In the Slavic religious tradition, Domovoy is the household god of a given kin. They are deified progenitors, to say the fountainhead ancestors of the kin. According to the Russian folklorist E. G. Kagarov, the Domovoy is a personification of the supreme Rod in the microcosm of kinship. Sometimes he has a female counterpart, the goddess of the household, though he is most a single god; the Domovoy expresses himself as a number of other spirits of the household in its different functions. The term Domovoy comes from the Indo-European root *dom, shared by many words in the semantic field of "abode", "domain" in the Indo-European languages; the Domovoy have been compared to the genii of the family. Helmold, in his Chronica Slavorum, alluded to the widespread worship of penates among the Elbe Slavs. In the Chronica Boemorum of Cosmas of Prague it is written that Czech, one of the three mythical forefathers of the Slavs, brought the statues of the penates on his shoulders to the new country, resting on the mountain of the Rzip, said to his fellows: Rise, good friends, make an offering to your penates, for it is their help that has brought you to this new country destined for you by Fate ages ago.
The Domovoy are believed to protect the well-being of a kin in any of its aspects. They are protective towards the children and the animals of the house looking after them; these gods are represented as fighting with one another, to protect and make grow the welfare of their kin. In such warfare, the Domovoy of the eventual winner family is believed to take possession of the household of the vanquished rivals, they are believed to share the joys and the sorrows of the family, to be able to forebode and warn about future events, such as the imminent death of a kindred person, wars or other calamities which threaten the welfare of the kin. The Domovoy become angry and reveal their demonic aspect if the family is corrupted by bad behaviour and language. In this case, the god may quit and leave the kin unprotected against illness and calamity; the Domovoy is represented as an old, gray-haired man with flashing eyes. He may manifest in the form of animals, such as cats, dogs or bears, but as the master of the house or a departed ancestor of the given family, sometimes provided with a tail and little horns.
In some traditions the Domovoy are symbolised as snakes. Household gods were represented by the Slavs as statuettes, made of clay or stone, which were placed in niches near the house's door, on the mantelpieces above the ovens, they were attired in the distinct costume of the tribe. Sacrifices in honour of the Domovoy are practised to make him participate in the life of the kin, to appease and reconcile him in the case of anger; these include the offering of what is left of the evening meal, or, in cases of great anger, the sacrifice of a cock at midnight and the sprinkling of the nooks and corners of the common hall or the courtyard with the animal's blood. Otherwise, a slice of bread strewn with salt and wrapped in a white cloth is offered in the hall or in the courtyard while the members of the kin bow towards the four directions reciting prayers to the Domovoy; the Domovoy is believed to be somehow connected with the house building itself, so that sacrifices are practised when a family moved to a newly built house, in order to invite the god to inhabit it.
In this case, a hen and the first slice of bread cut for of the first dinner in the new house are offered to the god and buried in the courtyard, reciting the formula: Our supporter, come into the new house to eat bread and to obey your new master. Similar rituals are practised to invite a Domovoy to transfer from a house to another, to welcome him. Other household gods, or expressions of the Domovoy, are: ① Dvorovoy — tutelary deity of the courtyard; the Slavic languages and their local forms have variations of the term Domovoy and alternative names to describe the household god, including: Děd, Dĕdek, Děduška. The female counterpart Domania is named: Domovikha. Ancestor worship Deities of Slavic religion Household deity Slavic paganism Slavic Native Faith Ivanits, Linda J.. Russian Folk Belief. M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 9780765630889. Máchal, Jan. "Slavic Mythology". In L. H. Gray; the Mythology of all Races. III, Celtic and Slavic Mythology. Boston. Pp. 217–389. Mathieu-Colas, Michel. "Dieux slaves et baltes".
Dictionnaire des noms des divinités. France: Archive ouverte des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société, Centre national de la recherche scientifique. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017
Sadko is the principal character in an East Slavic epic bylina. He was an adventurer and gusli musician from Novgorod. Sadko played the gusli on the shores of a lake; the Sea Tsar enjoyed his music, offered to help him. Sadko was instructed to make a bet with the local merchants about catching a certain fish in the lake. Sadko traded on the seas with his new wealth, but did not pay proper respects to the Tsar as per their agreement; the Tsar stopped Sadko's ships in the sea. He and his sailors tried to appease the Sea Tsar with gold, to no avail. Sadko's crew forced him to jump into the sea. There, he played the gusli for the Sea Tsar. On advice, he took a mermaid named Chernava, the last from all of 900 mermaids, lay down beside her, he rejoined his wife. In some variants, Sadko is chosen to jump overboard by throwing lots between the men; this motif, derived from the Biblical story of Jonah, is a widespread device, for instance, in Child ballad 57 Brown Robyn's Confession. This tale attracted the attention of several authors in the 19th century with the rise of the Slavophile movement and served as a basis for a number of derived works, most notably the poem "Sadko" by Alexei Tolstoy and the opera Sadko composed by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, who wrote the libretto.
In 1953, Aleksandr Ptushko directed a film based on the opera entitled Sadko. A shortened and modified American version of this film entitled The Magic Voyage of Sinbad was spoofed on Mystery Science Theater 3000.. Sadko can be viewed as a metaphor for Yaroslav the Wise; the liberation of the Novgorodian people by Sadko can be linked to the establishment of the Novgorod Republic by Yaroslav. Sadko may be based on a certain Sedko Sitinits, mentioned in the Novgorodian First Chronicle as the patron of the stone Church of Boris and Gleb built in the Novgorodian Detinets in 1167. Sadko Sadko Jūratė and Kastytis - a similar Lithuanian legend. Sadko the bylina Prose version Sadko as collected by Arthur Ransome in Old Peter's Russian Tales Sadko as collected by Arthur Ransome in Old Peter's Russian Tales as a librivox.org audiobook
Svarog is a Slavic deity known from the Hypatian Codex, a Slavic translation of the Chronicle of John Malalas. Svarog is there identified with Hephaestus, the god of the blacksmith in ancient Greek religion, as the father of Dažbog, a Slavic solar deity. On the basis of this text, some researchers conclude that Svarog is the Slavic god of celestial fire and of blacksmithing; the only mention of Svarog comes from the Hypatian Codex, a 15th-century compilation of several much older documents from the Ipatiev Monastery in Russia. It contains a Slavic translation of an original Greek manuscript of John Malalas from the 6th century; the complete passage, reconstructed from several manuscripts, translates as follows: began his reign Feosta, whom the Egyptians called Svarog… during his rule, from the heavens fell the smith’s prongs and weapons were forged for the first time. Feosta commanded the women that they should have only a single husband… and, why Egyptians called him Svarog… After him ruled his son, his name was the Sun, they called him Dažbog… Sun tzar, son of Svarog, this is Dažbog.
In the Greek text, the names of gods are Helios. The unknown Russian translator tried to re-tell the entire story by replacing the names of classical deities with those that were better known to his readers, it is uncertain to. Furthermore, this passage has raised quite a few theories about family relations between Slavic gods. If one assumes that Svarog was believed to be Dažbog’s father, the question arises of his relation with Svarožič, another deity, mentioned as a god of fire and war in several other medieval documents describing the beliefs of pagan Slavs. Vyacheslav Ivanov and Vladimir Toporov proposed a reconstruction of this mythical genealogy, claiming that Svarog, a deity of fire and the forge similar to the Greek Hephaestus, had two sons: Dažbog, who represented the fire in sky, Svarožič, who symbolised the flame on earth, in the forge. Henryk Łowmiański, theorised that Svarog was a Slavic sky god and personification of daylight sky itself a continuation of Proto-Indo-European *Dyēus Ph2ter, while Svarožič and solar Dažbog were one and the same deity, although he concluded that two other aspects of Svarožič existed: fiery Svarožič, as in the Sun, lunar Svarožič, associated with the Moon.
Franjo Ledić, on the other hand assumed that Svarog and Dažbog are one and the same god. Eastern Slavic sources mention Svarožič as a deity, there associated with fire. According to Thietmar of Merseburg, Svarožič was worshipped by a tribe of Ratars in the city of Ridegost; the word Svarog is cognate with the Sanskrit words Svarga. Belaj, Vitomir. Hod kroz godinu, mitska pozadina hrvatskih narodnih vjerovanja i običaja. Zagreb. Ledić, Franjo. Mitologija Slavena. I. Zagreb. Lovmjanjski, Henrik. Religija Slovena. Beograd. Thietmar of Merseburg. Kronika Słowian. Pp. 336–337 Graves, Robert. New Larousse Encyclopedia Of Mythology. Crescent Books. Ryan, W. F.. The Bathhouse at Midnight: An Historical Survey of Magic and Divination in Russia. Magic in History Series. Pennsylvania State University Press. Yoffe, Mark. Perun: The God of Thunder. Studies in the Humanities. 43. New York, N. Y.: Peter Lang Publishing. Znayenko, Myroslava T.. The gods of the ancient Slavs: Tatishchev and the beginnings of Slavic mythology. Slavica.
Svarog, Svarožič // Mythological dictionary
Dobrynya Nikitich is one of the most popular bogatyrs from the Rus' folklore. Albeit fictional, this character is based on a real warlord Dobrynya, who led the armies of Svyatoslav the Great and tutored his son Vladimir the Great. Many byliny center on Dobrynya completing tasks set him by prince Vladimir. Dobrynya is portrayed as being close to the royal family, undertaking sensitive and diplomatic missions; as a courtier, Dobrynya seems to be a representative of the noble class of warriors. He is a professional archer and wrestler, he plays the gusli, plays tafl, is known for his courtesy and cunning. The following summary is after the version localized in the Povenets District of Olonets Province, collected by A. F. Gilferding in 1871, from the singer was P. L. Kalinin:The bylina starts with Dobrynya's mother telling Dobrynya to avoid the Saracen Mountains, to not trample on baby dragons, to not rescue Russian captives, to not bathe in the Puchai River. Dobrynya did all four things; when he bathed in the Puchai River, he encountered a dragon with twelve trunks.
Unarmed and desperate, Dobrynya discovered "a hat of the Greek land" and used it to defeat the dragon. The dragon a female, pleaded for Dobrynya to not kill her, the two made a nonaggression pact; the dragon broke the promise and flew off to Kiev, abducting Zabava Putyatishna, the niece of Prince Vladimir. When Dobrynya arrived at Kiev, Prince Vladimir commanded him to rescue his niece, on pain of death. Dobrynya complained to his mother he had neither steed nor spear for the task, is given the heirloom horse Burko and a magic Shemakhan whip of braided silk.. Dobrynya rescued some captives and trampled on the dragon pups, but one of them bit into the horse's leg and immobilized it. Dobrynya remembered the magic whip, whose lashes restored vigor in the horse and he was freed; the dragon refused to surrender Zabava without a fight. Dobrynya fought the dragon at the Saracen Mountains for three days. On the third day he wanted to give up and leave, but a voice from Heaven told to fight for three more hours.
Dobrynya killed the dragon in three hours. The dragon's blood did not seep into the ground, Dobrynya wallowed in the pool for three days. A voice from Heaven told him to stick his spear in the ground and say an incantation; the blood was swallowed by the earth, Zabava was rescued. Since Dobrynya was a peasant, he gave her to Alyosha Popovich. Dobrynya encountered a polyanitsa and married her instead. PaintingViktor Vasnetsov's famous painting Bogatyrs features Dobrynya Nikitich alongside fellow folk heroes, Ilya Muromets and Alyosha Popovich. Music and operaIn 1901, composer Alexander Grechaninov wrote. Film and animation«ILYA MUROMETS AND THE NIGHTINGALE THE ROBBER» «ILYA MUROMEC I SOLOVEJ-RAZBOJNIK» SOYUZMULTFILM directed by Ivan Aksenchuk and written by Michael Volpin In 2006, an animated feature film, Dobrynya Nikitich and Zmey Gorynych featured the bogatyr's exploits; the Three Bogatyrs, animated franchise produced by Melnitsa Animation Studio LiteratureDobrynya Nikitich is the uncle of the great prince Vladimir I in Victor Porotnikov's historical dilogie.
Dobrynya Nikitich was a member of Vladimir II Monomakh's armed force in the novel Bogatyr's Armed Force of Monomakh. Rus' in the Fire!, written by Vadim Nikolayev. OtherIn 2015, Russian police gifted the French police a dog named after the folk hero Dobrynya in solidarity after the loss of Diesel a French police dog in a raid following the 13 November attacks in Paris; the icebreaker ship Dobrynya Nikitich, a class of icebreakers were named after the hero. Citations Bibliography This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. 1906
Miloš Obilić is said to have been a Serbian knight in the service of Prince Lazar, during the invasion of the Ottoman Empire. He is not mentioned in contemporary sources, but he features prominently in accounts of the Battle of Kosovo as the assassin of the Ottoman sultan Murad I. Although the assassin remains anonymous in sources until the late 15th century, the dissemination of the story of Murad's assassination in Florentine, Serbian and Greek sources suggests that versions of it circulated across the Balkans within half a century after the event, it is not certain whether Obilić existed, but Lazar's family – strengthening their political control – "gave birth to the myth of Kosovo", including the story of Obilić. He became a major figure in Serbian epic poetry, in which he is elevated to the level of the most noble national hero of medieval Serbian folklore. Along with the martyrdom of Prince Lazar and the alleged treachery of Vuk Branković, Miloš's deed became an integral part of Serbian traditions surrounding the Battle of Kosovo.
In the 19th century, Miloš came to be venerated as a saint in the Serbian Church. Miloš is a Slavic given name recorded from the early Middle Ages among the Bulgarians, Czechs and Serbs, it is derived from the Slavic root mil-, meaning "merciful" or "dear", found in a great number of Slavic given names. Several versions of the hero's surname have been used throughout history. In his History of Montenegro, Vasilije Petrović wrote of one Miloš Obilijević, in 1765, the historian Pavle Julinac rendered the surname as Obilić. According to Czech historian Konstantin Jireček, the surname Obilić and its different renderings are derived from the Serbian words obilan and obilje; the surname Kobilić could come from the Slavic word kobila, means "mare's son", as in Serbian legends the hero is said to have been nursed by one. K. Jireček connected the surname to two noble families in medieval Ragusa and Trebinje, the Kobilić and Kobiljačić in the 14th and 15th centuries, noted that they altered their surnames in the 18th century because they considered it "indecent" to be associated with mares.
Based on a 1433 document from Ragusan archives, the historian Mihailo Dinić concluded that Miloš's original surname was indeed Kobilić. The rendering Obilić has universally been used by Serbian writers in modern times. Miloš is referred to in the epic poems as "Miloš of Pocerje", according to local legends, he came from the western Serbian region of Pocerina. In Pocerina there is a spring known as "Miloševa Banja" and an old grave, claimed to be the grave of Miloš's sister; the earliest sources on the Battle of Kosovo, which favour the cult of Prince Lazar, do not mention Miloš or his assassination of the sultan. The assassination itself is first recorded by Deacon Ignjatije on 9 July 1389, only 12 days after the battle; the assassination of sultan Murad and one of his sons was mentioned in the instructions of the Venetian Senate issued to Andrea Bembo on 23 July 1389, although Venetians were uncertain if news about the assassination were true. On 1 August 1389 King Tvrtko I of Bosnia wrote a letter to Trogir to inform its citizens about Ottoman defeat.
Victory over the Turks was reported by Coluccio Salutati, Chancellor of Florence, in his letter to King Tvrtko, dated 20 October 1389, on behalf of the Florentine Senate. The killer is not named but he is described as one of twelve Christian noblemen who managed to break through the Ottoman ranks: "Fortunate, most fortunate are those hands of the twelve loyal lords who, having opened their way with the sword and having penetrated the enemy lines and the circle of chained camels, heroically reached the tent of Amurat himself. Fortunate above all is that one who so forcefully killed such a strong vojvoda by stabbing him with a sword in the throat and belly, and blessed are all those who gave their lives and blood through the glorious manner of martyrdom as victims of the dead leader over his ugly corpse."Another Italian account, Mignanelli's 1416 work, asserted that it was Lazar who killed the Ottoman sultan. The assassin's first appearance in Serbian sources is in the biography of Stefan Lazarević, Lazar's son, by Constantine the Philosopher, written in the 1440s.
The hero, still anonymous, is described as a man of noble birth whom envious tongues had sought to defame before the prince. To prove his loyalty and courage, he left the front line on the pretext of being a deserter, seized the opportunity to stab the sultan to death and was killed himself shortly afterwards; the initial phase of ignominy and its redemption by a courageous plot of slaying the sultan are narrative ingredients which would become essential to the Serbian legend as it evolved in times. The loss of the Sultan made an impression on the earliest Ottoman sources, they describe how Murad was unaccompanied on the battlefield and an anonymous Christian, lying among the corpses stabbed him to death. In the early 15th century, for instance, the poet Ahmedi writes that "uddenly one of the Christians, covered in blood and hidden among the enemy dead, got up, rushed to Murad and stabbed him with a dagger."Halil İnalcık explained that one of the most important contemporary Ottomans sources about the Battle of Kosovo is the 1465 work of Enveri.
İnalcık argued that it was based on the testimony of a contemporary eyewitness of the battle Hoca Omer, an envoy sent by the Sultan to Lazar before the battle. In this work Enveri explains that before he became a Serbian
Ilya Muromets, or Ilya of Murom, sometimes Ilya Murometz, is a folk hero of ancient Kievan Rus' - a bogatyr and a character of many bylinas. In the legends he is featured alongside fellow bogatyrs Dobrynya Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich. Although Ilya Muromets's adventures are a matter of legend, he is associated with a historical figure: a medieval warrior, in life a monk, named Ilya Pechersky. Venerable Ilya Pechersky is beatified as a monastic saint of the Orthodox Church, his relics are preserved in the Kiev Pechersk Lavra. According to legends, Ilya Muromets, the son of a farmer, was born in a village near Murom, he suffered a serious illness in his youth and was unable to walk until the age of 33. He could only lie on a Russian oven, he was given super-human strength by a dying knight - Svyatogor - and set out to liberate the city of Kiev from Idolishche to serve Prince Vladimir the Fair Sun. Along the way he single-handedly defended the city of Chernigov from nomadic invasion and was offered knighthood by the local ruler, but Ilya declined to stay.
In the forests of Bryansk he killed the forest-dwelling monster Nightingale the Robber, who murdered travelers with his powerful whistle. In Kiev, Ilya was made chief bogatyr by Prince Vladimir and he defended Rus' from numerous attacks by the steppe people, including Kalin, the tsar of Golden Horde. Generous and simple-minded but temperamental, Ilya once went on a rampage and destroyed all the church steeples in Kiev after Prince Vladimir failed to invite him to a celebration, he was soon appeased. It is believed that Muromets's prototype was Venerable Ilya Pechersky, a monastic saint of the Orthodox Church, beatified in 1643. According to hagiography, before taking his monastic vows Ilya was a warrior famous for his strength, his nickname was Chobotok, Old East Slavic for " boot", given to him after an incident when Ilya, caught by surprise, fought off enemies with only his boot. In 1988, Soviet archeologists exhumed Ilya Chobotok's remains, stored in Kiev Pechersk Lavra, studied them, their report suggested that at least some parts of the legend may be true: the man was tall, his bones carried signs of spinal disease at early age and marks from numerous wounds, one of, fatal.
Ilya Muromets's name became a synonym of an outstanding physical and spiritual power and integrity, dedicated to the protection of the Homeland and People and over time has become a hero of numerous movies, monuments and anecdotes. He is the only epic hero canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church. Although the remains of Ilya Muromets are stored in Kiev Pechersk Monastery, his character does not represent a unique historical persona, but rather a fusion of multiple real or fictional heroes from vastly different epochs. Thus, Ilya served Prince Vladimir of Kiev. Catterino Cavos's 1807 opera Ilya Bogatyr Viktor Vasnetsov's 1898 painting Bogatyrs. Nicholas Roerich's 1910 painting Ilya Muromets Reinhold Glière's 1911 Symphony No. 3 in B minor, op. 42 Ilya Muromets is depicted on the 1913 Russian stamp. Viktor Vasnetsov's 1914 painting Ilya Muromets. Ahmadu Ingawa's popular novella Iliya Danmaikarfi, published in Hausa language in 1951 by Gaskiya Corporation, Nigeria, is based on the Ilya Muromets legend.
Aleksandr Ptushko's 1956 film Ilya Muromets. Konstantin Vasilyev's 1977 paintings. Liz Williams' Nine Layers of Sky writes a modern-day account of Ilya. Juraj Červenák's historic fiction Bogatyr trilogy; the Three Bogatyrs, an animated movie franchise by Melnitsa studio. Ilya Muromets, The Russian Navy christened its first new military icebreaker in 45 years with the name. Ilya Muromets at Tradestone Gallery's Russian Fairy Tales gallery The evolution of Christianity, X; the History of Russia in the Context of the Evolution of the National Spirit and Orthodoxy "The Sword and the Dragon" is the American English-dubbed version of Ptushko's 1956 film, "Ilya Murometz"
In Slavic mythology, Perun is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of sky, lightning, rain, war and oak trees. His other attributes were fire, wind, eagle, firmament and carts, war, he was first associated with weapons made of stone and with those of metal. Of all historic records describing Slavic gods, those mentioning Perun are the most numerous; as early as the 6th century, he was mentioned in De Bello Gothico, a historical source written by the Eastern Roman historian Procopius. A short note describing beliefs of a certain South Slavic tribe states they acknowledge that one god, creator of lightning, is the only lord of all: to him do they sacrifice an ox and all sacrificial animals. While the name of the god is not mentioned here explicitly, 20th century research has established beyond doubt that the god of thunder and lightning in Slavic mythology is Perun. To this day the word perun in a number of Slavic languages means "thunder," or "lightning bolt"; the Primary Chronicle relates that in the year 6415 prince Oleg made a peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire and by taking his men to the shrines and swearing by their weapons and by their god Perun, by Volos, the god of cattle, they confirmed the treaty.
We find the same form of confirmation of a peace treaty by prince Igor in 945. In 980, when prince Vladimir the Great came to the throne of Kiev, he erected statues of five pagan gods in front of his palace which he soon thereafter discarded after his Christianization in 988. Perun was chief among these, represented with a golden moustache. Vladimir's uncle Dobrinja had a shrine of Perun established in his city of Novgorod. After the Christianization of Kievan Rus, this place became a monastery, quite remarkably, continued to bear the name of Perun. Perun is not mentioned directly in any of the records of Western Slavic traditional religion, but a reference to him is made in a short note in Helmold's Chronica Slavorum, written in the latter half of the 12th century, which states that Slavic tribes though they worship many various gods, all agree there is a supreme god in heaven which rules over all other on earth; this could be a reference to Perun, but since he is not named, nor any of his chief attributes mentioned, we cannot be certain.
Moreover, the name of Perun is commonly found in Southern Slavic toponymy. The Bulgarian and Macedonian people believe that the name of the Bulgarian mountain Pirin, one of the highest mountains of the Balkan Peninsula, was named after Perun. Perun is the name of the hill in Podstrana next to Split, Croatia. There are places called: Perun, Perunovac, Perunička Glava, Peruni Vrh, Perunja Ves, Peruna Dubrava, Perunuša, Perušice and Perutovac; the word "Pero" means the names of mountains and cities could refer to poultry. These names today represent mountain tops, but in medieval times, large oaks, sacred groves and entire villages or citadels were named Perun. Among South Slavs, a mountain plant Iris germanica is known in folklore as perunika and sometimes as bogisha, was believed to grow from ground, struck by lightning; the Serbian surname Peruničić and the Macedonian Перуновски are derived from Perun. The Bulgarian people believe that the name of city Pernik is thought to have originated from that of Slavic god Perun with the Slavic placename suffix –nik added, was first mentioned in the 9th century.
The medieval town was a key Bulgarian stronghold during Bulgarian tsar Samuil's wars against the Byzantine Empire in the 11th century, when it was governed by the local noble Krakra of Pernik, withstanding Byzantine sieges a number of times. Some places in Central Europe named after Perun are the villages of Parndorf and Pernitz in the Parndorf Plain, Perná in Moravia, Beroun in Bohemia, Pernek in Slovakia. Perun is correlated with the near-identical Perkūnas/Pērkons from Baltic mythology, suggesting either a common derivative of the Proto-Indo European thunder god, or that one of these cultures borrowed the deity from the other; the root *perkwu probably meant oak, but in Proto-Slavic this evolved into per- meaning "to strike, to slay". The Lithuanian word "Perkūnas" has two meanings: "thunder" and the name of the god of thunder and lightning. Artifacts and toponyms show the presence of the cult of Perun among all Slavic and Ugro-Finnic peoples. Perun was related to an archaic form of astronomy – the Pole star was called Perun's eye and countless Slavic and Hungarian astronomers continued this tradition – most known ones are Nicolaus Copernicus, Franz Xaver von Zach.
In Slavic mythology, much like in Norse and Baltic mythologies, the world was represented by a sacred tree an oak, whose branches and trunk represented the living world of heavens and mortals, whilst its roots represented the underworld, i.e. the realm of the dead. Perun was the ruler of the living world and earth, was symbolised by an eagle sitting on the top of the tallest branch of the sacred tree, from which he kept watch over the entire world. Deep down in the roots of the tree was the place of his opponent, symbolised by a serpent or a dragon: this was Veles, watery god of the underworld, who continually provoked Perun by creeping up f