona borough.
The border of Altona to the south is the River Elbe, across the river the state Lower Saxony and the boroughs Harburg and Hamburg-Mitte. To the east is the borough Hamburg-Mitte and to the north is the borough Eimsbüttel; the western border is with the state of Schleswig-Holstein. According to the statistical office of Hamburg, the area of Altona is 77.5 km² or 29.9 sq mi in 2006. Politically, the following quarters are part of Altona borough: Altona-Altstadt Altona-Nord Bahrenfeld Ottensen Othmarschen Groß Flottbek Osdorf Lurup Nienstedten Blankenese Iserbrook Sülldorf Rissen Sternschanze In 2006 Altona had a population of 243,972 people. 16.4% were children under the age of 18, 18.6% were 65 years of age or older. 15.3% were immigrants. 12,545 people were registered as unemployed. In 1999 48% of all households were made up of individuals. There were 37 primary schools and 30 secondary schools in Altona and 635 physicians in private practice and 67 pharmacies. With elections to the state parliament, the Bezirksversammlung is elected as representatives of the citizens.
It consists of 51 representatives. Elections were held in Hamburg on 20 February 2011; the five parties having more than 5 percent in recent polls are the conservative CDU, the social-democratic SPD, the ecologist Green Party, the left-wing Die Linke and the liberal Free Democratic Party. Altona is the location of a major railway station, Hamburg-Altona, connecting the Hamburg S-Bahn with the regional railways and local bus lines; the A 7 autobahn passes through Altona borough. According to the Department of Motor Vehicles, in Altona 87,131 private cars were registered. Jean de Labadie, French Christian mystic who died in Altona. Gluckel of Hameln Jonathan Eybeschutz, was a Talmudist and Kabbalist who died in Altona. Johann Friedrich Struensee, doctor of medicine, de facto ruler of Denmark Jens Jacob Eschels, nautical captain, author of the oldest known captain's autobiography in Germany. Conrad Hinrich Donner and philanthropist, of Donners Park, Altona Akiba Israel Wertheimer, was chief Rabbi in Altona from 1815–35 George Jar