Thai Airways International Public Company Limited, trading as THAI is the flag carrier airline of Thailand. Formed in 1988, the airline has its corporate headquarters in Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Chatuchak District and operates from Suvarnabhumi Airport. THAI is a founding member of the Star Alliance; the airline is the second-largest shareholder of the low-cost carrier Nok Air with a 21.80 per cent stake, it launched a regional carrier under the name Thai Smile in the middle of 2012 using new Airbus A320 aircraft. From its hub at Suvarnabhumi Airport and secondary hub at Phuket International Airport, Thai flies to 84 destinations in 37 countries, using a fleet of over 90 aircraft; the airline was once the operator of two of the world's longest non-stop routes between Bangkok and Los Angeles and New York City, but due to high fuel prices, the withdrawal of aircraft, luggage weight limits and rising airfares, the airline abandoned all non-stop US services in 2012 indefinitely. As of 2013, services between Bangkok and Los Angeles were served via Incheon International Airport near Seoul, however, it ended its service to the US on 25 October 2015.
Thai's route network is dominated by flights to Europe, East Asia, South/Southwest Asia, though the airline serves five cities in Oceania. Thai was the first Asia-Pacific airline to serve London Heathrow Airport. Among Asia-Pacific carriers, the company has one of the largest passenger operations in Europe; as of the end of 2018, it employed about 1,300 pilots across all of its routes.. Thai Airways has its origins in 1960 as a joint venture between Scandinavian Airlines, which held a 30 per cent share of the new company valued at two million Thai baht, Thailand's domestic carrier, Thai Airways Company; the purpose of the joint venture was to create an international wing for the domestic carrier Thai Airways Company. SAS provided operational and marketing expertise, with training assistance aimed at building a independent national airline within the shortest possible time. Thai nationals, through training and experience, were able to assume full managerial responsibility and the number of expatriate staff duly decreased, with expatriates accounting for less than one per cent of staff based in Thailand in 1987.
The carrier's first revenue flight was on 1 May 1960. Flights were operated to nine overseas Asian destinations from Bangkok; the airline's first intercontinental services using Douglas DC-8s started in 1971 to Australia, to Europe the following year. A number of the larger Douglas DC-10 wide-body tri-jet was acquired in the 1970s. Services to North America commenced in 1980. On 1 April 1977, after 17 years of capital participation by SAS, the Thai government bought out the remaining 15 per cent of SAS-owned shares and Thai became an airline owned by the Thai government. In 2016, the company is 51 per cent owned by the Thai Ministry of Finance. Forty-seven per cent of its shares trade on the Stock Exchange of Thailand. On 1 April 1988, then-Prime Minister Gen. Prem Tinsulanonda, in seeking to have a single national carrier, merged the international and domestic operations of the two companies to form the present company, Thai Airways International. On 25 June 1991, the new Thai listed its shares on the Stock Exchange of Thailand and offered them to the public.
The Thai public offering of shares is the largest undertaken in the country. In 1997 Thai Airways planned the first in Thai history. On 14 May 1997, THAI, along with Lufthansa, Air Canada, SAS, United Airlines, founded the world's first and largest airline alliance, Star Alliance. Throughout the 2000s, Thai aggressively continued its route network expansion with new services to Chengdu, Chennai, Milan, Islamabad, Hyderabad and Oslo. Using the Airbus A340-500s it acquired in 2005, Thai commenced non-stop flights from Bangkok to New York, its first non-stop services to North America; the airline converted existing one-stop services to Los Angeles into non-stop services using the same aircraft type. Citing high fuel costs, Thai discontinued the New York service in July 2008 though the airline had been able to fill 80 per cent of the seats; the service to Los Angeles was again reverted to one-stop service via Seoul on 1 May 2012, leaving the airline without a non-stop service between Thailand and North America.
The A340s used have been phased out using the Boeing 777-200ER for the Bangkok–Seoul–Los-Angeles route. Although the previous A340 used for non-stop services was not subject to ETOPS, the phasing in of the 777 with one-stop service will be indefinite for years to come. In 2006, THAI moved its hub operations to the new Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport. Coinciding with the arrival of new aircraft during the mid-2000s, as well as its new hub airport in Bangkok, the airline launched a brand renewal by introducing a new aircraft livery, new aircraft seating, revamped ground and air services; the 2000s saw Thai expanding its route network beyond its Bangkok hub. The airline launched non-stop flights from Phuket to Hong Kong. During the late-2000s, Thai's aggressive growth was hampered by a combination of internal and external factors, including a spike in fuel prices, domestic political conflict in Thailand, the global economic crisis of the late-2000s. In 2008, after achieving profitability for the previous 40 years, THAI recorded a
Etihad Airways is the second-largest airline in the United Arab Emirates. Its head office is in Abu Dhabi, near Abu Dhabi's International Airport. Etihad commenced operations in November 2003; the airline operates more than 1,000 flights per week to over 120 passenger and cargo destinations in the Middle East, Europe, Asia and the Americas, with a fleet of 117 Airbus and Boeing aircraft as of February 2018. In 2015, Etihad carried 14.8 million passengers, a 22.3% increase from the previous year, delivering revenues of US$9.02 billion and net profits of US$103 million. Its main base is Abu Dhabi International Airport. In addition to its core activity of passenger transportation, Etihad operates Etihad Holidays and Etihad Cargo. Etihad established its own airline alliance, Etihad Airways Partners, in October 2015, that includes Jet Airways, Air Serbia and Air Seychelles. Etihad Airways holds minority equity investments in the participating airlines. Booking for these airlines is consolidated under one network.
Etihad Airways was established as the second flag carrier of the United Arab Emirates in July 2003 by Royal Decree issued by Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, who wanted an airline for Abu Dhabi. Sheikh Ahmed bin Saif Al Nahyan established the airline, it started with an initial paid-up capital of AED500 million. Services were launched with a ceremonial flight to Al Ain on 5 November 2003. On 12 November 2003, Etihad commenced commercial operations with the launch of services to Beirut, Lebanon. Prior to the establishment of Etihad, Gulf Air was the airline, based at Abu Dhabi International Airport and was co-owned by Bahrain and the Sultanate of Oman. In June 2004, the airline placed an US$8-billion aircraft order for five Boeing 777-300ERs and 24 Airbus aircraft, including four Airbus A380s, its first A380 was delivered in December 2014. The airline announced what was the largest aircraft order in commercial aviation history at the Farnborough Airshow in 2008, for up to 205 aircraft—100 firm orders, 55 options and 50 purchase rights.
Etihad reported its first full-year net profit in 2011, of US$14 million, in line with the strategic plan announced by CEO James Hogan in 2006. In December 2011, Etihad announced it had taken a 29.21% stake in Air Berlin, Europe's sixth-largest airline, James Hogan was appointed Vice Chairman. It followed this up with minority stakes in other airlines—Air Seychelles, Aer Lingus, Virgin Australia. On 1 August 2013, the President of the company, James Hogan, signed a deal with Aleksandar Vučić, First Deputy Prime Minister of Serbia, in Belgrade, giving Etihad a 49% stake in the Serbian national carrier Jat Airways; the Serbian Government retained 51% of the shares, with the company being rebranded as Air Serbia. In September 2012, the Indian government announced that foreign airlines could take a stake of up to 49% in Indian carriers. On 24 April 2013, Jet Airways announced that it was ready to sell a 24% stake in the airline to Etihad for US$379 million; the deal was completed on 12 November 2013.
At the 2013 Dubai Airshow, Etihad announced that it was acquiring a 33.3% stake in the Swiss carrier Darwin Airline. Darwin was rebranded as Etihad Regional from March 2014. Etihad sold Darwin in 2017. On 1 August 2014, Etihad agreed to take a 49% stake in the Italian flag carrier Alitalia for an estimated €560 million; the deal was closed on 8 August 2014. On 1 January 2015, Alitalia-CAI formally passed its operations to Alitalia-SAI, a new entity owned 49% by Etihad and 51% by the Alitalia-CAI shareholders. In May 2016, the management structure was reshuffled, as James Hogan became CEO of the airline's parent company, Etihad Aviation Group. Peter Baumgartner the airline's Chief Commercial Officer, became Chief Executive Officer of the airline, reporting to Hogan. In May 2017, a week after Alitalia collapsed into administration, Etihad Aviation Group announced that CEO James Hogan and CFO James Rigney would leave the group on 1 July 2017; as an interim measure the board of directors appointed Ray Gammell as CEO while searching for a permanent replacement.
On January 9, 2018, Etihad Airways appointed Mark Powers as Group CFO, replacing interim Group CFO Ricky Thirion. On 2 July 2017, the United States Department of Homeland Security unbanned Etihad Airways and exempted Etihad Airways from the 2017 electronics ban after the airline enhanced its passenger screening processes. In February 2019, Etihad announced large order cancellations for both and Boeing aircraft; the airline terminated contracts for all 42 Airbus A350-900s, 2 A350-1000s and 19 of 24 ordered Boeing 777X. Etihad has its head office, in Abu Dhabi, near Abu Dhabi International Airport. Etihad spent 183.6 million UAE dirhams in 2007 to arrange to have its new head office and training center built. The new head office was scheduled to be finished by the end of 2007. Etihad is governed by a board of directors chaired by H. E. Mohamed Mubarak Al Mazrouei and operates in terms of its founding legislation and the Article of Association of the Company; the Board consists of seven independent non-executive members and has two sub-committees, being an Executive Committee and an Audit Committee, each with its own charter and chairman.
Other members of the board include: H. E. Ahmed Ali Al Sayegh, H. E. Mohamed Khalifa Al Mubarak, H. E. Mohamed Hareb Sultan Al Yousef, H. E. Hamad Abdulla Al Shamsi, H. E. Khalifa Sultan Al Suwaidi, H. E. Ahmed Ali Matar Al Romaithi; the airline was led by James Hogan (formerly CEO o
Catering is the business of providing food service at a remote site or a site such as a hotel, pub, cruise ship, filming site or studio, entertainment site, or event venue. The earliest account of major services being catered in the United States is a 1778 ball in Philadelphia catered by Caesar Cranshell to celebrate the departure of British General William Howe. Catering business began centering in Philadelphia. Catering became a profitable business; the early catering industry was disproportionately founded by African-Americans. The industry began to professionalize under the reigns of Robert Bogle, recognized as "the originator of catering." By 1840, the second generation of Philadelphia black caterers formed, who began to combine their catering businesses with restaurants they owned. Common usage of the word "caterer" came about in the 1880s at which point local directories began listing numerous caterers. White businessmen moved into the industry and by the 1930s, the black businesses had disappeared.
In the 1930s, the Soviet Union, creating more simple menus, began developing state public catering establishments as part of its collectivization policies. A rationing system was implemented during World War II, people became used to public catering. After the Second World War, many businessmen embraced catering as an alternative way of staying in business after the war. By the 1960s, the home-made food was overtaken by eating in public catering establishments. By the 2000s, personal chef services started gaining popularity, with more women entering the workforce. People between 15 and 24 years of age spent as little as 11-17 minutes daily on food preparation and clean-up activities in 2006-2016, according to figures revealed by the American Time Use Survey conducted by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. A mobile caterer serves food directly from a vehicle, cart or truck, designed for the purpose. Mobile catering is common at outdoor events such as concerts and downtown business districts. Seat-back catering was a service offered by some charter airlines in the United Kingdom that involved embedding two meals in a single seat-back tray.
"One helping was intended for each leg of a charter flight, but Alan Murray, of Viking Aviation, had earlier revealed that'with the ingenious use of a nail file or coin, one could open the inbound meal and have seconds'. The intention of participating airlines was to "save money, reduce congestion in the cabin and give punters the chance to decide when to eat their meal". By requiring less galley space on board, the planes could offer more passenger seats. According to TravelUpdate's columnist, "The Flight Detective", "Salads and sandwiches were the usual staples," and "a small pellet of dry ice was put into the compartment for the return meal to try to keep it fresh." However, in addition to the fact that passengers on one leg were able to consume the food intended for other passengers on the following leg, there was a "food hygiene" problem, the concept was discontinued by 1975. Merchant ships – ferries, cruise liners, large cargo ships - carry Catering Officers. In fact, the term "catering" was in use in the world of the merchant marine long before it became established as a land-bound business.
A wedding caterer provides food to the wedding party. The wedding caterer can be part of a package designed by the venue. Aircraft ground handling Airline meal Food trucks Gastronorm sizes Online food ordering
Flight attendants or cabin crew are members of an aircrew employed by airlines to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers aboard commercial flights, on select business jet aircraft, on some military aircraft. The role of a flight attendant derives from that of similar positions on passenger ships or passenger trains, but it has more direct involvement with passengers because of the confined quarters on aircraft. Additionally, the job of a flight attendant revolves around safety to a much greater extent than those of similar staff on other forms of transportation. Flight attendants on board a flight collectively form a cabin crew, as distinguished from pilots and engineers in the cockpit; the German Heinrich Kubis was the world's first flight attendant, in 1912. Kubis first attended the passengers on board the DELAG Zeppelin LZ 10 Schwaben, he attended to the famous LZ 129 Hindenburg and was on board when it burst into flames. He survived by jumping out a window. Origins of the word "steward" in transportation are reflected in the term "chief steward" as used in maritime transport terminology.
The term purser and chief steward are used interchangeably describing personnel with similar duties among seafaring occupations. This lingual derivation results from the international British maritime tradition dating back to the 14th century and the civilian United States Merchant Marine on which US aviation is somewhat modeled. Due to international conventions and agreements, in which all ships' personnel who sail internationally are documented by their respective countries, the U. S. Merchant Marine assigns such duties to the chief steward in the overall rank and command structure of which pursers are not positionally represented or rostered. Imperial Airways of the United Kingdom had "cabin boys" or "stewards". In the US, Stout Airways was the first to employ stewards in 1926, working on Ford Trimotor planes between Detroit and Grand Rapids, Michigan. Western Airlines and Pan American World Airways were the first US carriers to employ stewards to serve food. Ten-passenger Fokker aircraft used in the Caribbean had stewards in the era of gambling trips to Havana, Cuba from Key West, Florida.
Lead flight attendants would in many instances perform the role of purser, steward, or chief steward in modern aviation terminology. The first female flight attendant was a 25-year-old registered nurse named Ellen Church. Hired by United Airlines in 1930, she first envisioned nurses on aircraft. Other airlines followed suit, hiring nurses to serve as flight attendants called "stewardesses" or "air hostesses", on most of their flights. In the United States, the job was one of only a few in the 1930s to permit women, coupled with the Great Depression, led to large numbers of applicants for the few positions available. Two thousand women applied for just 43 positions offered by Transcontinental and Western Airlines in December 1935. Female flight attendants replaced male ones, by 1936, they had all but taken over the role, they were selected not only for their knowledge but for their characteristics. A 1936 New York Times article described the requirements: The girls who qualify for hostesses must be petite.
Add to that the rigid physical examination each must undergo four times every year, you are assured of the bloom that goes with perfect health. Three decades a 1966 New York Times classified ad for stewardesses at Eastern Airlines listed these requirements: A high school graduate, single, 20 years of age. 5'2" but no more than 5'9", weight 105 to 135 in proportion to height and have at least 20/40 vision without glasses. Appearance was considered as one of the most important factors to become a stewardess. At that time, airlines believed that the exploitation of female sexuality would increase their profits. In the United States, they were fired if they decided to wed.. The requirement to be a registered nurse on an American airline was relaxed as more women were hired, disappeared entirely during World War II as many nurses joined military nurse corps. Ruth Carol Taylor was the first African-American flight attendant in the United States. Hired in December 1957, on February 11, 1958, Taylor was the flight attendant on a Mohawk Airlines flight from Ithaca to New York, the first time such a position had been held by an African American.
She was let go within six months as a result of Mohawk's then-common marriage ban. The U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's first complainants were female flight attendants complaining of age discrimination, weight requirements, bans on marriage. In 1968, the EEOC declared age restrictions on flight attendants’ employment to be illegal sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1968, the EEOC ruled that sex was not a bona fide occupational requirement to be a flight attendant; the restriction of hiring only women was lifted at all airlines in 1971 due to the decisive court case of Diaz vs. Pan Am; the no-marriage rule was eliminated throughout the US airline industry by the 1980s. The last such broad categorical discrimination, the weight
Emirates is an airline based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The airline is a subsidiary of The Emirates Group, wholly owned by the government of Dubai's Investment Corporation of Dubai, it is the largest airline in the Middle East, operating over 3,600 flights per week from its hub at Dubai International Airport, to more than 150 cities in 80 countries across six continents. Cargo activities are undertaken by Emirates SkyCargo. Emirates is the world's fourth largest airline in scheduled revenue passenger-kilometers flown, the fourth-largest in terms of international passengers carried, the second-largest in terms of freight tonne kilometers flown. From March 2016 to February 2017 Emirates had the longest non-stop commercial flight from Dubai to Auckland. During the mid-1980s, Gulf Air began to cut back its services to Dubai; as a result, Emirates was conceived in March 1985 with backing from Dubai's royal family, with Pakistan International Airlines providing two of the airline's first aircraft on wet-lease.
With $10 million in start-up capital it was required to operate independently of government subsidy. Pakistan International Airlines provided training facilities to Emirates' cabin crew at its academy; the airline was headed by the airline's present chairman. In the years following its founding, the airline expanded both its destinations. In October 2008, Emirates moved all operations at Dubai International Airport to Terminal 3. Emirates operates a mixed fleet of Airbus and Boeing wide-body aircraft and is one of the few airlines to operate an all-wide-body aircraft fleet; as of February 2019, Emirates is the largest Airbus A380 operator with 109 aircraft in service and a further 14 on order. Since its introduction, the Airbus A380 has become an integral part of the Emirates fleet on long-haul high-traffic routes. Emirates is the world's largest Boeing 777 operator with 151 aircraft in service; the airline is a subsidiary of The Emirates Group, which itself is a subsidiary of the Dubai government's investment company, Investment Corporation of Dubai.
The airline has recorded a profit every year, except the second year, the growth has never fallen below 20% a year. In its first 11 years, it doubled in size every 3.5 years, has every four years since. In 2015 Emirates paid dividends worth AED2.6 billion, compared to AED1 billion in 2014. The government has received Dhs14.6 billion from Emirates since dividends started being paid in 1999 for having provided an initial start-up capital of US$10 million and an additional investment of about US$80 million at the time of the airline's inception. The Dubai government is the sole owner of the company. However, it does not put any new money into it, nor does it interfere with running the airline. Emirates has diversified into related industries and sectors, including airport services, engineering and tour operator operations. Emirates has seven subsidiaries and its parent company has more than 50; the company employed a total of 38,797 staff at the end of the fiscal year on 31 March 2011. Its parent company, The Emirates Group, employed a total of 50,000 employees of which 10,785 were cabin crew, 2,237 were flight deck crew, 1,904 were in engineering, 9,084 were listed as other.
Emirates provides its employees with benefits such as comprehensive health plans and paid maternity and sick leave. Another strategy employed by Emirates is to use profit sharing and merit pay as part of its competency based approach to performance management; the airline claims to have lower emissions than other airlines due to its fleet which has an average fuel burn of less than four litres for every 100 passenger kilometres it flies. The cargo division of the airline uses a similar hub-and-spoke network of operations. Emirates has stated that its versions of the A380-800 will offer fuel economy of 3.1 litres per 100 passenger km. The company uses a program called "Flextracks"; the technology is used to plan and optimize routes load factor. Passenger load factors were 81.2% in the 6 months to September 2010. Emirates has invested in a program called "tailored arrivals"; this allows air traffic control to uplink to aircraft en route. It first determines the speed and flight profile from the air onto the runway, this allows the crew to accept and fly a continuous descent profile, saving fuel and emissions.
In the financial year 2014–15, Emirates generated revenues of around AED 89 billion, which represented an increase of 7.5% over the previous year's revenues of AED 83 billion. Passenger numbers increased from 44.5 million to 49.2 million over the same period representing an increase of around 11%. Passenger seat factor increased by 0.2% to 79.6%. Cargo carried in 2014-15 improved, by 5.6% to 2.4 million tonnes. The airline's profits for the 2014/15 fiscal year rose by 38.3% to AED 5,893 million on the back of the lower oil prices and strong US dollar, although the 80-day runway closure at Dubai International negatively affected results. Its parent company saw profits up 34% to $1.5 billion for the year to 31 March. As of March 2015, Emirates did not use fuel price hedging. Fuel was 34.6% of total costs, employee related costs were 14.3% of total costs. The airline was the seventh-largest airline in the world in terms of international passengers carried, the largest in the world in terms of scheduled international passenger-kilometers flown.
It is the seventh-largest in terms of scheduled freight tonne-kilometres flown. Emirates' financial success has been attributed to rapid grow
Cathay Pacific Airways Limited known as Cathay Pacific or just Cathay, is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport. The airline's operations and subsidiaries have scheduled passenger and cargo services to more than 190 destinations in more than 60 countries worldwide including codeshares and joint ventures. Cathay Pacific operates a fleet of wide-body aircraft, consisting of Airbus A330, Airbus A350 and Boeing 777 equipment. Cathay Pacific Cargo operates two models of the Boeing 747. Wholly owned subsidiary airline Cathay Dragon operates to 44 destinations in the Asia-Pacific region from its Hong Kong base. In 2010, Cathay Pacific and Cathay Pacific Cargo, together with Cathay Dragon, carried nearly 27 million passengers and over 1.8 million tons of cargo and mail. The airline was founded on 24 September 1946 by Australian Sydney H. de Kantzow and American Roy C. Farrell; the airline made the world's first non-stop transpolar flight flying over the North Pole in July 1998, the maiden flight to arrive at the new Hong Kong International Airport.
The airline celebrated its 70th anniversary in 2016. It is reciprocally one of the major shareholders of Air China. Cathay Pacific is the world's tenth largest airline measured in terms of sales, fourteenth largest measured in terms of market capitalisation. In 2010, Cathay Pacific became the world's largest international cargo airline, along with main hub Hong Kong International Airport as the world's busiest airport in terms of cargo traffic, it is one of the founding members of the Oneworld alliance. Cathay Pacific's subsidiary Cathay Dragon is an affiliate member of Oneworld. Cathay Pacific Airways was founded on 24 September 1946 in Hong Kong, with Sydney "Syd" de Kantzow, Roy Farrell, as well as Neil Buchanan, Donald Brittan Evans and Robert "Bob" Stanley Russell were the initial shareholders. Buchanan and Russell worked for de Kantzow and Farrell in the predecessor of Cathay Pacific, Roy Farrell Import-Export Company, headquartered in Shanghai. Both de Kantzow and Farrell were ex-air force pilots who had flown the Hump, a route over the Himalayan mountains.
Farrell purchased the airline's first aircraft, a Douglas DC-3, nicknamed Betsy, in Bush Field, New York City in 1945. The company began freight services on 28 January 1946 from Sydney to Shanghai, after Farrell and Russell flew the plane to Australia and obtained a license to carry freight services earlier that month, its first commercial flight was a shipment of Australian goods. The profitable business soon attracted attention from the Republic of China government officials. After several instances where the company's planes were detained by authorities in Shanghai, on 11 May 1946 the company relocated, flying its two planes to Hong Kong. Farrell and de Kantzow re-registered their business in Hong Kong on 24 September 1946 as "Cathay Pacific Airways Limited", while another sister company The Roy Farrell Export Import Company Limited was incorporated on 28 August 1946 and chartered some flights of Cathay. According to International Directory of Company Histories, forming two companies are for tax purposes.
They named the airline Cathay, the ancient name given to China, Pacific because Farrell speculated that they would one day fly across the Pacific. Moreover, to avoid the name "Air Cathay" as it was occurred in a comic; the Chinese name for the company was not settled on until the 1950s. It comes from a Chinese idiom meaning "grand and peaceful state" and was at the time used by other businesses called "Cathay" in English. According to legend, the airline's unique name was conceived by Farrell and some foreign correspondents at the bar of the Manila Hotel, while another narrative was the name was taken in the Cathay Hotel in Shanghai Bund, during drinking and brainstorming, choosing Cathay was to avoid the word China in the airline name. 25 September, on Cathay Pacific's maiden voyage, de Kantzow and Peter Hoskins flew from Sydney to Hong Kong via Manila. The airline flew routes between Hong Kong, Manila, Shanghai, Bangkok, with additional chartered destinations; the airline grew quickly. By 1947, it had added 2 Vickers Catalina seaplane to its fleet.
In 1948, a new legal person of Cathay Pacific Airways was incorporated, with John Swire & Sons, China Navigation Company, Australian National Airways being the new shareholders of the new entity, acquiring the assets from the old legal person. De Kantzow and Russell were the shareholders of Cathay Pacific Holdings at that time, it was reported that the colonial British government of Hong Kong, required the airline was majority owned by British. Despite de Kantzow being a British subject through his Australian roots, Farrell was an American, thus forcing them to sell their majority stake. Under Swire's management, de Kantzow remained in the airline until 1951, while Farrell had sold his minority stake in Cathay Pacific soon after Swire's takeover in 1948, due to his wife's health problems, he became a successful businessman. Swire acquired 52% of Cathay Pacific Airways; as of 31 December 2017, the airline is still 45% owned by Swire Group through its subsidiary Swire Pacific Limited, as the largest shareholder.
However, Swire Group formed a shareholders' agreement with the second largest shareholder Air China (which was controlled by state-owned China National Aviation Hold
Qantas Airways is the flag carrier of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations. It is the third oldest airline in the world, after KLM and Avianca having been founded in November 1920; the Qantas name comes from "QANTAS", an acronym for its original name, "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services", it is nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo". Qantas is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance; the airline is based in the Sydney suburb of Mascot with its main hub at Sydney Airport. As of March 2014, Qantas had a 65% share of the Australian domestic market and carried 14.9% of all passengers travelling in and out of Australia. Various subsidiary airlines operate to regional centres and on some trunk routes within Australia under the QantasLink banner. Qantas owns Jetstar Airways, a low-cost airline that operates both international services from Australia and domestic services within Australia and New Zealand. Qantas was founded in Winton, Queensland on 16 November 1920 by Hudson Fysh, Paul McGinness and Fergus McMaster as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited.
The airline's first aircraft was an Avro 504K. In 1920 Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd had its headquarters in Winton before moving to Longreach, Queensland in 1921 and Brisbane, Queensland in 1930. In 1934, QANTAS and Britain's Imperial Airways formed Qantas Empire Airways Limited; the new airline commenced operations in December 1934, flying between Darwin. QEA flew internationally from May 1935. After World War II began, enemy action and accidents destroyed half of the fleet of ten, when most of the fleet was taken over by the Australian government for war service. Flying boat services were resumed in 1943, with flights between the Swan River at Crawley in Perth, Western Australia and Koggala lake in Ceylon; this linked up with the British Overseas Airways Corporation service to London. Qantas' kangaroo logo was first used on the "Kangaroo Route", begun in 1944, from Sydney to Karachi, where BOAC crews took over for the rest of the journey to the UK. In 1947, QEA was nationalised by the Australian government led by Labor Prime Minister Ben Chifley.
QANTAS Limited was wound up. After nationalisation, Qantas' remaining domestic network, in Queensland, was transferred to the nationally owned Trans Australia Airlines, leaving Qantas with a purely international network. Shortly after nationalisation, QEA began its first services outside the British Empire – to Tokyo. Services to Hong Kong began around the same time. In 1957 a head office, Qantas House, opened in Sydney. In June 1959 Qantas entered the jet age. On 14 September 1992, Qantas merged with Australian Airlines; the airline started to be rebranded to Qantas in the following year. Qantas was privatised between 1993 and 1997. Under the legislation passed to allow the privatisation, Qantas must be at least 51% owned by Australian shareholders. In 1998, Qantas co-founded the Oneworld alliance with American Airlines, British Airways, Canadian Airlines, Cathay Pacific, with other airlines joining subsequently. With the entry of new budget airline Virgin Blue into the domestic market in 2000, Qantas' market share fell.
Qantas created the budget Jetstar Airways in 2001 to compete. The main domestic competitor to Qantas, Ansett Australia, collapsed on 14 September 2001. Market share for Qantas neared 90%, but competition with Virgin increased as it expanded. Qantas revived the Australian Airlines name for a short-lived international budget airline between 2002 and 2006, but this subsidiary was shut down in favour of expanding Jetstar internationally, including to New Zealand. In 2004, the Qantas group expanded into the Asian budget airline market with Jetstar Asia Airways, in which Qantas owns a minority stake. A similar model was used for the investment into Jetstar Pacific, headquartered in Vietnam, in 2007, Jetstar Japan, launched in 2012. In December 2006, Qantas was the subject of a failed bid from a consortium calling itself Airline Partners Australia. Merger talks with British Airways in 2008 did not proceed to an agreement. In 2011, an industrial relations dispute between Qantas and the Transport Workers Union of Australia resulted in the grounding of all Qantas aircraft and lock-out of the airline's staff for two days.
On 25 March 2018, a Qantas Boeing 787 Dreamliner became the first aircraft to operate a scheduled non-stop commercial flight between Australia and Europe, with the inaugural arrival in London of Flight 9. QF9 was a 17-hour, 14,498 km journey from Perth Airport in Western Australia to London Heathrow; the key trends for the Qantas Group, are shown below: Qantas' headquarters are located at the Qantas Centre in the Bayside Council suburb of Mascot, New South Wales. The headquarters underwent a redevelopment, completed in December 2013. Qantas has operated a number of passenger airline subsidiaries since inception