Cascading Style Sheets
This cascading priority scheme is predictable. The CSS specifications are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium. Internet media type text/css is registered for use with CSS by RFC 2318; the W3C operates a free CSS validation service for CSS documents. In addition to HTML, other markup languages support the use of CSS including XHTML, plain XML, SVG, XUL. CSS has a simple syntax and uses a number of English keywords to specify the names of various style properties. A style sheet consists of a list of rules; each rule or rule-set consists of one or more selectors, a declaration block. In CSS, selectors declare which part of the markup a style applies to by matching tags and attributes in the markup itself. Selectors may apply to the following: all elements of a specific type, e.g. the second-level headers h2 elements specified by attribute, in particular: id: an identifier unique within the document class: an identifier that can annotate multiple elements in a document elements depending on how they are placed relative to others in the document tree.
Classes and IDs are case-sensitive, start with letters, can include alphanumeric characters and underscores. A class may apply to any number of instances of any elements. An ID may only be applied to a single element. Pseudo-classes are used in CSS selectors to permit formatting based on information, not contained in the document tree. One example of a used pseudo-class is:hover, which identifies content only when the user “points to” the visible element by holding the mouse cursor over it, it is #elementid: hover. A pseudo-class classifies document elements, such as:link or:visited, whereas a pseudo-element makes a selection that may consist of partial elements, such as::first-line or::first-letter. Selectors may be combined in many ways to achieve great flexibility. Multiple selectors may be joined in a spaced list to specify elements by location, element type, id, class, or any combination thereof; the order of the selectors is important. For example, div.myClass applies to all elements of class myClass that are inside div elements, whereas.myClass div applies to all div elements that are in elements of class myClass.
The following table provides a summary of selector syntax indicating usage and the version of CSS that introduced it. A declaration block consists of a list of declarations in braces; each declaration itself consists of a property, a colon, a value. If there are multiple declarations in a block, a semi-colon must be inserted to separate each declaration. Properties are specified in the CSS standard; each property has a set of possible values. Some properties can affect any type of element, others apply only to particular groups of elements. Values may be keywords, such as "center" or "inherit", or numerical values, such as 200px, 50vw or 80%. Color values can be specified with keywords, hexadecimal values, RGB values on a 0 to 255 scale, RGBA values that specify both color and alpha transparency, or HSL or HSLA values. Before CSS, nearly all presentational attributes of HTML documents were contained within the HTML markup. All font colors, background styles, element alignments and sizes had to be explicitly described repeatedly, within the HTML.
CSS lets authors move much of that information to another file, the style sheet, resulting in simpler HTML. For example, sub-headings, sub-sub-headings, etc. are defined structurally using HTML. In print and on the screen, choice of font, size and emphasis for these elements is presentational. Before CSS, document authors who wanted to assign such typographic characteristics to, all h2 headings had to repeat HTML presentational markup for each occurrence of that heading type; this made documents more complex and more error-prone and difficult to maintain. CSS allows the separation of presentation from structure. CSS can define color, text alignment, borders, spacing and many other typographic characteristics, can do so independently for on-screen and printed views. CSS defines non-visual styles, such as reading speed and emphasis for aural text readers; the W3C has now deprecated the use of all presentational HTML markup. For example, under pre-CSS HTML, a heading element defined with red text would be written as: Using CSS, the sam
CCMP Capital is an American private equity investment firm that focuses on leveraged buyout and growth capital transactions. Known as JP Morgan Partners, the investment professionals of JP Morgan Partners separated from JPMorgan Chase on July 31, 2006. CCMP has invested $12 billion in leveraged buyout and growth capital transactions since inception. In 2007, CCMP was ranked #17 among World's largest private equity funds. CCMP has 37 employees with offices in New York, Hong Kong and Tokyo. In 2008, CCMP hired Greg Brenneman as chairman. CCMP has been known by several names over the past two decades, founded as Chemical Venture Partners in 1984, to serve as the private equity and venture capital arm of Chemical Bank. Following Chemical's acquisition of Chase Manhattan Bank in 1996, Chemical adopted the Chase name and Chemical Venture Partners changed its name to Chase Capital Partners. Following the 2000 acquisition of J. P. Morgan & Co. and the formation of JPMorgan Chase, the group changed its name yet again to JP Morgan Partners.
Over this time, the platform grew through its integration of the private equity organizations of Manufacturers Hanover, Chase Manhattan, Hambrecht & Quist, Robert Fleming & Co. The Beacon Group and J. P. Morgan & Co. In 2004, JPMorgan Chase completed its acquisition of Bank One which had its own in house private equity investment group, One Equity Partners. One Equity, led by Dick Cashin was designated as the lead private equity platform for JPMorgan Chase at which point JP Morgan Partners formalized plans to spin out of JPMorgan Chase. JP Morgan Partners announced the spinout in March 2005 and completed the separation from JPMorgan Chase effective July 31, 2006; the new firm adopted the CCMP acronym in reference to its predecessor entities. In April 2006, JPMorgan Chase completed the sale of a $925 million interest in JP Morgan Partners Global Fund to a consortium of secondary investors; the spinout of CCMP came at the same time as the spinouts of private equity groups from other leading investment banks including: Morgan Stanley, Deutsche Bank and Credit Suisse First Boston.
In 2007, CCMP completed fundraising for its most recent fund, closing on $3.4 billion in commitments from institutional investors for CCMP Capital Investors II. CCMP Capital Investors II, represented the first fund raised by the CCMP team subsequent to its split from JPMorgan Chase and came in below the original $3.5 billion target that CCMP set for the fundraising. In February 2014, CCMP sold the pharmaceutical contract research organisation Medpace to Cinven for around $900 million. In August 2016, CCMP Capital Advisors acquired Badger Sportswear, a Statesville, N. C.-based maker of team uniforms, performance athletic wear and fanwear. Prior to its spin out from JPMorgan Chase in 2006, JP Morgan Partners made investments in leveraged buyout, growth capital and venture capital transactions. Following the spinout, the investment professionals focused on venture capital transactions separated from the CCMP Capital team to form a new firm, Panorama Capital. Based in Menlo Park, Panorama continues to focus on early and expansion-stage opportunities in both the information technology and life sciences sectors.
Panorama began raising its first independent fund in October 2005, with a target size of $500 million. After more than a year of fundraising, Panorama closed on $240 million of investor commitments. In December 2008, CCMP Capital Asia, which had operated autonomously of the US and European teams, completed a formal separation from CCMP Capital, changing its name to Unitas Capital. CCMP Capital Asia, which operated separate private equity investment funds had co-invested in several transactions alongside the global funds. Among the other notable spinouts from CCMP's predecessor, JPMorgan Partners was Linzor Capital Partners. Linzor, which focuses on private equity investments in Latin America, was founded in 2006 by Tim Purcell, Alfredo Irigoin and Carlos Ingham. In 2000, Tim Purcell and Alfredo Irigoin had founded J. P. Morgan Partners Latin America a leading investor in private equity transactions in Latin America. Prior to the merger of J. P. Morgan and Chase in 2000, Purcell had been responsible for J.
P. Morgan Capital’s Latin American private equity portfolio from the mid-1990s. CCMP manages both the JP Morgan Partners Global Fund and CCMP Capital Investors II. Among CCMP's investments are the following portfolio companies: 1-800-Flowers AMC Entertainment Aramark Berry Plastics Bill Barrett Corporation Brake Bros Ltd Cabela's. Crosstown Traders DiC Entertainment Generac Power Systems, Inc. Guitar Center, Inc Hanley Wood Infogroup Klöckner Pentaplast Kraton Medpace ONO Pinnacle Foods puregym Quiznos Sub Renovo Smurfit Kappa The Tennis Channel Triad Hospitals Truck Hero, Inc. Vetco Volotea Warner Chilcott Private equity Leveraged buyout Growth capital JPMorgan Chase Chemical Bank Chase Manhattan Bank Bank One Official website Private Sector.
Venture capital is a type of private equity, a form of financing, provided by firms or funds to small, early-stage, emerging firms that are deemed to have high growth potential, or which have demonstrated high growth. Venture capital firms or funds invest in these early-stage companies in exchange for equity, or an ownership stake, in the companies they invest in. Venture capitalists take on the risk of financing risky start-ups in the hopes that some of the firms they support will become successful; because startups face high uncertainty, VC investments do have high rates of failure. The start-ups are based on an innovative technology or business model and they are from the high technology industries, such as information technology, clean technology or biotechnology; the typical venture capital investment occurs. The first round of institutional venture capital to fund growth is called the Series A round. Venture capitalists provide this financing in the interest of generating a return through an eventual "exit" event, such as the company selling shares to the public for the first time in an initial public offering or doing a merger and acquisition of the company.
In addition to Angel investing, equity crowdfunding and other seed funding options, venture capital is attractive for new companies with limited operating history that are too small to raise capital in the public markets and have not reached the point where they are able to secure a bank loan or complete a debt offering. In exchange for the high risk that venture capitalists assume by investing in smaller and early-stage companies, venture capitalists get significant control over company decisions, in addition to a significant portion of the companies' ownership. Start-ups like Uber, Flipkart, Xiaomi & Didi Chuxing are valued startups known as unicorns, where venture capitalists contribute more than financing to these early-stage firms. Venture capital is a way in which the private and public sectors can construct an institution that systematically creates business networks for the new firms and industries, so that they can progress and develop; this institution helps identify promising new firms and provide them with finance, technical expertise, marketing "know-how", business models.
Once integrated into the business network, these firms are more to succeed, as they become "nodes" in the search networks for designing and building products in their domain. However, venture capitalists' decisions are biased, exhibiting for instance overconfidence and illusion of control, much like entrepreneurial decisions in general. A startup may be defined as a project prospective converted into a process with an adequate assumed risk and investment. With few exceptions, private equity in the first half of the 20th century was the domain of wealthy individuals and families; the Wallenbergs, Whitneys and Warburgs were notable investors in private companies in the first half of the century. In 1938, Laurance S. Rockefeller helped finance the creation of both Eastern Air Lines and Douglas Aircraft, the Rockefeller family had vast holdings in a variety of companies. Eric M. Warburg founded E. M. Warburg & Co. in 1938, which would become Warburg Pincus, with investments in both leveraged buyouts and venture capital.
The Wallenberg family started Investor AB in 1916 in Sweden and were early investors in several Swedish companies such as ABB, Atlas Copco, etc. in the first half of the 20th century. Before World War II, money orders remained the domain of wealthy individuals and families. Only after 1945 did "true" private equity investments begin to emerge, notably with the founding of the first two venture capital firms in 1946: American Research and Development Corporation and J. H. Whitney & Company. Georges Doriot, the "father of venture capitalism", founded the graduate business school INSEAD in 1957. Along with Ralph Flanders and Karl Compton, Doriot founded ARDC in 1946 to encourage private-sector investment in businesses run by soldiers returning from World War II. ARDC became the first institutional private-equity investment firm to raise capital from sources other than wealthy families, although it had several notable investment successes as well. ARDC is credited with the first trick when its 1957 investment of $70,000 in Digital Equipment Corporation would be valued at over $355 million after the company's initial public offering in 1968.
Former employees of ARDC went on to establish several prominent venture-capital firms including Greylock Partners and Morgan, Holland Ventures, the predecessor of Flagship Ventures. ARDC continued investing until 1971. In 1972 Doriot merged ARDC with Textron after having invested in over 150 companies. John Hay Whitney and his partner Benno Schmidt founded J. H. Whitney & Company in 1946. Whitney had been investing since the 1930s, founding Pioneer Pictures in 1933 and acquiring a 15% interest in Technicolor Corporation with his cousin Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney. Florida Foods Corporation proved Whitney's most famous investment; the company developed an innovativ
J. P. Morgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City. JPMorgan Chase is the largest bank in the United States, is ranked by S&P Global as the sixth largest bank in the world by total assets as of 2018, to the amount of $2.534 trillion. It is the world's most valuable bank by market capitalization; as a "Bulge Bracket" bank, it is a major provider of various investment banking and financial services. It is one of America's Big Four banks, along with Bank of America and Wells Fargo. JPMorgan Chase is considered to be a custodian bank; the J. P. Morgan brand known as Morgan, is used by the investment banking, asset management, private banking, private wealth management, treasury & securities services divisions. Fiduciary activity within private banking and private wealth management is done under the aegis of JPMorgan Chase Bank, N. A.—the actual trustee. The Chase brand is used for credit card services in the United States and Canada, the bank's retail banking activities in the United States, commercial banking.
Both the retail and commercial bank and the bank's corporate headquarters are located at 270 Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The company was formed in 2000, when Chase Manhattan Corporation merged with J. P. Morgan & Co; as of 2017, the bank is one of the largest asset management companies in the world with US$2.789 trillion in assets under management and US$30 trillion in assets under custody. At US$47.7 billion in assets under management, the hedge fund unit of JPMorgan Chase is the fourth largest hedge fund in the United States. JPMorgan Chase, in its current structure, is the result of the combination of several large U. S. banking companies since 1996, including Chase Manhattan Bank, J. P. Morgan & Co. Bank One, Bear Stearns and Washington Mutual. Going back further, its predecessors include major banking firms among which are Chemical Bank, Manufacturers Hanover, First Chicago Bank, National Bank of Detroit, Texas Commerce Bank, Providian Financial and Great Western Bank.
The company's oldest predecessor institution, the Bank of the Manhattan Company, was the third oldest banking corporation in the United States, the 31st oldest bank in the world, having been established on September 1, 1799, by Aaron Burr. The Chase Manhattan Bank was formed upon the 1955 purchase of Chase National Bank by the Bank of the Manhattan Company, the company's oldest predecessor institution; the Bank of the Manhattan Company was the creation of Aaron Burr, who transformed The Manhattan Company from a water carrier into a bank. According to page 115 of An Empire of Wealth by John Steele Gordon, the origin of this strand of JPMorgan Chase's history runs as follows: At the turn of the nineteenth century, obtaining a bank charter required an act of the state legislature; this of course injected a powerful element of politics into the process and invited what today would be called corruption but was regarded as business as usual. Hamilton's political enemy—and eventual murderer—Aaron Burr was able to create a bank by sneaking a clause into a charter for a company, called the Manhattan Company, to provide clean water to New York City.
The innocuous-looking clause allowed the company to invest surplus capital in any lawful enterprise. Within six months of the company's creation, long before it had laid a single section of water pipe, the company opened a bank, the Bank of the Manhattan Company. Still in existence, it is today the largest bank in the United States. Led by David Rockefeller during the 1970s and 1980s, Chase Manhattan emerged as one of the largest and most prestigious banking concerns, with leadership positions in syndicated lending and securities services, credit cards and retail financial services. Weakened by the real estate collapse in the early 1990s, it was acquired by Chemical Bank in 1996, retaining the Chase name. Before its merger with J. P. Morgan & Co. the new Chase expanded the investment and asset management groups through two acquisitions. In 1999, it acquired San Francisco-based Quist for $1.35 billion. In April 2000, UK-based Robert Fleming & Co. was purchased by the new Chase Manhattan Bank for $7.7 billion.
The New York Chemical Manufacturing Company was founded in 1823 as a maker of various chemicals. In 1824, the company amended its charter to perform banking activities and created the Chemical Bank of New York. After 1851, the bank was separated from its parent and grew organically and through a series of mergers, most notably with Corn Exchange Bank in 1954, Texas Commerce Bank in 1986, Manufacturer's Hanover Trust Company in 1991. In the 1980s and early 1990s, Chemical emerged as one of the leaders in the financing of leveraged buyout transactions. In 1984, Chemical launched Chemical Venture Partners to invest in private equity transactions alongside various financial sponsors. By the late 1980s, Chemical developed its reputation for financing buyouts, building a syndicated leveraged finance business and related advisory businesses under the auspices of pioneering investment banker, Jimmy Lee. At many points throughout this history, Chemical Bank was the largest bank in the United States. In 1996, Chemical Bank acquired Chase Manhattan.
Although Chemical was the nominal survivor, it took the better-known Chase name. To this day, JPMorgan Chase retains Chemical's pre-1996 stock price history, as well as Chemical's former headquarters at 270 Park Avenue; the heritage of the House of Morgan traces its roots to the partnership of Drexel, Morgan & Co. which in 1895 was renamed J. P. Morgan & Co
Matrix Partners is a US-based private equity investment firm focusing on venture capital investments. The firm invests in seed and early-stage companies in the United States and India in the software, semiconductors, data storage, Internet or wireless sectors; the firm is headquartered in Palo Alto and has offices in Cambridge, Mumbai and Beijing, China. Founded in 1977, Matrix was an active player in the development of the venture capital industry in the 1980s; the firm's direct predecessor, Hellman Ferri Investment Associates, was founded by Paul J. Ferri and Warren Hellman. In 1982, Ferri and Hellman split ways and Ferri went to focus on early-stage companies, forming Matrix in Boston, Massachusetts while Hellman founded the San Francisco-based private equity firm, Hellman & Friedman which focused on later-stage firm investments. Among the firm's notable investments, Matrix Partners was an early-stage investor in Apple Inc. Arrowpoint Communications, Digium, JBoss, JustFab, PSINet, SanDisk, Silverstream Software, TheLadders.com, Sonus Networks, Tivoli Software, Tollbridge Technologies, VERITAS Software, Vermeer Technologies Incorporated, Xilinx.
In 1985, Matrix raised its first institutional private equity fund. In 2001, Matrix Partners completed fundraising for Matrix Partners VII, a $1 billion venture capital fund. In 2006, Matrix raised Matrix Partners VIII fund, with $445 million of investor commitments. In 2006, Matrix raised a separate $150 million India fund. In July 2009, Matrix raised Matrix IX fund with $600 million; as of 2018, the firm has raised eleven U. S venture capital funds and five China focused funds. Since 1977, Matrix has invested in Apple Computer, Alteon WebSystems, Office Club, they have invested in companies such as Ambarella, Apartment List, JustFab, Gilt Groupe, BillFloat, Klook, Mitro and Canva. In January 2019 the company announced new round of investments at total value of $300 million. Official website
Otello Corporation ASA is a Norwegian internet company which develops advertising and mobile solutions for operators and advertisers. It operates through its subsidiaries which include AdColony, a mobile advertising platform and network, Bemobi, a subscription-based mobile application and game discovery service, Skyfire Labs, which provides mobile operators cloud based access for network management and video optimization, advertising facilitation. Opera Software ASA was founded as a holding company for Opera businesses, it changed its name to Otello Corporation after it sold off its web browser and consumer business along with the Opera brand to a Chinese consortium of investors. While it planned to wholly sell itself off to the consortium the deal did not go through due to regulatory approvals, it settled by selling its consumer-facing web browser business instead. On 20 January 2010, Opera Software announced that it had acquired Inc.. On 30 April 2010, Opera Software acquired Australian web email provider FastMail.
In September 2013, the staff of FastMail bought the company back from Opera Software. On 19 September 2011, Opera Software announced that it had acquired mobile application platform Handster, the leading independent app store for Android apps at that time, in order to strengthen the Opera Mobile Store's offerings to consumers, mobile operators and handset manufacturers. On 15 February 2013, Opera Software announced. Opera targeted the company for its video optimization technologies, such as its Rocket Optimizer platform, which would complement its own content optimization technologies. On 4 June 2014, Opera Software announced that it is acquiring AdColony to bolster its mobile video ad capabilities. Opera paid potential earn-out payments of up to $275 million. In December 2017, AdColony CEO, Will Kassoy stepped down from his position and was replaced by Otello CEO, Lars Boilesen. In March 2015, Opera Software acquired the Canadian VPN company, SurfEasy and integrated the SurfEasy VPN into Opera as a free and unlimited service for its users.
On 20 December 2016, control of Opera TV AS was sold to Moore Company. On 6 November 2017, Opera Software divested its SurfEasy subsidiary by selling it to Symantec for $38.5 million all in cash. 85% of the payment was released on November 6, 2017 by Symantec with the remaining 15% remaining in escrow for up to 15 months. Specific earn-out targets were not mentioned. Official website Otello Corp. at Hoovers
In the context of the World Wide Web, a bookmark is a Uniform Resource Identifier, stored for retrieval in any of various storage formats. All modern web browsers include bookmark features. Bookmarks are called favorites or Internet shortcuts in Internet Explorer, by virtue of that browser's large market share, these terms have been synonymous with bookmark since the first browser war. Bookmarks are accessed through a menu in the user's web browser, folders are used for organization. In addition to bookmarking methods within most browsers, many external applications offer bookmark management. Bookmarks have been incorporated in browsers since the Mosaic browser in 1993. Bookmark lists were called Hotlists in previous versions of Opera. Other early web browsers such as ViolaWWW and Cello had bookmarking features. With the advent of social bookmarking, shared bookmarks have become a means for users sharing similar interests to pool web resources, or to store their bookmarks in such a way that they are not tied to one specific computer or browser.
Live bookmarks are updated automatically. Comparison of browser synchronizers Enterprise bookmarking Favicon Smart keyword Social bookmark link generator Social bookmarking XBEL Bookmark Managers at Curlie