Rangers Football Club are a football club in Glasgow, who play in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League. Their home ground, Ibrox Stadium, is in the south-west of the city in the Govan district. Although not part of the official name, the club is referred to as Glasgow Rangers. Rangers have won more league titles and trebles than any other club in the world, winning the league title 54 times, the Scottish Cup 33 times and the Scottish League Cup 27 times, achieving the treble of all three in the same season seven times. Rangers won the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1972 after being losing finalists twice, in 1961 and 1967. A third runners-up finish in Europe came in the UEFA Cup in 2008. Rangers have a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm, considered one of the world's biggest football derbies. Founded in February 1872, Rangers were one of the 11 original members of the Scottish Football League and remained in the top division continuously until the liquidation of The Rangers Football Club PLC at the end of the 2011–12 season.
With a new corporate identity, the club gained admittance to the fourth tier of Scottish league football in time for the start of the following season. Rangers secured promotion back to the Premiership for the start of the 2016–17 season having won three promotions in four years. Rangers were formed by four founders – brothers Moses McNeil and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell and William McBeath – who met at West End Park in February 1872. Rangers' first match, in May that year, was a goalless friendly draw with Callander on Glasgow Green. David Hill was a founder member. In 1873, the club held staff were elected. By 1876 Rangers had its first international player, with Moses McNeil representing Scotland in a match against Wales. In 1877 Rangers reached the Scottish Cup final. Rangers won the Glasgow Merchants' Charity Cup the following year against Vale of Leven 2–1, their first major cup; the first-ever Old Firm match took place in 1888, the year of Celtic's establishment. Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly to a team composed of guest players from Hibernian.
The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, Rangers, by playing at the first Ibrox Stadium, were one of ten original members. The club's first-ever league match, on 16 August 1890, resulted in a 5–2 victory over Heart of Midlothian. After finishing joint-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 2–2 and the title was shared for the only time in its history. Rangers' first-ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 3–1 final victory over rivals Celtic. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won three Scottish Cups. During William Wilton's time as match secretary and team manager, Rangers won 10 league titles. Taking over as manager after William Wilton's tragic death in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers' most successful manager, guiding the club to 14 league titles before the onset of the Second World War. On 2 January 1939 a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional New Year's Day Old Firm match.
Leading the club for 34 years until 1954, Struth won more trophies than any manager in Scottish Football history, amassing 18 league championships, 10 Scottish Cups, two League Cups, seven war-time championships, 19 Glasgow Cups, 17 Glasgow Merchant Charity Cups and other war-time honours. During the wartime regional league setup, Rangers achieved their highest score against old firm rivals Celtic with an 8–1 win in the Southern Football League. Scot Symon continued Struth's success, winning six league championships, five Scottish Cups and four League Cups, becoming the second manager to win the domestic treble in 1963–64 season, the era of'Slim' Jim Baxter, one of the club's greatest players. Rangers lost by their biggest Old Firm margin of 7–1. Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 12–4 for a Scottish team. In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners' Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, only to lose 4–1 on aggregate.
Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, by a single goal after extra time to Bayern Munich. The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large-scale crushing on a stairway exit at the culmination of an Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was to have happened 10 minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs. A benefit match to raise funds for the victims' families took place after the disaster, a joint Rangers and Celtic team playing a Scotland XI at Hampden, watched by 81,405 fans. In 1972, Rangers emerged from the tragedy of the previous year to achieve success on the European stage. A Colin Stein goal and a Willie Johnston double helped secure a 3–2 victory over Dynamo Moscow at the Nou Camp, Barcelona, to lift the European Cup Winners' Cup. Captain John Greig received the trophy in a small room within the Nou Camp following pitch invasions by Rangers fans reacting to the heavy handed tactics of the Spanish police, the majority of whom had been brought in from outwith Catalonia.
Rangers were banned from Europe for two years for the behaviour of their fans reduced on appeal to one year. The following season saw the club compete in the first European Super Cup, although the Europea
STV Glasgow was a local television station serving Glasgow and surrounding areas. The station was owned and operated by STV Group plc in partnership with Glasgow Caledonian University; the channel was closed on Sunday 23 April 2017 and replaced by STV2, a semi-national network of local TV stations which itself closed on 1 July 2018. STV were awarded local TV licences in January 2013 to operate two digital television channels, under the working titles of GTV and ETV, in Glasgow and Edinburgh for up to 12 years. Three other bids were made for the Glasgow licence by Glasgow TV, Made in Glasgow and Metro8 Glasgow; the channel was run in partnership with Glasgow Caledonian University. STV Glasgow launched at 6.30pm on Monday 2 June 2014 airing every day from midday until around midnight. The channel claimed to have reached over half a million viewers in its first month, its sister station STV Edinburgh launched on 12 January 2015. The channel extended its hours in March 2015, along with sister channel STV Edinburgh.
The two city channels shared the majority of programming, with most STV Glasgow productions broadcast on its sister station. On Monday 24 April 2017, with the launch of more STV City channels in Aberdeen and Dundee, the network of services was merged and relaunched as STV2. STV Glasgow aired a locally focused schedule of new and imported programming, including daily magazine shows, an expanded STV News service, former STV programmes and drama. Non-news productions from the Glasgow studios included the early evening show, Live at Five, sports chat show Peter and Roughie's Football Show, interview series My Life in Ten Pictures and entertainment show Grass Roots Music. STV Glasgow aired archived drama series including Taggart, Take the High Road and Rebus alongside the acclaimed Polish World War II drama Czas honoru and the comedy drama series High Times; the station aimed to broadcast at least an hour a week of non-English language programming. Notes Sources STV2 at stv.tv STV2 on STV Player
North Tonight was a Scottish nightly regional news programme covering the North of Scotland, produced by STV North. During the late 1960s and 1970s, Grampian's regional news service consisted of daily 10-minute evening bulletins. By 1978, the bulletins had developed into a magazine programme entitled Grampian Today broadcast from Wednesday - Friday before expanding to every weeknight; the programme was relaunched as North Tonight on Monday 7 January 1980 in an effort to reflect the Northern Scotland region as a whole - its first presenters were John Duncanson and Selina Scott. The launch of North Tonight coincided with the opening of a new remote-controlled studio at Albany House in Dundee and an expansion into Grampian's use of Electronic News Gathering cameras. Grampian Today had pioneered the use of such cameras in 1978, allowing the company to extend its flagship news programme to five nights a week. By 1983, a third studio at Inverness was opened, allowing greater coverage of the Highlands and Islands area.
The early years of North Tonight coincided with the launch of regular news bulletins at lunchtime and before station closedown on weekdays, read by Grampian's team of continuity announcers. Regional news at weekends would not be introduced until 1988, when the bulletins were renamed Grampian Headlines. Up until the early 1990s, North Tonight was taken off air during the summer months and replaced by a nightly magazine show entitled Summer at Six, which included a short news bulletin. Significant points in the history of the programme included extensive coverage of the Piper Alpha disaster in 1988 and the resignation of Grampian Police chief constable Dr. Ian Oliver in 1998. North Tonight covered the murder of Aberdeen schoolboy Scott Simpson in the mid-1990s and the bird flu incident in Cellardyke, Fife in April 2006, its predecessor, Grampian Today, had the first live broadcast from an oil platform in the North Sea, as well as the first live broadcast from the summit of Cairn Gorm. During the mid 1990s, the programme twice won the BAFTA Scotland award for Best News Programme.
The programme was aired from Grampian's main studios at Queens Cross in Aberdeen until the station moved to new, smaller studios in the West Tullos area of the city in 2003. News studios were retained in Dundee and Inverness with political correspondents based at bureaux in Edinburgh and Millbank, Westminster. There was a studio in Stornoway but this closed in 2001. Contracted freelance correspondents and cameramen provided news coverage from the outer regions of Shetland, Orkney and Sutherland; the programme had the distinction of covering the news for the largest geographical region in the ITV network, covering an area the size of Belgium. On 8 January 2007, viewers of North Tonight began to receive two different programmes - those in the Dundee, Angus and north-east Fife area received a dedicated bulletin within the main North Tonight programme featuring the day's news from the sub-region, presented & produced from STV's studios in Dundee and directed from a technical gallery in Aberdeen.
The bulletins were produced from Harbour Chambers in City Quay. As of 28 April 2008, STV News's Tayside operation is now based at upgraded, larger studios at Seabraes. Whilst the Tayside bulletin was broadcast, viewers further north saw more news from the north-east and Islands areas, broadcast from the headquarters of STV North in Aberdeen. On 7 April 2007, it was announced that GMTV had replaced STV as the supplier of early morning regional news bulletins in Scotland; the contract was awarded to the Belfast-based Macmillan Media, which has offices in London and Glasgow. GMTV Scotland began on 3 December 2007. STV, its northern predecessor Grampian Television had supplied GMTV with its news since the breakfast channel took over from TV-am in 1993; the newsroom produced three bulletins of about three minutes each at 06.35, 07.05 and 08.05. The decision affected North Today's sister programme Scotland Today; the contract to provide regional ITV Breakfast in North of Scotland returned to STV in 2013.
On 19 June 2007, STV North began producing Northern Exposure, a supplementary video blog and produced by the North Tonight team for the station's website, stv.tv. The blogs, which spawned a spin-off series entitled Ask Kirstin, continued to be produced on a regular basis until June 2009. On 18 March 2009, it was announced that the North Tonight branding would be phased out as part of a major station revamp. On Monday 23 March 2009, the nightly news programme was renamed as STV News at Six; the name is used in the STV Central region as a replacement for Scotland Today. The last main edition of North Tonight was aired on Friday 20 March 2009. STV News at stv.tv
Sunday Mail (Scotland)
The Sunday Mail is a Scottish tabloid newspaper published every Sunday. It is owned by Trinity Mirror; the newspaper places a strong emphasis on family values and it is well known for its campaigning journalism and hard-hitting investigations. In September 1999, when Editor Jim Cassidy was sacked, the paper's circulation was 767,000, its nearest rival was the Scottish edition of the News of the World which sold around 350,000 copies at that time. As of December 2016, the Sunday Mail had a circulation of 172,513; this decreased to 166,195 as of February 2017, 159,880 as of April 2017 and 152,892 as of July 2017. It should not be confused with The Mail on Sunday. 1973: Clive Sandground 1981: Endell Laird 1988: Noel Young 1991: Jim Cassidy 1999: Peter Cox 2000: Allan Rennie 2009: Jim Wilson 2016: Brendan McGinty 2019: Allan Bryce Derek Alexander Norman Silvester Craig McDonald John Ferguson Julie-Anne Barnes Heather Greenaway Marion Scott Charles Lavery Andrew Gold Angus McLeod Russell Findlay Brian Lironi John Nairn Bill Aitken Alex Scotland Steve Dinneen Jamie Livingstone Noreen Barr Andy Sannholm Suzie Cormack Victoria Raimes Archie McKayGavin Goodwin Nick Hunter John Finlayson Elaine C. Smith Gerry Hassan Gary Keown Scott Robinson Melanie Reid List of newspapers in Scotland Sunday Mail homepage
Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio. In an analog television broadcast, the brightness and sound are represented by rapid variations of either the amplitude, frequency or phase of the signal. Analog signals vary over a continuous range of possible values which means that electronic noise and interference becomes reproduced by the receiver, thus with analog, a moderately weak signal becomes subject to interference. In contrast, a moderately weak digital signal and a strong digital signal transmit equal picture quality. Analog television can be distributed over a cable network using cable converters. All broadcast. Motivated by the lower bandwidth requirements of compressed digital signals, since the 2000s a digital television transition is proceeding in most countries of the world, with different deadlines for cessation of analog broadcasts; the earliest systems of analog television were mechanical television systems, which used spinning disks with patterns of holes punched into the disc to scan an image.
A similar disk reconstructed the image at the receiver. Synchronization of the receiver disc rotation was handled through sync pulses broadcast with the image information; however these mechanical systems were slow, the images were dim and flickered and the image resolution low. Camera systems used similar spinning discs and required intensely bright illumination of the subject for the light detector to work. Analog television did not begin as an industry until the development of the cathode-ray tube, which uses a focused electron beam to trace lines across a phosphor coated surface; the electron beam could be swept across the screen much faster than any mechanical disc system, allowing for more spaced scan lines and much higher image resolution. Far less maintenance was required of an all-electronic system compared to a spinning disc system. All-electronic systems became popular with households after the Second World War. Broadcasters of analog television encode their signal using different systems.
The official systems of transmission are named: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, K1, L, M and N. These systems determine the number of scan lines, frame rate, channel width, video bandwidth, video-audio separation, so on; the colors in those systems are encoded with one of three color coding schemes: NTSC, PAL, or SECAM, use RF modulation to modulate this signal onto a high frequency or ultra high frequency carrier. Each frame of a television image is composed of lines drawn on the screen; the lines are of varying brightness. The next sequential frame is displayed; the analog television signal contains timing and synchronization information, so that the receiver can reconstruct a two-dimensional moving image from a one-dimensional time-varying signal. The first commercial television systems were black-and-white. A practical television system needs to take luminance, chrominance and audio signals, broadcast them over a radio transmission; the transmission system must include a means of television channel selection.
Analog broadcast television systems come in a variety of frame resolutions. Further differences exist in the modulation of the audio carrier; the monochrome combinations still existing in the 1950s are standardized by the International Telecommunication Union as capital letters A through N. When color television was introduced, the hue and saturation information was added to the monochrome signals in a way that black and white televisions ignore. In this way backwards compatibility was achieved; that concept is true for all analog television standards. There were three standards for the way the additional color information can be encoded and transmitted; the first was the American NTSC color television system. The European/Australian PAL and the French-former Soviet Union SECAM standard were developed and attempt to cure certain defects of the NTSC system. PAL's color encoding is similar to the NTSC systems. SECAM, uses a different modulation approach than PAL or NTSC. In principle, all three color encoding systems can be combined with any scan line/frame rate combination.
Therefore, in order to describe a given signal it's necessary to quote the color system and the broadcast standard as a capital letter. For example, the United States, Canada and South Korea use NTSC-M, Japan uses NTSC-J, the UK uses PAL-I, France uses SECAM-L, much of Western Europe and Australia use PAL-B/G, most of Eastern Europe uses SECAM-D/K or PAL-D/K and so on. However, not all of these possible combinations exist. NTSC is only used with system M though there were experiments with NTSC-A in the UK and NTSC-N in part of South America. PAL is used with a variety of 625-line standards but with the North American 525-line standard, accordingly n
Sky Sports is a group of subscription-television sports channels operated by the satellite pay-TV company Sky, a division of Comcast. Sky Sports is the dominant subscription television sports brand in Ireland, it has played a major role in the increased commercialisation of British sport since 1991, sometimes playing a large role in inducing organisational changes in the sports it broadcasts, most notably when it encouraged the Premier League to break away from the Football League in 1992. Sky Sports Main Event, Premier League, Cricket, Golf, F1, Arena are available as a premium package on top of the basic Sky package; these channels are available as premium channels on nearly every satellite, cable and IPTV broadcasting system in the UK and Ireland. Sky Sports News, Sky Sports Racing, Sky Sports Mix are all provided as part of basic packages; the Sky Sports network is managed by Barney Francis. British Satellite Broadcasting operated The Sports Channel, which launched in April 1990. In the BSB years, it shared the same frequency with its underpromoted sister channel, the Computer Channel, which broadcast in the mornings when the Sports Channel was off-air.
BSB merged with Sky Television plc to form British Sky Broadcasting. Sky Television had co-founded another sports network known as Eurosport with the European Broadcasting Union. Eurosport was the subject of a complaint by a competitor, who argued that the venture had the effect of restricting and distorting competition in the sports market. Sky pulled out of the venture, the channel was sold to the TF1 Group and merged with Screensport; the Sports Channel was renamed Sky Sports on 20 April 1991, began broadcasting to Sky viewers via the newly launched Astra 1B satellite on that date, alongside its existing transmissions on BSB's Marcopolo satellite. The channel was sold as one of the major draws of the Sky system and aired sports such as rugby and golf in 1991, before acquiring rights to German and Italian league football in 1996; the channel was encrypted but broadcast free-to-view, requiring an analogue VideoCrypt decoder, but no paid subscription, to be viewed. Since VideoCrypt decoders were only available within the UK, this measure was intended to prevent viewing of the service outside the UK and Ireland.
However, it was following the formation of the Premier League for the 1992/93 football season, believed to have been assisted by the promise of higher TV payments, that Sky Sports became well known. By bidding £304m, BSkyB beat the BBC and ITV to acquire the live and exclusive Premier League football broadcasting rights for the United Kingdom and Ireland for a five-year period. In doing so, they had taken live top-flight English league football from terrestrial and free-to-air television for the first time ever. At this point, Sky Sports became a subscription channel, available with a monthly subscription on a standalone basis, or at a reduced price if taken with Sky's movie channels. On 19 August 1994, a secondary channel called. On 1 November 1995, Sky launched. However, the channel ceased broadcasting after only a year on the air. On 16 August 1996, Sky launched Sky Sports 3, the original channel was renamed to Sky Sports 1. Sky Sports acquired the rights to Scottish football and the League Cup.
With the launch of the Sky Digital satellite platform in October 1998, Sky Sports launched Sky Sports News—a channel carrying rolling sports news coverage, in March 1999, followed by Sky Sports Xtra in April. During a Premier League match on 22 August 1999, Sky Sports launched an interactive television service known as Sky Sports Active via the digital platform, allowing viewers to watch matches with access to additional on-screen statistics, a choice of alternate camera angles and replays. Sky expected to extend the interactive services to other sports the following year. Sky Sports' football coverage was at the centre of controversy in January 2011 when footage emerged of presenters Andy Gray and Richard Keys making comments perceived as sexist. On 25 January 2011, Gray was sacked over the comments. On 25 January 2011, fellow reporter Andy Burton was suspended by Sky due to his involvement in the sexist comments made about a female assistant referee, Sian Massey, which involved Gray and Keys.
However, unlike Gray and Keys, Burton returned to his regular duties at Sky. Om 29 July 2011, it was announced that Sky Sports had acquired rights to Formula One racing from 2012 through 2018, with the BBC to share free-to-air rights to half of the events, have highlights rights for the remainder. Sky subsequently announced that it would introduce a new channel dedicated to its coverage, Sky Sports F1, which would air practices and advert-free coverage of each race. Sky extended its contract in 2016, to last through 2024. On 12 August 2014, Sky launched a new channel called Sky Sports 5, which would be dedicated to European football, including UEFA European Championship qualifiers, La Liga and others. On 24 August 2016, Sky launched Sky Sports Mix, a new channel designed to offer a sampling of content from the full range of Sky Sports networks to those who are not subscribers. On Sky, the channel is included as a basic channel with all plans, was available on certain Virgin Media packages on-launch.
On 18 July 2017, Sky re-aligned it
News Corp UK & Ireland Limited, is a British newspaper publisher, a wholly owned subsidiary of the American mass media conglomerate News Corp. It is the current publisher of The Times, The Sunday Times and The Sun newspapers and its former publications include the Today, News of the World and The London Paper newspapers; until June 2002, it was called News International plc. On 31 May 2011 the company name was changed from News International Limited to NI Group Limited, on 26 June 2013 to News UK. News UK's main competitor is DMG Media, in turn owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust. Between 1987 and 1995, News International owned, through its subsidiary News Ltd, the first UK national newspaper to be printed in colour. All of News International's newspapers were founded by other owners, in some cases hundreds of years ago. In October 2005 News International sold TSL Education, publishers of Times Higher Education, Times Educational Supplement, other education titles, for £235m; the Times Literary Supplement part of TSL Education, has been retained by News International as part of this deal.
Darwin Ltd, who had taken over the company, continued to produce the same product. In July 2009 The Guardian, a newspaper owned by Guardian Media Group reported that News Group Newspapers paid in excess of £1m to settle legal cases that threatened to reveal News Group journalists' use on repeated occasions of illegal methods in the pursuit of stories, it has been alleged that News Group staff, including Clive Goodman, illegally accessed voicemail for the mobile phones of thousands of public figures, including politicians and celebrities. Goodman was jailed in 2007 for tapping the mobile phones of three members of the royal staff, it was stated by News International at the time that Goodman had acted without their knowledge, that no other journalists made use of such methods. The evidence uncovered by The Guardian shows that many more figures were in fact the subject of phone-taps, including Nigella Lawson, Lenny Henry, Gwyneth Paltrow, John Prescott, Boris Johnson and Tessa Jowell. In 2008, the News of the World paid in excess of £400,000 in damages to Gordon Taylor, the chief executive of the Professional Footballers' Association, suing the newspaper for its involvement in the illegal interception of messages to his mobile phone.
According to The Guardian, this payment, made in exchange for Taylor's silence'prevented the public from knowing anything about the hundreds of pages of evidence, disclosed in Taylor's case.'In contrast to News International's earlier denials of knowledge, The Guardian cites suppressed evidence revealing that News of the World's editorial staff were involved with private investigators who engaged in illegal phone-hacking, that both reporters and executives were commissioning purchases of confidential information. These activities were well-known within the News of the World, being "openly paid for by the accounts department with invoices which itemised illegal acts"; the paperwork is alleged to show that the above occurred during the tenure of Andy Coulson, chief press advisor to David Cameron, leader of the UK's Conservative Party, until his resignation on 21 January 2011. On 4 July, The Guardian reported that a private investigator at the News of the World had hacked into the phone of the murdered teenager Amanda Dowler, causing both her parents and police investigating her murder to wrongly believe she was still alive.
This occurred during the period. On 7 July, British newspaper The Daily Telegraph alleged that the families of dead British service personnel were targeted by private investigators working for the News of the World; this led to The Royal British Legion severing ties with the paper until such allegations are proved false. On the same day, James Murdoch announced the News of the World would be shut down after the publication of one more edition on 10 July 2011, due to the allegations; the newspaper had been faced with the withdrawal of a number of sponsors which had advertised their products and services in the newspaper, not to mention the inevitable fall in sales that the newspaper would have faced had it remained in circulation. On 15 July Rebekah Brooks resigned as chief executive of News International, her comments on her leaving were: As chief executive of the company, I feel a deep sense of responsibility for the people we have hurt and I want to reiterate how sorry I am for what we now know to have taken place.
I have believed that the right and responsible action has been to lead us through the heat of the crisis. However my desire to remain on the bridge has made me a focal point of the debate; this is now detracting attention from all our honest endeavours to fix the problems of the past. Therefore I have given James Murdoch my resignation. While it has been a subject of discussion, this time my resignation has been accepted. Rupert's wisdom and incisive advice has guided me throughout my career and James is an inspirational leader who has shown me great loyalty and friendship. I would like to thank them both for their support; the Guardian newspaper, citing official company accounts, claims Brooks received a £10.8m payoff for leaving News International. In September 2015, Rebekah Brooks was reappointed as CEO of the company, now named News UK; the company's major titles are published by subsidiary companies, Times Newspapers Ltd and News Group Newspapers. These newspapers were until 2010 written at a large s