Harrison Ford is an American actor. He gained worldwide fame for his starring roles as Han Solo in the Star Wars film series and as the title character of Indiana Jones movie series. Five of his movies are within the 30 top-grossing movies of all time at the US box office. Ford is known for playing Rick Deckard in the neo-noir dystopian science fiction film Blade Runner and its sequel Blade Runner 2049, his career spans six decades and includes roles in several Hollywood blockbusters, including the epic war film Apocalypse Now, the legal drama Presumed Innocent, the action film The Fugitive, the political action thriller Air Force One, the psychological thriller What Lies Beneath. Seven of his films have been inducted into the National Film Registry: American Graffiti, The Conversation, Star Wars, Apocalypse Now, The Empire Strikes Back, Raiders of the Lost Ark and Blade Runner; as of 2016, the U. S. domestic box-office grosses of Ford's films total over US$4.7 billion, with worldwide grosses surpassing $6 billion, making Ford the second highest-grossing U.
S. domestic box-office star. Ford is married to actress Calista Flockhart. Ford was born at the Swedish Covenant Hospital in Chicago, Illinois to Christopher Ford, an advertising executive and former actor, Dorothy, a former radio actress. A younger brother, was born in 1945, his father was Catholic and his mother was Jewish. Ford's paternal grandparents, John Fitzgerald Ford and Florence Veronica Niehaus, were of Irish and German descent, respectively. Ford's maternal grandparents, Harry Nidelman and Anna Lifschutz, were Jewish emigrants from Minsk, Belarus; when asked in which religion he and his brother were raised, Ford jokingly responded, "Democrat," "to be liberals of every stripe". In a television interview shown in August 2000, when asked about what influence his Irish Catholic and Russian Jewish ancestry may have had on his life as a person and as an artist, Ford humorously stated, "As a man I've always felt Irish, as an actor I've always felt Jewish."Ford was active in the Boy Scouts of America, achieved its second-highest rank, Life Scout.
He worked at Napowan Adventure Base Scout camp as a counselor for the Reptile Study merit badge. Because of this, he and director Steven Spielberg decided to depict the young Indiana Jones as a Life Scout in the film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. In 1960, Ford graduated from Maine East High School in Illinois, his was the first student voice broadcast on his high school's new radio station, WMTH, he was its first sportscaster during his senior year. He attended Ripon College in Wisconsin, where he was a philosophy major and a member of the Sigma Nu fraternity, he took a drama class in the final quarter of his senior year to get over his shyness. Ford, a self-described "late bloomer," became fascinated with acting. In 1964, after a season of summer stock with the Belfry Players in Wisconsin, Ford traveled to Los Angeles to apply for a job in radio voice-overs, he did not get it, but stayed in California and signed a $150-a-week contract with Columbia Pictures' new talent program, playing bit roles in films.
His first known role was an uncredited one as a bellhop in Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round. There is little record of his non-speaking roles in film. Ford was at the bottom of the hiring list, having offended producer Jerry Tokovsky after he played a bellboy in the feature, he was told by Tokovsky that when actor Tony Curtis delivered a bag of groceries, he did it like a movie star. Ford managed to secure other roles in movies, such as A Time for Killing, starring Glenn Ford, George Hamilton, Inger Stevens, his speaking roles continued next with Luv. He was credited as "Harrison J. Ford" in the 1967 Western film A Time for Killing, but the "J" did not stand for anything, since he has no middle name, it was added to avoid confusion with a silent film actor named Harrison Ford, who appeared in more than 80 films between 1915 and 1932 and died in 1957. Ford said that he was unaware of the existence of the earlier actor until he came upon a star with his own name on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Ford soon dropped the "J" and worked for Universal Studios, playing minor roles in many television series throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s, including Gunsmoke, The Virginian, The F.
B. I. Love, American Style, Kung Fu, he appeared in the western Journey to Shiloh and had an uncredited, non-speaking role in Michelangelo Antonioni's 1970 film Zabriskie Point as an arrested student protester. French filmmaker Jacques Demy chose Ford for the lead role of his first American film, Model Shop but the head of Columbia Pictures thought Ford had "no future" in the film business and told Demy to hire a more experienced actor; the part went to Gary Lockwood. Ford commented that the experience had been a positive one because Demy was the first to show such faith in him. Not happy with the roles being offered to him, Ford became a self-taught professional carpenter to support his then-wife and two young sons. Casting director and fledgling producer Fred Roos championed the young Ford and secured him an audition with George Lucas for the role of Bob Falfa, which Ford went on to play in American Graffiti
Sky One is a British pay television channel operated and owned by Sky, a division of Comcast, available in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Sky One launched across Europe on 26 April 1982 by founder Connor Baskey as Satellite Television and is the oldest non-terrestrial TV channel in the United Kingdom. In the UK, the channel is available via digital satellite on Sky, digital cable on Virgin Media, IPTV on TalkTalk TV and online via Sky Go. In Ireland, the channel is available via Virgin Media Ireland and Eir Vision. Sky One listings include some popular broadcasts—many imported from North America—including 24, Battlestar Galactica, Caprica, Glee, Lie to Me, Prison Break, The Simpsons, Touch, WWE Raw, You, Me and the Apocalypse. Sky One started on 26 April 1982 as Satellite Television Ltd, was Europe's first cable and satellite channel broadcasting from the Orbital Test Satellite aimed at cable operators all over the continent. At first the station struggled financially, due to disappointing ratings in the countries in which it was available, which in turn led to insufficient advertising revenue and increasing difficulty in covering the high transmission costs.
On 27 June 1983, the shareholders of Satellite Television agreed a £5 million offer to give News International 65% of the company. Murdoch extended the broadcast hours and the number of countries the station broadcast to including the United Kingdom. On 16 January 1984, the channel was renamed Sky Channel. Sky Channel incorporated a large number of American imports in its schedules, while increased the quantity produced of home grown programmes, including a number of new music programmes with Gary Davies, Tony Blackburn, Linda de Mol, Pat Sharp, David "Kid" Jensen, Anthea Turner presenting programmes such as Euro Top 40, UK Top 50 Chart. New children's programmes like Fun Factory and The DJ Kat Show, many of which came not only from Sky's own studios in London, but included programmes produced in the Netherlands by John de Mol's production company. On 8 June 1988, Murdoch announced his plans to expand Sky's service to four channels, thus creating the Sky Television network. On 5 February 1989, the Sky Television Network was launched, At the same time, prime-time broadcasts to European cable operators ended, being replaced by Eurosport, a joint venture between Sky and the European Broadcasting Union, aimed at a pan-European audience.
A new raft of shows were created, for the channel including Jameson Tonight, Sale of the Century, The Price Is Right, Frank Bough's World and Sky By Day, Sky TV's variation on ITV's more popular This Morning, hosted by former BBC Radio 1 DJ Tony Blackburn and former Magpie presenter Jenny Hanley. The show had a mix of entertainment, fashion, etc; the Channel continued with the same children's programmes, US action series, WWF Wrestling. On 31 July 1989, the channel was renamed Sky One and closed in most European countries, broadcasting to only the United Kingdom and Ireland. In 1990, Sky One began to acquire more recent programming, an early success being Moonlighting, which the BBC had screened but not repeated. Sky One picked new programming such as The Simpsons, 21 Jump Street and the last series of Falcon Crest, following its merger with BSB's Galaxy, Parker Lewis Can't Lose. After many years in the clear, on 1 September 1993, Sky One was encrypted as part of the new Sky Multichannels subscription package, could no longer be viewed outside Britain and Ireland without exporting a box, or receiving it over cable.
The channel commissioned a number of home grown programmes while expanding its Australian television series to include E Street and Paradise Beach. It continued to be the most-watched satellite channel in the UK and Ireland, a position it held for most of the 1990s, with many first-run US imports such as The Simpsons, Frasier, Seinfeld, ER and The X-Files, as well as some older programmes such as the various Star Trek series, Hill Street Blues, M*A*S*H*, Lucille Ball's various comedy series; the success of the channel led to the launch on 1 September 1996 of a companion channel, Sky 2. In contrast to the Sky Two, relaunched, this channel featured more first-run programmes, it broadcast only at night, between 7 pm and 6 am. In 2000, a dedicated feed of Sky One for Ireland was launched. For most of this Irish feed's existence, the only difference between it and the United Kingdom feed has been differing commercials and programme promotions. In June 2003, the channel started broadcasting in 16:9 widescreen.
However, all TV commercials were broadcast in 4:3 until November 2005, because they were played off the same servers for all Sky channels, many of which were not broadcast in widescreen. On 21 September 2004, Sky One Mix was subsequently renamed Sky Mix. On 31 October 2005, Sky Mix was renamed as Sky Two with the launch of a second sister channel Sky Three. On 25 August 2012, it was announced by Stuart Murphy, director of Sky entertainment channels, that a one-hour timeshift of Sky One, Sky Living and S
Virgin Media Limited is a British company which provides telephone and internet services in the United Kingdom. Its headquarters are in Hampshire. Since 2013, Virgin Media has been a subsidiary of Liberty Global plc, an international television and telecommunications company; the company was listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market and London Stock Exchange. Virgin Media is not a sister company of Virgin Mobile USA, owned by Sprint Corporation; the company was founded in March 2006 by the merger of Telewest, which created NTL: Telewest. In July 2006, the company purchased Virgin Mobile UK, creating the first "quadruple-play" media company in the United Kingdom, offering television, mobile phone and fixed-line telephone services. In November 2006, the company signed a deal with Sir Richard Branson to licence the Virgin brand for the combined business. All of the company's consumer services were rebranded under the Virgin Media name in February 2007. Virgin Media owns and operates its own fibre-optic cable network in the United Kingdom, although their optical fibre network does not reach the customer premises, rather they connect to a street cabinet.
As of 31 December 2012, it had a total of 4.8 million cable customers, of whom around 3.79 million were supplied with its television services, around 4.2 million with broadband internet services and around 4.1 million with fixed-line telephony services. At the same date, it had around 3 million mobile telephony customers. Virgin Media competes in broadband with Sky, BT Group and TalkTalk, in mobile with EE, O2, Vodafone and Three; the company's origins lie in both Telewest and NTL, which merged in March 2006. Telewest began in 1984 in Croydon under the name "Croydon Cable", was acquired by United Cable of Denver in 1988; the company expanded during the 1990s and adopted the Telewest name in 1992 following the merger of its then-parent TCI and US West. It expanded into cable television access in 1999 by purchasing the remaining 50% stake in Cable London, one of the first cable TV companies in the UK, from NTL, adding 400,000 homes in north London. In April 2000 Telewest merged with Flextech, in November extended its cable network with the acquisition of Eurobell, taking the total number of homes past 4.9 million.
NTL was established by Barclay Knapp and George Blumenthal in 1993 as "International CableTel", taking advantage of the deregulation of the UK cable market. Cabletel acquired local cable franchises covering Guildford, Northern Ireland and parts of Central Scotland and South Wales. In 1996 CableTel acquired National Transcommunications Limited, the privatised UK Independent Broadcasting Authority transmission network. In 1998 CableTel adopted "NTL" as its new name. NTL purchased the ISP Virgin.net in 2004, having operated it as a joint venture with Virgin Group since it launched in November 1996. It sold ADSL broadband services through BT landlines to those living outside areas served by NTL's cable network and offered subscription-based and subscription-free dial-up Internet access. Prior to acquiring Virgin.net, NTL offered. Telewest and NTL began discussions regarding a merger in late 2003. Thanks to their geographically distinct areas, NTL and Telewest had co-operated as in redirecting potential customers living outside their respective areas.
On 3 October 2005, NTL announced a US$16 billion purchase of Telewest, to form one of the largest media companies in the UK. The merger agreement as structured would have required NTL to negotiate with BBC Worldwide due to a change-of-ownership clause written into the agreement for UKTV, a joint venture with Telewest's Flextech content division. To prevent this, Telewest instead acquired NTL. In December 2005 NTL:Telewest and mobile virtual network operator Virgin Mobile UK announced that talks had taken place regarding a merger. Virgin Mobile's independent directors rejected the original bid of £817 million, taking the view that NTL's bid "undervalued the business". Sir Richard Branson expressed confidence that a restructured deal could go ahead, in January 2006 NTL increased its offer to £961 million. On 4 April 2006, NTL announced a £962.4 million recommended offer for Virgin Mobile. According to reports, Branson accepted a mix of shares and cash, making him a 10.7% shareholder of the combined company.
NTL and Telewest formally completed their merger on 3 March 2006, making the merged company the UK's largest cable provider, with more than 90% of the market. The combined company renamed itself NTL Incorporated, with ex-NTL shareholders controlling 75% of the stock and ex-Telewest shareholders 25%. Nine of the 11 directors of the new board came with two from Telewest. NTL:Telewest's takeover of Virgin Mobile completed on 4 July 2006, creating the UK's first'quadruple play' media company, bringing together television, mobile phone and fixed-line phone services; the deal included a 30-year exclusive branding agreement that saw NTL adopt the "Virgin" name after it completed its merger with Telewest. NTL:Telewest announced on 8 November 2006 it would change its name to "Virgin Media Inc". On 9 November 2006, NTL announced it had approached the commercial television broadcaster ITV plc about a proposed merger, after a similar announcement by ITV. BSkyB blocked the merger on 17 November 2006 by controversially buying a 17.9% stake in ITV plc, a move that attracted anger from NTL shareholder Richard Branson, an investigation from media and telecoms regulator Ofcom.
On 6 December 2006 NTL announced that it had complained to the Office of Fair Trading about BSkyB's
Dirty Dancing is a 1987 American romantic drama dance film written by Eleanor Bergstein and directed by Emile Ardolino. It stars Jennifer Grey as Frances "Baby" Houseman, a young woman who falls in love with dance instructor Johnny Castle at her family's resort; the film was based on screenwriter Eleanor Bergstein's own childhood. She wrote a screenplay for the Michael Douglas film It's My Turn, but ended up conceiving a story for a film which became Dirty Dancing, she finished the script in 1985. The production company was changed to Vestron Pictures with Emile Ardolino as director and Linda Gottlieb as producer. Filming took place in Lake Lure, North Carolina, Mountain Lake, with the film's score composed by John Morris and dance choreography by Kenny Ortega. Dirty Dancing premiered at the 1987 Cannes Film Festival on May 12, 1987, was released on August 21, 1987, in the United States, earning over $214 million worldwide, it was the first film to sell more than a million copies for home video, its soundtrack created by Jimmy Ienner generating two multi-platinum albums and multiple singles, including " The Time of My Life", which won both the Golden Globe and Academy Award for Best Original Song, a Grammy Award for best duet.
The film's popularity led to a 2004 prequel, Dirty Dancing: Havana Nights, a stage version which has had sellout performances in Australia and North America. A made-for-TV remake was released in 2017. In the summer of 1963, 17-year-old Frances "Baby" Houseman is vacationing with her affluent family at Kellerman's, a resort in the Catskills, her father, being a friend to Max Kellerman, the resort proprietor. Exploring one night, Baby surreptitiously observes Max instructing the waiters, all Ivy League students, to romance the guests' daughters, no matter how unattractive, she sees Max's condescending attitude to the working class entertainment staff, including Johnny Castle, one of the resort's dance instructor. Baby is attracted to Johnny, dances with him when his cousin, takes her to one of the staff's secret dirty dancing parties. Baby discovers Johnny's dance partner, Penny, is pregnant by Robbie, a waiter at the resort who attends Yale medical school and who flirts with Baby's older sister, Lisa.
When Robbie refuses to help Penny, Baby borrows money from her father to pay for Penny's illegal abortion without revealing what the money is for. At first, Penny refuses an abortion as it would mean she and Johnny missing a performance at a neighboring resort, costing them the season's salary. Baby volunteers to stand in for Penny, during her dance sessions with Johnny, they develop a romantic attraction. Johnny and Baby's performance is successful except for Baby's failure to execute the climactic lift. Back at Kellerman's, Billy tells them Penny's abortion was botched and she is now gravely injured. Baby enlists her doctor father's help and he stabilizes Penny. Angry at Baby for her deception and believing Johnny to be the one who impregnated Penny, he refuses to shake Johnny's hand and orders his daughter never to see him again. Baby sneaks to Johnny’s room to apologize for her father’s behavior. Johnny feels he deserves the treatment because of his class, but Baby assures him of his worthiness and declares her feelings for him.
They fall into an intimate dance and have sex. Baby and Johnny continue seeing each other despite Baby hiding their relationship from her father, which hurts Johnny. Johnny declines to have sex with a promiscuous married guest, Vivian Pressman, who instead has sex with Robbie, foiling Lisa's plan to lose her virginity to him. Vivian catches Baby leaving Johnny's cabin one morning and attempts to get revenge by claiming Johnny stole her husband's wallet; when Max prepares to fire Johnny, Baby reveals their relationship to give Johnny an alibi. Johnny is instead fired for his relationship with Baby. Before leaving Kellerman's, Johnny attempts to apologize to Jake, but Jake accuses him of tossing Penny aside and moving on to his daughter. Baby apologizes for lying to her father, but not for her relationship with Johnny, she berates him for claiming compassion for the less fortunate but an elitist attitude when it comes to himself and his own family. At the end of the season talent show, Jake gives Robbie money for medical school, Robbie admits it was he who he got Penny pregnant, not Johnny and insults Penny and Baby.
Jake furiously snatches the money back. Johnny interrupts the final song by bringing Baby up on stage and declaring that she has made him a better person, they dance a version of the dance they'd practiced throughout the summer, ending with Baby performing the climactic lift. Jake admits he was wrong about he and Baby embrace; the staff and guests all join Baby and Johnny dancing to " The Time of My Life". Note: Actress Jane Brucker wrote the song "Hula Hana", which she performed in her role of Lisa in the show rehearsal scene. Dirty Dancing is based in large part on screenwriter Eleanor Bergstein's own childhood: she is the younger daughter of a Jewish doctor from New York and had spent summers with her family in the Catskills where she participated in "Dirty Dancing" competitions. In 1980, Bergstein wrote a screenplay for the Michael Douglas film, It's My Turn, however the producers cut an erotic dancing scene from the script, prompting her to conceive a new story that took inspiration from her youth dance competitions.
In 1984, she pitched the idea to MGM executive Eileen Miselle, who liked it and teamed Bergstein with producer Linda Gottlieb. They set the film in 1963, with the character
1080i is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen; the "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced". A related display resolution is 1080p, which has 1080 lines of resolution; the term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard; the choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats. Within the designation "1080i", the i stands for interlaced scan. A frame of 1080i video consists of two sequential fields of 540 vertical pixels; the first field consists of all odd-numbered TV lines and the second all numbered lines.
The horizontal lines of pixels in each field are captured and displayed with a one-line vertical gap between them, so the lines of the next field can be interlaced between them, resulting in 1080 total lines. 1080i differs from 1080p, where the p stands for progressive scan, where all lines in a frame are captured at the same time. In native or pure 1080i, the two fields of a frame correspond to different instants, so motion portrayal is good; this is true for interlaced video in general and can be observed in still images taken of fast motion scenes. However, when 1080p material is captured at 25 or 30 frames/second, it is converted to 1080i at 50 or 60 fields/second for processing or broadcasting. In this situation both fields in a frame do correspond to the same instant; the field-to-instant relation is somewhat more complex for the case of 1080p at 24 frames/second converted to 1080i at 60 fields/second. The field rate of 1080i is 60 Hz for countries that use or used System M as analog television system with 60 fields/sec, or 50 Hz for regions that use or used 625-lines television system with 50 fields/sec.
Both field rates can be carried by major digital television broadcast formats such as ATSC, DVB, ISDB-T International. The frame rate can be implied by the context, while the field rate is specified after the letter i, such as "1080i60". In this case 1080i60 refers to 60 fields per second; the European Broadcasting Union prefers to use the resolution and frame rate separated by a slash, as in 1080i/30 and 1080i/25 480i/30 and 576i/25. Resolutions of 1080i60 or 1080i50 refers to 1080i/30 or 1080i/25 in EBU notation. 1080i is directly compatible with some CRT HDTVs on which it can be displayed natively in interlaced form, but for display on progressive-scan—e.g. Most new LCD and plasma TVs, it must be deinterlaced. Depending on the television's video processing capabilities, the resulting video quality may vary, but may not suffer. For example, film material at 25fps may be deinterlaced from 1080i50 to restore a full 1080p resolution at the original frame rate without any loss. Preferably video material with 50 or 60 motion phases/second is to be converted to 50p or 60p before display.
Worldwide, most HD channels on satellite and cable broadcast in 1080i. In the United States, 1080i is the preferred format for most broadcasters, with Inc.. Viacom, AT&T, Comcast owned networks broadcasting in the format. Only Fox-owned television networks and Disney-owned television networks, along with MLB Network and a few other cable networks use 720p as the preferred format for their networks. Many ABC affiliates owned by Hearst Television and former Belo Corporation stations owned by TEGNA, along with some individual affiliates of those three networks, air their signals in 1080i and upscale network programming for master control and transmission purposes, as most syndicated programming and advertising is produced and distributed in 1080i, removing a downscaling step to 720p; this allows local newscasts on these ABC affiliates to be produced in the higher resolution to match the picture quality of their 1080i competitors. Some cameras and broadcast systems that use 1080 vertical lines per frame do not use the full 1920 pixels of a nominal 1080i picture for image capture and encoding.
Common subsampling ratios include 3/4 and 1/2. Where used, the lower horizontal resolution is scaled to capture and/or display a full-sized picture. Using half horizontal resolution and only one field of each frame results in the format known as qHD, which has fram
VideoCrypt is a cryptographic, smartcard-based conditional access television encryption system that scrambles analogue pay-TV signals. It was introduced in 1989 by News Datacom and was used by Sky TV and subsequently by several other broadcasters on SES' Astra satellites at 19.2° east. Three variants of the VideoCrypt system were deployed in Europe: VideoCrypt I for the UK and Irish market and VideoCrypt II for continental Europe; the third variant, VideoCrypt-S was used on a short-lived BBC Select service. The VideoCrypt-S system differed from the typical VideoCrypt implementation as it used line shuffle scrambling. Sky NZ and Sky Fiji may use different versions of the VideoCrypt standard based on VideoCrypt-S. Sky NZ used NICAM stereo for many years until abandoning it when the Sky DTH technology started replacing Sky UHF; the system scrambles the picture using a technique known as Line Cut-and-Rotate. Each line that made up each picture is cut at one of 256 possible "cut points", the two halves of each line are swapped around for transmission.
The series of cutpoints is determined by a pseudo-random sequence. Channels were decoded using a pseudorandom number generator sequence stored on a smart card. To decode a channel the decoder would read the smart card to check if the card is authorised for the specific channel. If not, a message would appear on screen. Otherwise the decoder seeds the card's PRNG with a seed transmitted with the video signal to generate the correct sequence of cut points; the system included a cryptographic element called the Fiat Shamir Zero Knowledge Test. This element was a routine in the smartcard that would prove to the decoder that the card was indeed a genuine card; the basic model was that the decoder would present the card with a packet of data which the card would process and return the result to the decoder proving that it was a genuine card without disclosing any critical information. If the decoder received the wrong result from the card, it was supposed to stop decoding the video; however a technologically insecure implementation of this otherwise strong cryptographic element made it redundant.
The VideoCrypt-S variant, used by the BBC Select service, was based on line shuffle scrambling. This form of video scrambling changes the order in which lines are transmitted thus line 20 may be transmitted as line 32; the VideoCrypt-S variant used six blocks of forty seven lines per field. It had three scrambling formats: full shuffle; the VideoCrypt system was far from secure and a number of hacks were employed. Although, the analog UHF option is still available, the introduction of Sky Digital has ameliorated these issues as the VideoGuard system employed by SkyDigital has not been defeated, as of 2009. Hackers discovered methods of preventing Sky from deactivating their cards; the simplest of these attacks relied on the fact that Sky was using EPROM technology for its smartcards at the time. Thus by modifying the decoder to limit the write voltage to the card, it was possible to stop cards being turned off over the air. Another, known as the KENtucky Fried Chip attack relied on replacing the microcontroller that controlled the smartcard to decoder interface.
This attack relied on blocking packets with the smartcard's identification number. The voltage based attack failed. Commercial pirates reverse engineered the Sky smartcard, removed the access control routines and created working pirate smartcards using different microcontroller types from that used by Sky. Hackers discovered ways of switching on "dead" cards using a computer and smartcard interface by sending a properly formatted and addressed activation packet to the card. Variations on this attack allowed existing subscriber cards to be upgraded to more expensive subscription packages; this attack was known as the "Phoenix Hack" after the mythical bird that could bring itself back to life. Other successful hacks involved sampling the datastream between the card and the decoder, for example you could record a movie and store the decoder information so that people could use it to decode the same movie that they recorded earlier with a decoder and "dummy" card; the attack was known as the Delayed Data Transfer hack and it worked because the conditional access data, decoder addressing and encrypted keys, were on the video lines that are recorded by normal VCRs and the data rate, unlike that of Teletext, was slow enough to allow the data to be recorded with the encrypted video.
The most successful hack on the VideoCrypt system is the "McCormac Hack" devised by John McCormac. This attack involved broadcasting the decryption keys from the decoder-card data live so that other decoders could use it to watch the encrypted channels sharing a card with several decoders. Card sharing is an implementation of the McCormac Hack; as desktop computing power increased, such a simple system was always inherently vulnerable to brute force'image-processing' attacks. Without any information at all about the cutpoint sequence, adjacent lines in a picture can be'correlated' to find the best match, the picture reconstructed; the Brute force method is an interesting proof-of-concept. Markus Kuhn's Antisky.c program from 1994 is an early example of such an
On Demand (Sky)
On Demand is the brand-name of a range of services from Sky designed to compete with video on demand services offered by rival companies such as Virgin TV or BT TV as well as internet television services such as Amazon Prime Video and Netflix. On Demand has been available in various forms including: a PC version using a peer-to-peer platform over broadband Internet connection, a version for users of 3G mobile telephones, a push video on demand service for subscribers equipped with a Sky+ HD set-top box or the PVR3 version of the Sky+ set top box and a pull video-on-demand service. On 27 March 2007, Sky launched its Sky Anytime service for owners of Sky HD set top boxes; the service is a Push video on demand system similar to Top Up TV's TV Favourites, where the Sky+ PVR automatically records programmes transmitted over-night. The service uses 140GB of reserved disk space on Sky+ HD boxes hard-disk space whilst on standard Sky+ boxes it uses 80GB of the hard-disk space; the service is intended to provide a catch-up of a selection of the last week's programming.
The service was launched on PVR3 Sky+ boxes manufactured by Pace and Amstrad on 24 April 2007. The update for Thomson boxes was delayed because of technical difficulties, it was launched for Thomson boxes on 29 May 2007. On 30 July 2009, Sky confirmed the launch of a'pull' video-on-demand service for 2010, adding to the Sky Anytime'push' VOD service. On 29 April 2010, Sky revealed that it will name its video-on-demand service Sky Anytime+. "It will be a broad offering at launch with a large range of content across the range of content that we show," CEO Jeremy Darroch said. " progressive download using the broadband return pathway and the hard disc in a combined way. All of the boxes are VOD-ready, so we'll be able to roll it out to all of the box population." Sky Anytime+ began a staggered roll out from 26 October 2010, The majority of Sky's customers were able to receive the service by the end of 2010. In the phased rollout, all remaining receivers were enabled in the first part of 2011. A background over-the-air update in 2010 upgraded all existing Sky+ HD boxes with the software needed to run Anytime+.
In July 2011, Sky Anytime was added to Virgin Media with content from Sky Living, following on from Sky's purchase of Virgin Media Television. Additional content began rolling out on 11 October 2011 ahead of a full launch the following day. Programming is available in both standard and high definition from Sky1, Sky Arts, Sky Living, Sky Movies, Sky News and Sky Sports; however HD content from premium channels is limited to TiVo subscribers. Sky Anytime content became available through Virgin Media Player online on 28 October 2011 but not on mobile devices. On 6 September 2012, Sky announced that Sky Anytime and Anytime+ would be merged and rebranded as On Demand, along with the addition of a Catch-up TV section; this occurred on 26 September 2012, with Sky Anytime becoming a Showcase section and Sky Anytime+ being split into Library and Sky Store. On 11 October 2012, the download component of the on Demand service was activated in Ireland, where Anytime+ had been unavailable. In 2015 the kids area of on demand started.
On Demand offers around 1,000 hours of content from Sky 1, Sky Atlantic, Sky Arts, Sky Living, Sky Movies and Sky Sports, along with material from other broadcasters, such as the Disney Channel, ESPN, HBO, National Geographic and UKTV. A "key focus" for the service is movies, with around 500 made available at the launch of Sky Anytime+. On Demand is offered without charge to all Sky customers with Sky+ HD boxes, although access to premium content such as sport and movies will depend on the subscriber's package. All Anytime+ content was only available in standard definition, with high definition VOD content via Sky Anytime. However, Sky's head of TV services Kathryn Downward said that Anytime+ could offer HD content in the future and 3D on-demand was "definitely something we are considering" and HD content was made available. So far, more HD content has been added from both Sky and the BBC. On 1 September 2011, a further 10 channels were added to the service. ITV Player became accessible through the main Sky Anytime+ menu as well as a dedicated ITV Player section on 31 January 2012, featuring archive content.
The catch-up TV section of on Demand launched on 26 September 2012, featuring ITV Player, Demand 5, Sky TV, Sky Sports and Sky Movies. BBC iPlayer arrived on 30 October 2012, while 4oD launched on 18 March 2013. Download content in on Demand is supported by progressive download, meaning it downloads in the background while the user is watching. Standard definition movies are around 1.3GBs, which takes about one minute to start playing on 2Mbit/s+ connections, but around 40mins on sub-1Mbit/s lines. Downloads can be paused if the user wants to free up their broadband line for another task. However, Anytime+ was only made available to Sky customers with a Sky Broadband connection, meaning anyone on another internet service provider missed out. Downward said that the reasoning behind this strategy is to enable the "optimum experience" for customers and make it easier to manage technical issues. On 20 March 2012, Sky Anytime+ was made available across all broadband providers. Content requiring a download is managed in the existing Sky+ Planner tool.
Users are able to trigger multiple downloads of content at one time, which all funnels into the Planner. The system handles one download at a time, with users able to shuffle their download list to prioritise different content. If users are watching Sky television the system pops up a reminder to indicate when selected content is available to watch. Among notable new features on the user inte