Royal Library Garden, Copenhagen
It has a reputation for being one of the most tranquil spots in the city centre. The garden has a water basin with a water feature in the middle, blooming flower beds. It is accessible from the courtyard at Christiansborgs show grounds, the Library Garden is located on top of the former site of Christian IVs old Naval Harbour. The harbour was flanked by a housing the Tøjhus Museum—and a supply depot. Later the Navy was moved to Holmens Kanal and the old harbour was filled in 1867, the garden was designed in 1920 by landscape gardener Jens Peder Andersen and Christiansborgs architect Thorvald Jørgensen. The garden has a pool at its centre. In the middle of it stands an eight-metre-high copper sculpture which spouts out cascades of water on the hour, a 1918 bronze statue of Søren Kierkegaard by sculptor Louis Hasselriis is located in the middle of the gardens. Kierkegaard appears absorbed in his own thoughts with his gaze directed towards a point on the side of the wall where his fiancée. The wide variety of flowers in the change with the seasons.
Visitors can enjoy the view from rows of benches in the shade of the trees or from out in the sun along the wall between the gardens and the yard to the Danish National Archives. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, scalloping, lancet windows, hood mouldings, the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 19th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism, the Anglo-Catholicism tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. The Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by medievalism, which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals, as industrialisation progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation, poems such as Idylls of the King by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance.
In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions, guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turin, recognized the Gothic order as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland, inveraray Castle, constructed from 1746, with design input from William Adam, displays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some features of the Scots baronial style. The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to improve Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions, a younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for J. Brittens series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817, Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt. to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, the categories he used were Norman, Early English and Perpendicular.
It went through numerous editions and was still being republished by 1881. The largest and most famous Gothic cathedrals in the U. S. A. are St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City and Washington National Cathedral on Mount St. Alban in northwest Washington, D. C. One of the biggest churches in Gothic Revival style in Canada is Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate in Ontario, Gothic Revival architecture was to remain one of the most popular and long-lived of the Gothic Revival styles of architecture. The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture, classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace ant lattice work were applied to a range of Gothic Revival objects. Sir Walter Scotts Abbotsford exemplifies in its furnishings the Regency Gothic style, parties in medieval historical dress and entertainment were popular among the wealthy in the 1800s but has spread in the late 20th century to the well-educated middle class as well.
By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in wallpaper, the illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery
Churchillparken is a public park in Copenhagen, occupying a tract of land between Kastellet, a 17th-century fortress, and the street Esplanaden. St. Albans Church, the Anglican church in Copenhagen, access to Kastellet through its main entrance, The Kings Gate, is reached through the park. The grounds were part of the esplanade which surrounded Kastellet. In the 1880s, after Kastellet had lost its role in the defence of the city. After World War II the site was chosen as the home of the Museum of Danish Resistance which was completed in 1957. Over the next few years, several war memorials were erected in the area which finally, in 1965, the namesake of the park, Winston Churchill, is commemorated with a bust designed by Oscar Nemon from 1955. Another bust, designed by Svend Lindhard and placed outside the Resistance Museum, commemorates Major Anders Lassen, the only Dane to have received the Victoria Cross for his efforts in World War II. Lindhard is the artist behind a Memorial to fallen Danish soldiers in the Allied Forces, which stands on Sjællands Ravelin and it depicts a soldier in English uniform.
The park features a statue of a valkyrie, a female figure in Norse mythology who chooses who will die and battle and brings her chosen to Valhalla. It was designed by Stephan Sinding and executed in Paris in 1908 but is based on a sketch from 1872. A smaller version in painted wood and coloured stone was exhibited in 1901 and another version from 1910, in bronze and open spaces in Copenhagen
Jewish Northern Cemetery (Copenhagen)
The Jewish Northern Cemetery in Nørrebro was formerly the principal Jewish cemetery in Copenhagen, Denmark. It has an area of 13,500 square metres and contains some 5,500 burials, the Jewish congregation in Copenhagen purchased a 900 square metre site outside the city for use as a burial site in the early 1690s. The oldest burial in the cemetery is from 1694, further acquisitions of land had brought the cemetery up to its current size by 1854 but it was still passed out of use when a new Jewish cemetery opened in connection with the new Vestre Cemetery. The brick wall which surrounds the cemetery on three sides, along Møllegade and Birkegade, was built in 1873 to a design by Vilhelm Tvede. The cemetery was listed in 1983
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro, Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism. Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée, the many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullées ideas and Edmund Burkes conception of the sublime, the baroque style had never truly been to the English taste. The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell, the book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings that had been inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio.
At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain, at the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic architect earl, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, in 1729, he and William Kent, designed Chiswick House. This House was a reinterpretation of Palladios Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and this severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of Englands finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk, the main block of this house followed Palladios dictates quite closely, but Palladios low, often detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance. This classicising vein was detectable, to a degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris. This shift was even visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S, by the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece.
The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, in France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, and was influenced by the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. The style was adopted by progressive circles in other countries such as Sweden. A second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire, in France, the first phase of neoclassicism was expressed in the Louis XVI style, and the second in the styles called Directoire or Empire. The Scottish architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in St. Petersburg, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine classic interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum. These had begun in the late 1740s, but only achieved an audience in the 1760s
Superkilen is a public park in the Nørrebro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Designed by the arts group Superflex with the collaboration of Bjarke Ingels Group and Topotek1, a German landscape architecture firm, the project is part of an urban improvement plan coordinated by the City of Copenhagen in a partnership with Realdania. The objective is to upgrade the Nørrebro neighbourhood to a standard of urban development liable to inspire other cities. The park is intended to celebrate diversity, the green park, literally entirely green, has rolling hills and plants suitable for picnics and walking the dog. Many of the objects in the park have been imported or copied from foreign designs. They include swings from Iraq, benches from Brazil, a fountain from Morocco, there are neon signs from throughout the world advertising everything from a Russian hotel to a Chinese beauty parlour. Even the manhole covers come from Zanzibar and Paris, in all, there are 108 plants and artefacts illustrating the ethnic diversity of the local population.
The project was rewarded with a 2013 AIA Honor Award in the Regional & Urban Design category by the American Institute of Architects and it is shortlisted for Design of the Year by th Design Museum in London as well as for the European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture. Superflex project description Article at The Atlantic Cities
Vesterbrogade is the main shopping street of the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The 1.5 km long street runs from the City Hall Square in the east to Pile Allé in Frederiksberg in the west where it turns into Roskildevej, on its way, it passes Copenhagen Central Station as well as the small triangular square Vesterbros Torv. It is one of four such -bro streets, the other being Nørrebrogade, Østerbrogade and Amagerbrogade, vesterbroghade originates in the 12th-century country road that led in and out of Copenhagens Western City Gate. The road passed Sankt Jørgens Bæk on its way to Valby, on 20 August 1624, Christian IV ordered that the road be cobbled, first to Vernedamsvej and all the way to Valby. The road was at this point called Alvejen (The Public Road= or Adelvejen and it is one of four such -bro streets. New buildings began to long the street in the 1850s. In 1866–67, Vesterbrogade was extended in a line from Tivoli to the Haymarket. The first section of the street, between the Vity Hall Square and the new Central Central Station, was out as a broad.
Among the buildings that were built along it, including Industriforeningens new Exhibition Building from 1872, at the turn of the 20th century, Vesterbros Passage was the backbone in a westward expansion of Copenhagens city centre. Most of the old buildings were replaced by new and larger ones over the course of the next decades, industriens Hus is the headquarters of the Confederation of Danish Industries. An expansion and complete make-over of the building was completed in 2013, next to the building is the main entrance of Tivoli Gardens. Saxo Towers, a complex consisting of four interconnected culinders, is currently under construction on the other side of the street. Axelborg, originally a building, now contains the headquarters of the Danish Agriculture. The former SAS Royal Hotel, now operated by Radison Blu, was designed by Arne Jacobsen and his Egg and Swan chairs were designed for the building. AArbejdernes Landsbank has their headquarters in the so-called Panoptikon Building at No.5, the small Savoy Hotel, known as Løvenborg, is one of the earliest examples of the art nouveau style in Copenhagen.
The building was designed by Anton Rosen who a few years designed the two buildings that flank thDet Ny Teater in the same style. The Association of Danish Law Firms is based at No.32, the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Societys former main building at No.59 is from 1780s. It now houses the Museum of Copenhagen, the former Vesterbro Pharmacy was built in 1853 to design by P. C
Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
Copenhagen is a green city well endowed with open spaces. It has an extensive and well-distributed system of parks that act as venues for an array of events. As a supplement to the parks, there are a number of congenial public gardens. It is official policy in Copenhagen that all citizens by 2015 must be able to reach a park or beach on foot in less than 15 minutes. Kings Garden, the garden of Rosenborg Castle, is the oldest and most visited park in Copenhagen and its landscaping was commenced by Christian IV in 1606. Every year it more than 2.5 million visitors. It serves as a garden with a permanent display of sculptures as well as temporary exhibits during summer. Just north of Kings Garden a series of make up a green strand running right through the centre of the city. Fælledparken in the part of the city is, at 58 hectares. Another popular park is the Frederiksberg Gardens, which is a 32-hectare romantic landscape park and it houses a large colony of very tame grey herons along with other waterfowl.
The park offers views of the elephants and the elephant house, designed by the world-famous British architect Norman Foster, some of Copenhagens newer parks draw from their position by the water. Amager Beach Park was founded in 1934, but in 2005 a 2. 4-kilometre-long artificial island was added, separated from the beach by a lagoon crossed by three bridges. It is official policy in Copenhagen that all citizens by 2015 must be able to reach a park or beach on foot in less than 15 minutes. In line with policy, several new parks are under development in areas poor in green spaces. One of those recently completed is Superkilen, a park for the ethnic inhabitants of the Nørrebro district of Copenhagen. Besides the regular parks, a number of open to the general public serve as important green spaces in central Copenhagen. Now open to the public during daytime, characteristic of Copenhagen is that a number of cemeteries double as parks, though only for the more quiet activities such as sunbathing and meditation.
Assistens Cemetery, the place of Hans Christian Andersen among others, is an important green space for the district of Inner Nørrebro
Frederiksberg Gardens is one of the largest and most attractive greenspaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with the adjacent Søndermarken it forms an area of 64 hectares at the western edge of Inner Copenhagen. It is a landscape garden designed in the English style. Frederiksberg Gardens was established by King Frederik IV in connection with the construction of Frederiksberg Palace as his new summer retreat on high grounds atop Valby Hill. Work on the began in the last half of the 1690s with inspiration from Italy and France which Frederick. He commissioned the eminent Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin to draw a proposal and the plan was subsequently made by Hans Heinrich Scheel. The plan involved a parterre with a system of cascades on the sloping terrain in front of the new palace. It was fed by a complicated but inefficient system of pumps which never came to work properly. In the end, Johan Cornelius Krieger, who was at the time working on an extension and adaption of Fredensborg Palace.
Unusually of the time, he gave up the parterre completely, in the 1790s, as fashion changed, the park was adapted into an English landscape garden. P. Petersen created a new plan in 1795. He created a typical English-style landscape garden with winding lawns, lakes and spinneys as well as grottos, pavilions, the final result may well have been based on Johan Ludwig Mansas book on English-style gardening written in 1798. Frederik VI was particularly fond of the garden, from 1804, he sailed the canals in a gondola. Not until 1865 did access to the park become unrestricted, in line with what was the case elsewhere in the city, smørrebrødsplænen, on the corner of Toskildevej and Pile Allé, where K. B. s tennis halls are today, became a popular picnic destination. Frederiksberg Gardens is an English-style Romantic landscape garden with winding paths, lakes, small islands, a large variety of plants and birds can be seen, including mute swans, greylag geese, grey herons, and Canada geese. Typically of the landscape garden, the park houses two follies, waterfalls and other garden features.
The gate was designed by Lauritz de Thurah who had become general master builder after Eigtveds death, the vases at the top of the two sandstone pillars were executed by the sculptor Johann Friedrich Hännel. The gate opens to a path which passes between two long, yellow buildings with white details and they are the two surviving wings of the Princes House
Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society
The Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society was founded some time before 1443 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Originally it served to citizens to contribute to the defence of the city. Today it is based at the Sølyst estate north of the city, the first known reference to the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society is from 1443. In the beginning it was involved with the training of citizens as part of the defence of the city, the society was based in the street Kompagnistræde, which was named after it, where No.16 lies today. Since the activities were hardly compatible with a location inside the fortified city and this took place at various sites from 1619 and in the 1750s a permanent shooting range was established outside the Western City Gate. In 1782 the society acquired a 3.5 hectare tract of land, the wall was built to the design of architect Ludvig Knudsen in a neo-gothic style. Ludvig Knudsen modernized the interior of the Shooting Societys mansion in the 1890s, as of 1997 the society had 138 members. Since the 16th century it has been a tradition that the Danish monarch is one of its members and this is the case for Queen Margrethe II and Crown Prince Frederik