Church of Sweden
The Church of Sweden is the largest Christian church in Sweden. A member of the Porvoo Communion, the Church professes the Lutheran branch of Christianity and it is composed of thirteen dioceses, divided into parishes. It is a national church which, working with a democratic organisation and through the ministry of the church. The Primate of the Church of Sweden is the Archbishop of Uppsala — currently Antje Jackelén, the Church of Sweden is an Evangelical Lutheran church. 6.2 million people are members of the Church of Sweden and it is liturgically and theologically high church, having retained priests and the Mass during the Swedish Reformation. In common with other Evangelical Lutheran churches, the Church of Sweden maintains the historical episcopate, the Church of Sweden is known for its liberal position in theological issues, particularly the question of homosexuality. When Bishop Eva Brunne was consecrated as Bishop of Stockholm in 2009, despite a significant yearly loss of members, its membership of 6,225,091 people accounts for 63.
2% of the Swedish population. Until 2000 it held the position of state church, the high membership numbers are because until 1996 all newborn children were made members, unless their parents had actively cancelled their membership. Approximately 2% of the members regularly attend Sunday services. According to a Gallup poll conducted in 2009, 17% of the Swedish population considered religion as an important part of their daily life, King Gustav I Vasa instigated the Church of Sweden in 1536 during his reign as King of Sweden. This act separated the church from the Roman Catholic Church and its canon law, in 1571, the Swedish Church Ordinance became the first Swedish church order following the Reformation. The Church of Sweden became Lutheran at the Uppsala Synod in 1593 when it adopted the Augsburg Confession to which most Lutherans adhere, at this synod, it was decided that the church would retain the three original Christian creeds, the Apostles, the Athanasian, and the Nicene. In 1686, the Riksdag of the Estates adopted the Book of Concord, although certain parts, labelled Confessio fidei, were considered binding.
Confessio dei included the three aforementioned Creeds, the Augsburg Confession and two Uppsala Synod decisions from 1572 and 1593, during the 20th century the Church of Sweden oriented itself strongly towards liberal Christianity and human rights. In 1957, the assembly rejected a proposal for ordination of women. Since 1960, women have been ordained as priests, and since 1994, a proposal to perform same-sex weddings was approved on October 22,2009 by 176 of 249 voting members of the Church of Sweden Synod. The Christian church in Scandinavia was originally governed by the archdiocese of Bremen, in 1104 an archbishop for all Scandinavia was installed in Lund. Uppsala was made Swedens archdiocese in 1164, and remains so today, the papal diplomat William of Modena attended a church meeting in Skänninge in March 1248, where the ties to the Catholic Church were strengthened
The Valois Tapestries are a series of eight tapestries depicting festivities or magnificences at the Court of France in the second half of the 16th century. The tapestries were worked in the Spanish Netherlands, probably in Brussels or Antwerp, scholars have not firmly established who commissioned the tapestries or for whom they were intended. It is likely that they were owned by Catherine de Medici. She had probably presented them to her granddaughter Christina of Lorraine, for her marriage to Ferdinando I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, the tapestries are now stored at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, but are not on public display. The tapestries are based on six designs drawn by the artist Antoine Caron during the reign of King Charles IX of France and these were modified by a second artist, who reveals a strong personality of his own, to include groups of full-length figures in the foreground. Historian Frances Yates believed that this second artist was the influential Lucas de Heere, the Protestant de Heere, who died in 1584, had previously designed tapestries for Catherine de Medici in France.
In his last years, he was working in Flanders for William the Silent, the founder of the House of Orange-Nassau, in 1582, de Heere designed the decorations for Anjous Joyous Entry into Ghent, de Heeres home town. He met with success, owing to a desperate shortage of funds to pay his troops. Art historian Roy Strong has questioned Yatess finding that the tapestries were produced in Antwerp under Lucas de Heere, Yates believes that de Heeres contribution to the tapestries represented a plea to Catherine de Medici to send Anjou the funds he needed to confront Parma effectively. Historian R. J. Knecht questions this reading and calls the tapestries an enigma, the reason Henry III and Catherine did not throw the full weight of France behind Anjous campaign in the Netherlands was that they feared provoking a war with Spain. Knecht asserts that a gift of tapestries, however magnificent, would hardly have changed their minds and Brotton suggest that the Valois tapestries have a clear antecedent in the triumphalist History of Scipio tapestries designed for Francis I by Giulio Romano.
Yates believed that the depiction of an elephant in one of the tapestries was based on engravings of Anjous staged entry into Antwerp, the obvious intent of the tapestries is to glorify the house of Valois, beyond that, he believes, all is speculation. The artists seem to have consulted written accounts of Catherine de Medicis court festivals, the costumes worn by the courtiers in the tapestries have been dated to not than c. Catherine exercised her own creative gifts in the devising of the court festivals, biographer Leonie Frieda suggests that she, more than anyone, inaugurated the fantastic entertainments for which French monarchs became renowned. Most of the figures in the foreground of the tapestries are recognisable as members of the French royal family. François, duke of Anjou, is featured prominently in some of the tapestries, catherines daughter Marguerite de Valois can be seen. One absentee from the tapestries is King Charles IX of France, who was on the throne at the time of the events depicted, Antoine Carons original drawings for the tapestries, of which six survive, show Charles taking part in the festivities.
It is the artist who removes Charles from the designs, Catherine de Medicis patronage of the arts Frieda, Leonie
The Nordic countries or Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden. They consist of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, the population of the Nordic countries are mainly Scandinavian or Finnish, with Greenlandic Inuit and the Sami people as minorities. Of todays native languages, Danish, Icelandic, the non-Germanic languages spoken are Finnish and several Sami languages. The main religion is Lutheran Christianity, the Nordic countries have much in common in their way of life, their use of Scandinavian languages and social structure. Politically, Nordic countries do not form an entity. Especially in English, Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, Scandinavian Peninsula on the other hand covers mainland Norway and Sweden as well as the northernmost part of Finland. At 3,425,804 square kilometers, the area of the Nordic countries would form the 7th-largest country in the world. Uninhabitable icecaps and glaciers comprise about half of area, mostly in Greenland.
In January 2013, the region had a population of around 26 million people, the Nordic countries cluster near the top in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. Although the area is linguistically heterogeneous, with three unrelated groups, the common linguistic heritage is one of the factors making up the Nordic identity. The North Germanic languages Danish and Swedish are considered mutually intelligible and these languages are taught in school throughout the Nordic countries. Swedish, for example, is a subject in Finnish schools. Danish is mandatory in Faroese and Greenlandic schools, as these states are a part of the Danish Realm. Iceland teaches Danish, since Iceland too was a part of the Danish Realm until 1918, there is a high degree of income redistribution and little social unrest. The Nordic countries consists of historical territories of the Scandinavian countries, areas that share a common history and it is meant unambiguously to refer to this larger group, since the term Scandinavia is narrower and sometimes ambiguous.
The Nordic countries are considered to unambiguously refer to Denmark, Iceland and Sweden. The term is derived indirectly from the local term Norden, used in the Scandinavian languages, unlike the Nordic countries, the term Norden is in the singular. The demonym is nordbo, literally meaning northern dweller, especially outside of the Nordic region the term Scandinavia is often used incorrectly as a synonym for the Nordic countries
Portalegre is a municipality in Portugal. The population as of 2011 was 24,930, in an area of 447.14 square kilometres, the municipality is located by the Serra de São Mamede in the Portalegre District. The current Mayor is Adelaide Teixeira, elected as an independent and its name comes from the Latin Portus Alacer. The municipal holiday is 23 May, according to the 2001 census the city of Portalegre had 15,768 inhabitants in its two parishes. These two parishes plus the eight rural parishes had a total of 25,608 inhabitants, Portalegre was founded in the reign of Afonso III, in 1259. It was to be given to his bastard son Afonso Sanchez, during the reign of Denis I, a foral issued on 18 November 1299 it was determined that Portalegre would be donated to the king and to his first born and heir. Portalegre was elevated to the status of city on 23 May 1550, at this time, the city was regarded as an important administrative and economic centre. In the 15th century, it was recognized for its cloth manufacturing.
Owing to its proximity to the border with Spain, over the years Portalegre endured many invasions by foreign troops, in 1847 it was occupied by forces of the Spanish General Concha. The importance of Portalegre would come to be recognized in 1859, the house-museum of José Régio, a famous Portuguese poet, was installed in his home, in which he lived for 34 years. When Régio was accepted at the school of Mouzinho da Silveira, in Portalegre. It was previously an annex of the convent of S. Brás, of which there are some vestiges. It served as a headquarters when the wars were fought. José Régio rented a room and, as he needed more space. So, as time went by, he became the only inhabitant of the hostel. In 1965, he sold his collection to the municipality of Portalegre with the condition of it buying his house, restore it and he lived there until he died, in 1969. The museum opened to public in 1971
The Hunt of the Unicorn
The Hunt of the Unicorn, or the Unicorn Tapestries, is a series of seven tapestries dating from between 1495 and 1505, now in The Cloisters in New York, probably woven in Brussels or Liège. The tapestries show a group of noblemen and hunters in pursuit of a unicorn, the Hunt for the Unicorn was a common theme in late medieval and renaissance works of art and literature. The tapestries were woven in wool, metallic threads, and silk, the vibrant colours, still evident today, were produced from dye plants, weld and woad. One of the panels, The Mystic Capture of the Unicorn, the tapestries are subject to scholarly debate about the iconography, the artists who designed the tapestries, and questions surrounding the sequence in which they were meant to be hung. Possibly the seven tapestries were not originally hung together and it was posited by James J. Rorimer in 1942 that they were commissioned by Anne of Brittany, to celebrate her marriage to Louis XII, King of France on 6 December 1491. The clue derived from the occurrence of A and reversed E tied with a cord in a bowknot throughout the series of tapestries.
As Rorimer surmised, the letters A and E are interpreted as the first, however Margaret B. Freeman refutes this fairly convincingly in her monograph of 1976, a conclusion which is supported by Adolph S. Cavallo in his 1998 work. The tapestries show pagan and Christian symbolism, the pagan themes emphasise the medieval lore of beguiled lovers, whereas Christian writings interpret the unicorn and its death as the Passion of Christ. The unicorn has long identified as a symbol of Christ by Christian writers. Masonic themes include Serpents, Owls in the form of Owl Eyes or Owl Silhouette, Sacred Geometry, there is an allusion in the 2nd tapestry, The Unicorn is Found, to The Last Supper by Davinci. Serpents Owls Hebrew word for God JHWH Sacred Geometry In the Gothic tapestry, when the morality was attached importance to the medieval art, the tapestries illustrate the moralising role of narratives in allegories. The secular unicorn hunt was not only a simply depiction of Christian art, with a regulatory attitude to Rorimers speculation of tapestry ownership, Margaret B.
Freeman did not negate the possible function of the tapestries as an interpretation of allegory of true love. The taming of the unicorn symbolises the lover or mate who enchained by virgin, Freeman discovered the connection between the taming of the unicorn and the devotion and subjection in love in the medieval poets. In addition, the pointed out that the overlap of subject the God of Heaven. The original workmanship of the tapestries still remains unanswered at the present, the tapestries were highly probably woven in Brussels in the Flanders, where was the centre of tapestry industry in the medieval European. As a series of works of Brussels looms, the mixture of silk, metallic thread with wool gave the tapestries finer quality. Other sources give slightly different titles and different sequences, the factors that affect this are primarily threefold. Firstly the nature of the tapestries themselves, which exhibit differences of manufacture and size, secondly the nature of the classic stag hunt, usually cited to Livre de la Chasse by Gaston III, Count of Foix of Foix
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
Sophie Schneebalg-Perelmans attribution to Brussels of The Lady and the Unicorn at the Musée de Cluny may well be correct. Leo must have motivated by the already high technical quality of Brussels tapestries. A Hunts of Maximilian suite, depicting hunting in each of the months, was woven to cartoons by Bernard van Orley ca1531-33, van Orleys pupils, Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Michiel Coxie, provided cartoons for Brussels looms under the general influence of Italian painting. A set of Seven Deadly Sins, of which four survive, are recognized as Pieter Coecke van Aelsts masterpieces, Brussels quickly took pre-eminence in tapestry weaving. In 1528 a city decree ordained that each piece of Brussels tapestry over a certain size bear the mark of a red shield flanked by two Bs, this aids in identifying Brussels production. Each tapestry was to include the woven mark of the maker or the merchant who commissioned the tapestry for resale, the public market for tapestry sales was Antwerp. Though he was the arch-rival of the Habsburgs, Francis I of France commissioned tapestries from Brussels and Antwerp in the early years of his reign.
The prominent Brussels weaver Peter de Pannemaker executed for Francis that same year a suite enriched with silver and gold thread, to designs by Matteo del Nassaro of Verona, an engraver of gems. There were other commissions and purchases by Francis of Brussels tapestry until the establishment, about 1540 of a manufactory at Fontainebleau, the Valois tapestries depicting festivities at the court of France were woven in the Spanish Netherlands, likely in Brussels, shortly after 1580. Other nobles continued to support Brussels manufacture in the 16th century, only 136 tapestries from the initial original collection of 356 pieces remain today, from which the largest part was commissioned in Brussel. In England, both Cardinal Wolsey and Henry VIII amassed large tapestry collections, Wolsey furnished his palaces at York Place and Hampton Court with rich tapestries. Many of the cardinals acquisitions illustrate Biblical texts, but he acquired secular works, one was purchased from the executors of the Bishop of Durham and one was commissioned directly by Wolsey.
Evidence associates this set with a partial set now in the Victoria & Albert Museum, the Seven Deadly Sins panels woven for Wolseys bedroom at Hampton Court are thought to be Brussels work. By the time of his fall in 1529, Wolseys collection included over 600 tapestry pieces, but despite his commissions to the weavers of Brussels, his tastes were conventional, and none of his acquisitions seem to have been in the new style pioneered by van Orley. Conversely, Henry VIII embraced the new Italianate style, in October 1528, Henry acquired a small set of the Twelve Months and a much larger ten-piece set of The Story of David measuring 743 1/2 ells from the merchant Richard Gresham. Two of these, The Triumph of Hercules and the Triumph of Bacchus, the prominent atelier of Jan Raes the Elder and Younger had executed a set of Animals in Landscapes for Cardinal Montalto. and a suite of the History of Samson. Other leading Brussels ateliers of the 17th century were directed by Martin Reymbouts, rubenss pupil Jacob Jordaens provided many cartoons for tapestries.
Kermesse subjects drawn from life in the manner of the Teniers, father
Millefleur, millefleurs or mille-fleur refers to a background style of many different small flowers and plants, usually shown on a green ground, as though growing in grass. It is essentially restricted to European tapestry during the late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance, from about 1400 to 1550, but mainly about 1480-1520. The style had a revival by Morris & Co in 19th century England, being used on original tapestry designs. The millefleur style differs from other styles of floral decoration, such as the arabesque, in that many different sorts of individual plants are shown. The plants fill the field without connecting or significantly overlapping, in that it differs from the plant and floral decoration of Gothic page borders in illuminated manuscripts. There is a different style known as millefleur in Indian carpets from about 1650 to 1800. In the millefleur style the plants are dispersed across the field on a background representing grass, to give the impression of a flowery meadow. At the time they were called verdures in French and they are mostly flowering plants shown as a whole, and in flower.
Many are recognizable as specific species, with varying degrees of realism, such was the case in Brussels at any rate, after a lawsuit between the two groups in 1476. The subjects are generally secular, but there are some religious survivals, millefleur style was most popular in late 15th and early 16th century French and Flemish tapestry, with the best known examples including The Lady and the Unicorn and The Hunt of the Unicorn. The beginnings of the style may be seen in earlier tapestries, the famous Apocalypse Tapestry series has several backgrounds covered in vegetal motifs, but these are springing from tendrils in the way of illuminated manuscript borders. In fact most of the large sets do not fully use the style. The The Justice of Trajan and Herkinbald and most of The Hunt of the Unicorn set are similar, during the 1800s, the millefleur style was revived and incorporated into numerous tapestry designs by Morris & Co. The companys Pomona and The Achievement of the Grail tapestries demonstrate an adherence to the medieval millefleur style, the Adoration of the Magi was one of the companys most popular designs, with ten versions woven between 1890-1907.
The term is used to describe north Indian carpets, originally of the late Mughal era in the late 17th and 18th century. In this they are different from the irregularly arranged whole plant style of European tapestries. The flowers springing from the stem may be of completely different colours. There are two groups, one directional and more likely to show whole plants, and one not directional and often just showing stems
Reproduced in the form of prints, they rivalled Michelangelos ceiling as the most famous and influential designs of the Renaissance, and were well known to all artists of the Renaissance and Baroque. Admiration of them reached its highest pitch in the 18th and 19th centuries, originally the set was intended to include 16 tapestries. Raphael was paid twice by Leo, in June 1515 and December 1516, tapestries retained their Late Gothic prestige during the Renaissance. Most of the expense was in the manufacture, although the creation of the tapestries in Brussels cost 15,000 ducats, the cartoons are painted in a glue distemper medium on many sheets of paper glued together, they are now mounted on a canvas backing. They are all slightly over 3 m tall, and from 3 to 5 m wide, although some colours have faded, they are in general in very good condition. The tapestries are mirror-images of the cartoons, as they were worked from behind, there would have been other drawings for all the subjects, which have been lost, it was from these that the first prints were made.
The seven cartoons were probably completed in 1516 and were sent to Brussels. Various other sets were later, including one acquired by Henry VIII of England in 1542. Cartoons were sometimes returned with tapestries to the commissioner, but this clearly did not happen here, the tapestries had very wide and elaborate borders, designed by Raphael, which these cartoons omit, presumably they had their own cartoons. The borders included ornamentation in an imitation of Ancient Roman relief sculpture, the tapestries were made with both gold and silver thread, some were burnt by soldiers in the Sack of Rome in 1527 to extract the precious metals. The first delivery was in 1517, and seven were displayed in the Chapel for Christmas Day in 1519 and it was partly this that made the designs so effective in reduced print versions. The Raphael Cartoons represent scenes from the lives of Saints Peter, there were relatively few precedents for these subjects, so Raphael was less constrained by traditional iconographic expectations than he would have been with a series on the life of Christ or Mary.
He no doubt received some advice or instructions in choosing the scenes to depict, an intervening small frieze showed subjects from the life of Leo, designed to complement the other series. Each sequence begins at the wall, with the Life of Peter on the right side of the Chapel. The Healing of the Lame Man The Death of Ananias, Life of Paul The Stoning of St Stephen at which Paul was present before his conversion. The Conversion of Saint Paul The Conversion of the Proconsul or The Blinding of Elymas, after Paul miraculously cures a cripple, the people of Lystra see him and his companion Barnabas as gods, and want to make a sacrifice to them. Paul tears his garments in disgust, whilst Barnabas speaks to the crowd, St Paul in prison, smaller than the others. St Paul Preaching in Athens, the standing at the left in a red cap is a portrait of Leo, next to him is Janus Lascaris
Radiocarbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was developed by Willard Libby in the late 1940s, Libby received the Nobel Prize for his work in 1960. The radiocarbon dating method is based on the fact that radiocarbon is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen. The resulting radiocarbon combines with oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide. When the animal or plant dies, it stops exchanging carbon with its environment, and from that point onwards the amount of 14C it contains begins to decrease as the 14C undergoes radioactive decay. Measuring the amount of 14C in a sample from a plant or animal such as a piece of wood or a fragment of bone provides information that can be used to calculate when the animal or plant died. The idea behind radiocarbon dating is straightforward, but years of work were required to develop the technique to the point where accurate dates could be obtained.
Research has been ongoing since the 1960s to determine what the proportion of 14C in the atmosphere has been over the past fifty thousand years. The resulting data, in the form of a curve, is now used to convert a given measurement of radiocarbon in a sample into an estimate of the samples calendar age. Other corrections must be made to account for the proportion of 14C in different types of organisms, additional complications come from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil, and from the above-ground nuclear tests done in the 1950s and 1960s. Conversely, nuclear testing increased the amount of 14C in the atmosphere, measurement of radiocarbon was originally done by beta-counting devices, which counted the amount of beta radiation emitted by decaying 14C atoms in a sample. The development of dating has had a profound impact on archaeology. In addition to permitting more accurate dating within archaeological sites than previous methods, histories of archaeology often refer to its impact as the radiocarbon revolution.
Radiocarbon dating has allowed key transitions in prehistory to be dated, such as the end of the last ice age, and they synthesized 14C using the laboratorys cyclotron accelerator and soon discovered that the atoms half-life was far longer than had been previously thought. This was followed by a prediction by Serge A. Korff, employed at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and it had previously been thought that 14C would be more likely to be created by deuterons interacting with 13C. At some time during World War II, Willard Libby, who was at Berkeley, learned of Korffs research, in 1945, Libby moved to the University of Chicago where he began his work on radiocarbon dating. He published a paper in 1946 in which he proposed that the carbon in living matter might include 14C as well as non-radioactive carbon, by contrast, methane created from petroleum showed no radiocarbon activity because of its age. The results were summarized in a paper in Science in 1947, Libby and James Arnold proceeded to test the radiocarbon dating theory by analyzing samples with known ages
Whereas the royal Gobelins manufacture executed tapestries for the royal residences and for ambassadorial gifts, the manufacture at Beauvais always remained a private enterprise. Behagles first successes were a suite of Conquests of the King which complemented a contemporaneous Gobelins suite showing episodes in the Life of the King, a suite of Acts of the Apostles, following copies of Raphaels cartoons, are in the cathedral of Beauvais. The great series of Grotesques initiated in the 1690s became a mainstay of Beauvais production, behagle continued his private workshops in Paris, as had his predecessor. From these shops came the suite of Marine Triumphs with the arms of the comte de Toulouse, on his death in 1705, the Beauvais manufacture was continued by his wife and son, and in 1711 by new proprietors, the brothers Filleul. Between 1722 and 1726, Beauvais was directed by Noël-Antoine de Mérou, and maintained showrooms in Paris, the great period of Beauvais tapestry begins with the arrival of Jean-Baptiste Oudry,22 July 1726, replacing the unsatisfactory Jacques Duplessis.
Oudry was simultaneously inspector of the works at Gobelins, the king had the entire production of Gobelins at his disposal, but as Edith Standen points out, they were rather large, rather solemn and definitely old-fashioned. In 1739, for the first time, cartoons for Beauvais were exhibited at the Paris salon, bouchers eight oil sketches for these Tentures chinoises were shown in the Salon of 1742. It was unusual for the sketches to be enlarged to provide cartoons, as in this case. The successful series was woven at Beauvais at least ten times between July 1743 and August 1775, in further copies were made at Aubusson. Media related to Tapestry of Beauvais at Wikimedia Commons
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom. Tapestry is weft-faced weaving, in all the warp threads are hidden in the completed work. In tapestry weaving, weft yarns are typically discontinuous, the artisan interlaces each coloured weft back and it is a plain weft-faced weave having weft threads of different colours worked over portions of the warp to form the design. Most weavers use a warp thread, such as linen or cotton. The weft threads are usually wool or cotton, but may include silk, silver, the earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek