Winchester is an independent city located in the northwestern portion of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,203; as of 2015, its population is an estimated 27,284. It is the county seat of Frederick County; the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Winchester with surrounding Frederick County for statistical purposes. Winchester is the principal city of the Winchester, Virginia–West Virginia, metropolitan statistical area, a part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. Winchester is home to the Museum of the Shenandoah Valley. Indigenous peoples lived along the waterways of present-day Virginia for thousands of years before European contact. Archeological and anthropological studies have provided insights into their cultures. Though little is known of specific tribal movements before European contact, the Shenandoah Valley area, considered a sacred common hunting ground, appears by the 17th century to have been controlled by the local Iroquoian-speaking groups, including the Senedo and Sherando.
The Algonquian-speaking Shawnee began to challenge the Iroquoians for the hunting grounds in that century. The explorers Batts and Fallam in 1671 reported the Shawnee were contesting with the Iroquoians for control of the valley and were losing. During the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois Confederacy from New York subjugated all tribes in the frontier region west of the Fall Line. By the time European settlers arrived in the Shenandoah Valley around 1729, the Shawnee were the principal occupants in the area around Winchester. During the first decade of white settlement, the valley was a conduit and battleground in a bloody intertribal war between the Seneca and allied Algonquian Lenape from the north, their distant traditional enemies, the Siouan Catawba in the Carolinas; the Iroquois Six Nations ceded their nominal claim to the Shenandoah Valley at the Treaty of Lancaster. The treaty established the right of colonists to use the Indian Road known as the Great Wagon Road; the father of the historical Shawnee chief Cornstalk had his court at Shawnee Springs until 1754.
In 1753, on the eve of the French and Indian War, messengers came to the Shawnee from tribes further west, inviting them to leave the Valley and cross the Alleghenies, which they did the following year. The Shawnee settled for some years in the Ohio Country before being forced by the US government under Indian Removal in the 1830s to remove to Indian Territory. Winchester had a notable role as a frontier city in those early times; the Governor of Virginia, as well as the young military commander George Washington, met in the town with their Iroquois allies, to coordinate maneuvers against the French and their Native American allies during the French and Indian War. French Jesuit expeditions may have first entered the valley as early as 1606, as the explorer Samuel de Champlain made a crude map of the area in 1632; the first confirmed exploration of the northern valley was by the explorer John Lederer, who viewed the it from the current Fauquier and Warren County line on August 26, 1670. In 1705 the Swiss explorer Louise Michel and in 1716 Governor Alexander Spotswood did more extensive mapping and surveying.
In the late 1720s, Governor William Gooch promoted settlement by issuing large land grants. Robert "King" Carter, manager of the Lord Fairfax proprietorship, acquired 200,000 acres; this combination of events directly precipitated an inrush of settlers from Pennsylvania and New York, made up of a blend of Quakers and German and Scots-Irish homesteaders, many of them new immigrants. The Scots-Irish comprised the most numerous group of immigrants from the British Isles before the American Revolutionary War; the settlement of Winchester began as early as 1729, when Quakers such as Abraham Hollingsworth migrated up the Great Valley along the long-traveled Indian Path from Pennsylvania. He and others began to homestead on old Shawnee campgrounds. Tradition holds that the Quakers purchased several tracts on Apple-pie Ridge from the natives, who did not disturb those settlements; the first German settler appears to have been Jost Hite in 1732, who brought ten other families, including some Scots-Irish.
Though Virginia was an Anglican colony, Governor William Gooch had a tolerant policy on religion. The availability of land grants brought in many religious families, who were given 50-acre plots through the sponsorship of fellow-religious grant purchasers and speculators; as a result, the Winchester area became home to some of the oldest Presbyterian, Quaker and Anglican churches in the valley. The first Lutheran worship was established by Rev. John Casper Stoever Jr. and Alexander Ross established Hopewell Meeting for the Quakers. By 1736, Scots-Irish built the Opequon Presbyterian Church in Kernstown. A legal fight erupted in 1735 when Thomas Fairfax, Sixth Lord Fairfax came to Virginia to claim his land grant, it included "all the land in Virginia between the Rappahannock and the Potomac rivers", an old grant from King Charles II which overlapped and included Frederick County. It took some time for land titles to be cleared among early settlers. By 1738 these settlements became known as Frederick Town.
The county of Frederick was carved out of Orange County. The first government was created, consisting of a County Court as well as the Anglican Frederick Parish. Colonel James Wood, an immigrant from Winchester, was the first co
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geologists study geology, although backgrounds in physics, chemistry and other sciences are useful. Field work is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work. Geologists work in the energy and mining sectors searching for natural resources such as petroleum, natural gas and base metals, they are in the forefront of preventing and mitigating damage from natural hazards and disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides. Their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events. Geologists are important contributors to climate change discussions. James Hutton is viewed as the first modern geologist. In 1785 he presented a paper entitled Theory of the Earth to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. In his paper, he explained his theory that the Earth must be much older than had been supposed to allow enough time for mountains to be eroded and for sediments to form new rocks at the bottom of the sea, which in turn were raised up to become dry land.
Hutton published a two-volume version of his ideas in 1795. Followers of Hutton were known as Plutonists because they believed that some rocks were formed by vulcanism, the deposition of lava from volcanoes, as opposed to the Neptunists, led by Abraham Werner, who believed that all rocks had settled out of a large ocean whose level dropped over time; the first geological map of the United States was produced in 1809 by William Maclure. In 1807, Maclure commenced the self-imposed task of making a geological survey of the United States; every state in the Union was traversed and mapped by him. The results of his unaided labors were submitted to the American Philosophical Society in a memoir entitled Observations on the Geology of the United States explanatory of a Geological Map, published in the Society's Transactions, together with the nation's first geological map; this antedates William Smith's geological map of England by six years, although it was constructed using a different classification of rocks.
Sir Charles Lyell first published his famous book, Principles of Geology, in 1830. This book, which influenced the thought of Charles Darwin promoted the doctrine of uniformitarianism; this theory states that slow geological processes have occurred throughout the Earth's history and are still occurring today. In contrast, catastrophism is the theory that Earth's features formed in single, catastrophic events and remained unchanged thereafter. Though Hutton believed in uniformitarianism, the idea was not accepted at the time. For an aspiring geologist, training includes significant coursework in physics and chemistry, in addition to classes offered through the geology department. Most geologists need skills in GIS and other mapping techniques. Geology students spend portions of the year the summer though sometimes during a January term and working under field conditions with faculty members. Many non-geologists take geology courses or have expertise in geology that they find valuable to their fields.
Geologists may concentrate their studies or research in one or more of the following disciplines: Economic geology: the study of ore genesis, the mechanisms of ore creation, geostatistics. Engineering geology: application of the geologic sciences to engineering practice for the purpose of assuring that the geologic factors affecting the location, construction and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and adequately provided for. Geochemistry: the applied branch deals with the study of the chemical makeup and behaviour of rocks, the study of the behaviour of their minerals. Geochronology: the study of isotope geology toward determining the date within the past of rock formation, metamorphism and geological events. Geomorphology: the study of landforms and the processes that create them Hydrogeology: the study of the origin and movement of groundwater water in a subsurface geological system. Igneous petrology: the study of igneous processes such as igneous differentiation, fractional crystallization and volcanological phenomena.
Isotope geology: the case of the isotopic composition of rocks to determine the processes of rock and planetary formation. Metamorphic petrology: the study of the effects of metamorphism on minerals and rocks. Marine geology: the study of the seafloor. Marine geology has strong ties to physical plate tectonics. Palaeoclimatology: the application of geological science to determine the climatic conditions present in the Earth's atmosphere within the Earth's history. Palaeontology: the classification and taxonomy of fossils within the geological record and the construction of a palaeontological history of the Earth. Pe
Dixie Caverns is a commercial show cave located in the Riverside community of Roanoke County, Virginia, USA, four miles west of Salem. The cave is a limestone solution cave. Visitors may explore the caverns in a 45 minute guided tour; the caverns were found by a couple farm boys back in 1920 after their dog fell through a hole that led to the caves. They decided to name the caverns after their dog in honor of his discovery. Guided tours of the caverns were begun in 1923; the best known attraction is a bell-shaped flowstone formation known as the "Wedding Bell". Weddings have been held under the Bell; the cave is located in a hill overlooking the surrounding region. Dixie Caverns website
Shenandoah Caverns is a commercial show cave in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Shenandoah Caverns is the only cavern in Virginia; the Shenandoah Caverns has a mile-long guided tour. Seventeen "rooms" of connecting chambers are traveled through during this time. Geological formations have been named: the Diamond Cascade, the Grotto of the Gods, the Rainbow Lake, the Oriental Tea Garden, the Capitol Dome, these are lighted for display; the "bacon" formations were featured in a 1964 issue of National Geographic Magazine. The caverns' temperature remains at 54 degrees year round. Shenandoah Caverns was discovered in 1884 during the building of the Southern Railway through the Shenandoah Valley. Many local farmers, including Abraham Neff, donated stone from their property to the building of the railroad; the Neff family allowed the railroad to quarry rock on their property, adjacent to where the railroad was built. Neff's two sons were playing in quarry when they discovered cool air rising from a hole in the ground.
Their curiosity was piqued, so the boys retrieved ropes and candles and scrambled down the 275 foot twisting and winding shaft to make their way into the caverns. The railway was instrumental to the opening of Shenandoah Caverns. A local businessman in Woodstock, Hunter Chapman, was a stockholder in the B&O railroad; when he heard about the railroad going through, the discovery of the caverns, he saw an opportunity to open an attraction on the railway. He asked him to sell his property, which he did. In 1922 Chapman opened Shenandoah Caverns, with a full service hotel on the third floors; the passenger train ran until after WWII. The caverns was sold to H. B. Long in 1954. In 1957 during a remodeling project the caverns lodge destroyed the top two floors. In the 1990s the second floor of the caverns lodge was renovated and Main Street of Yesteryear opened in 1996. In 1966 Earl C. Hargrove, Jr. owner of Hargrove, Inc. in Lanham, purchased Shenandoah Caverns. Mr. Hargrove's company was responsible for the creation of parade floats and props for every Inaugural since Truman's in 1949, as well as Miss America Pageants, Philadelphia Thanksgiving Day Parades, many other national celebrations.
To display retired parade floats, American Celebration on Parade was opened in 2000 on the Shenandoah Caverns property. In 2007 Hargrove opened the Yellow Barn to showcase his antique carriages and farm equipment, as well as to be a wedding and special events venue; the Shenandoah Valley is underlain with limestone and has karst topography, forming caves throughout the region. Rainwater becomes acidic as it seeps through the soil; the acid erodes the calcium carbonate, the main component of limestone, creating caves and springs throughout the landscape. There are many cave and caverns throughout the surrounding area. Official website
Skyline Drive is a 105-mile road that runs the entire length of the National Park Service's Shenandoah National Park in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia along the ridge of the mountains. The drive's northern terminus is at an intersection with U. S. Route 340 near Front Royal, the southern terminus is at an interchange with US 250 near Interstate 64 in Rockfish Gap, where the road continues south as the Blue Ridge Parkway; the road has US 33 in Swift Run Gap. Skyline Drive is part of Virginia State Route 48, which includes the Virginia portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway, but this designation is not signed. A park entrance fee is charged at the four access points to the drive. Skyline Drive is a two-lane road that has 75 overlooks providing views of the Shenandoah Valley to the west and the Piedmont to the east; the drive provides access to numerous trails, including the Appalachian Trail, it is used for biking and horseback riding. Skyline Drive is the main road through Shenandoah National Park and has access to campgrounds, visitor centers, resorts such as Skyland Resort and Big Meadows.
The scenic drive is popular in the fall for leaf peeping when the leaves are changing colors. Skyline Drive is designated a National Scenic Byway and a National Historic Landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Plans for the road date back to 1924 when a national park was planned in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia and the main feature was to be a "sky-line drive" providing views of the surrounding land. President Herbert Hoover, who had a summer home at Rapidan Camp, called for the construction of the road. Groundbreaking for Skyline Drive took place in 1931; the first section, to run from Rapidan Camp to Skyland, was extended between Swift Run Gap and Thornton Gap and opened in 1934. Skyline Drive was extended north to Front Royal in 1936 and south to Jarman Gap in 1939; the road between Jarman Gap and Rockfish Gap was built as part of the Blue Ridge Parkway in 1939 and was incorporated into Skyline Drive in 1961. The Civilian Conservation Corps played a large part in constructing Skyline Drive.
Improvements have been made to the roadway. Skyline Drive was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1997, became a National Scenic Byway in 2005, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2008. Skyline Drive takes a winding north–south path along the mountaintops of the Blue Ridge Mountains east of the Shenandoah River from Front Royal to Rockfish Gap, serving as the only public road through Shenandoah National Park. There are four entrance points to Skyline Drive located at US 340 near I-66 in Front Royal, US 211 in Thornton Gap, US 33 in Swift Run Gap and US 250 near I-64 in Rockfish Gap. At the south end in Rockfish Gap it connects to the northern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway, a free-access road that continues southward along the Blue Ridge Mountains. On the west side of the drive, mileposts are present, they serve as reference points to directions in the drive. There are 75 overlooks throughout the drive, providing views of the Shenandoah Valley to the west and the Piedmont to the east.
The speed limit is 35 miles per hour, due to curves and tourists. Bicycles, motor vehicles, pedestrians share the road. There are deer, black bears and other wildlife, which may appear and cross the road without warning; these all require extra precautions. The speed limit within the park is enforced by park rangers. Numerous trails can be accessed along the drive, including a portion of the Appalachian Trail, which follows the road's path. Biking and horseback riding are other recreational activities; the drive is popular in the fall months for leaf peeping to view fall foliage. Skyline Drive is closed from dusk to dawn from November to early January to ensure rangers can control illegal hunting; the drive can close for a short time following snow or ice storms. Skyline Drive is designated a National Scenic Byway. Skyline Drive begins at an intersection with US 340 south of Front Royal in Warren County, heading east into dense forests in Shenandoah National Park as a two-lane undivided road; the road curves south and passes through the Front Royal Entrance Station, where a ranger station is located.
At this point, the drive winds ascends the Blue Ridge Mountains. The roadway heads southwest and comes to the Shenandoah Valley Overlook on the west side of the road. Skyline Drive winds south and reaches the Dickey Ridge Visitor Center, which has a ranger station, picnic grounds, restrooms. Farther south, the roadway reaches Dickey Hill; the road continues southerly to the Gooney Knob Overlook facing southwest, at which point it turns to the east and winds through Low Gap. The drive heads east to an overlook at Compton Gap, where it bends south along a winding path, straddling the border of Warren and Rappahannock counties, runs parallel to the Appalachian Trail, which follows Skyline Drive for the remainder of its route; the road reaches the summit of North Marshall. Upon reaching the south-facing Range View Overlook, the roadway turns to the west along a winding path, bending southwest The drive passes the Mount Marshall Overlook on the east side, at which point it heads west. Skyline Drive reaches the Hogback Overlook on Hogback Mountain that faces northwest and turns southerly.
The roadway heads west and straddles the boundary between Page and Rappahannock counties, coming to Mathews Arm, where a campground and ranger station are located. The drive turns to the south and comes to Elkwallow, which hosts restrooms, picnic gr
A show cave—also called tourist cave, public cave, in the United States, commercial cave—is a cave, made accessible to the public for guided visits. A show cave is a cave, made accessible to the public for guided visits, where a cave is defined as a natural occurring void beneath the surface of the earth, per the International Show Caves Association. A show cave may be managed by a government or commercial organization and made accessible to the general public for an entrance fee. Unlike wild caves, they may possess constructed trails, guided tours and regular opening hours; the term is used inconsistently between nations: many countries tend to call all caves which are open to the public show caves. However, there are many caves which are not developed with trails and tours, which are visited by many people; this kind of cave is called a semi-wild cave. Access may involve anything between an easy dangerous climbing. Most cave accidents happen in this kind of cave, as visitors underestimate the difficulties and dangers.
The oldest known show cave in the world is Reed Flute Cave in China with inscriptions from 792 in the time of the T'ang Dynasty. Other old show caves are Postojna Cave in Slovenia, with the presumed first record of a cave tour in 1213. Other early show caves are Jasovská jaskyňa in Slovakia with inscriptions from 1452, the Sontheimer Höhle in Germany, visited by Herzog Ulrich von Württemberg on 20 May 1516 and Vilenica Cave in Slovenia where entrance fees were taken from 1633 on. In 1649, the first "authorized" cave guide started guiding Baumannshöhle in the Harz in Germany though this cave was intensively visited much earlier; the development of electric lighting enabled the illumination of show caves. Early experiments with electric light in caves were carried out by Lieutenant Edward Cracknel in 1880 at Chifley Cave, Jenolan Caves, Australia. In 1881, Sloupsko-Šošůvské Jeskyně, Czech Republic, became the first cave in the world with electric arc light; this light did not use light bulbs, but electric arc lamps with carbon electrodes, which burned down and had to be replaced after some time.
The first cave in the world with electric light bulbs as we know them today was the Kraushöhle in Austria in 1883. But the light was abandoned after only seven years and the cave is today visited with carbide lamps. In 1884, two more caves were equipped with electric light, Postojna Cave and Olgahöhle, Germany; because of the unwanted development of lampenflora around incandescent electric lights in show caves, many of these attractions, such as Ingleborough Cave in England, have switched to cooler-temperature LED lighting. Alisadr Cave, Hamedan, Iran Bears' Cave, Chişcău village, Bihor County, Romania Bing Cave in Bavaria, Germany Blanchard Springs Caverns in Arkansas, United States Buchan Caves, Australia Cango Caves, South Africa Cascade Caverns, Texas, United States Cave Without a Name, near Boerne, United States Caverns of Sonora, Texas, United States Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico, United States Craighead Caverns in Tennessee, United States Cross Cave, Slovenia Cuevas del Drach on Majorca island, Spain Dan yr Ogof in Powys, Wales Doolin Cave in Doolin, Ireland Eisriesenwelt, Austria Fantastic Caverns near Springfield, Missouri Frasassi Caves, Italy Gardner Cave, Washington State, United States Grotta Gigante, Italy Grottes de Han, Belgium Grutas de Cacahuamilpa, Mexico Harrison's Cave, Barbados Horne Lake Caves near Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada Howe Caverns in New York, United States Ingleborough Cave, England Inner Space Cavern, Texas, United States Jeita Grotto, Lebanon Jenolan Caves in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia Kartchner Caverns State Park near Benson, United States La Verna cave in France Lewis and Clark Caverns in Montana, United States Linville Caverns in Marion, North Carolina, United States Luray Caverns in Virginia, United States Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, United States Marble Arch Caves in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland Mark Twain Cave, near Hannibal, United States Meramec Caverns, near Stanton, United States Natural Bridge Caverns in Comal County, United States Ohio Caverns in Ohio, United States Phong Nha Cave, Quang Binh, Vietnam Poole's Cavern, England Postojna Cave, Slovenia Reed Flute Cave, Guangxi, China Scărișoara Cave, Gârda de Sus, Alba County, Romania Seven-Star Cave, Guangxi, China Škocjan Caves, Slovenia Smoo Cave, Scotland Vilenica Cave, Slovenia Vjetrenica Cave and Herzegovina Waitomo Caves, New Zealand Wonder Cave, San Marcos, United States Wookey Hole Caves, England List of show caves in Germany Show Caves at Curlie Greek Show Caves directory ShowCaves.gr United States show caves directory by state goodearthgraphics.com US National Caves Association cavern.com World show caves directory showcaves.com