A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and in quantity, they are voiced, are involved in prosodic variation such as tone and stress. Vowel sounds are produced with an open vocal tract; the word vowel comes from the Latin word vocalis, meaning "vocal". In English, the word vowel is used to refer both to vowel sounds and to the written symbols that represent them. There are two complementary definitions of one phonetic and the other phonological. In the phonetic definition, a vowel is a sound, such as the English "ah" or "oh", produced with an open vocal tract. There is no significant build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis; this contrasts with consonants, such as the English "sh", which have a constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. In the phonological definition, a vowel is defined as syllabic, the sound that forms the peak of a syllable. A phonetically equivalent but non-syllabic sound is a semivowel.
In oral languages, phonetic vowels form the peak of many or all syllables, whereas consonants form the onset and coda. Some languages allow other sounds to form the nucleus of a syllable, such as the syllabic l in the English word table or the syllabic r in the Serbo-Croatian word vrt "garden"; the phonetic definition of "vowel" does not always match the phonological definition. The approximants and illustrate this: both are without much of a constriction in the vocal tract, but they occur at the onset of syllables which suggests that phonologically they are consonants. A similar debate arises over whether a word like bird in a rhotic dialect has an r-colored vowel /ɝ/ or a syllabic consonant /ɹ̩/; the American linguist Kenneth Pike suggested the terms "vocoid" for a phonetic vowel and "vowel" for a phonological vowel, so using this terminology, are classified as vocoids but not vowels. However and Emmory demonstrated from a range of languages that semivowels are produced with a narrower constriction of the vocal tract than vowels, so may be considered consonants on that basis.
Nonetheless, the phonetic and phonemic definitions would still conflict for the syllabic /l/ in table, or the syllabic nasals in button and rhythm. The traditional view of vowel production, reflected for example in the terminology and presentation of the International Phonetic Alphabet, is one of articulatory features that determine a vowel's quality as distinguishing it from other vowels. Daniel Jones developed the cardinal vowel system to describe vowels in terms of the features of tongue height, tongue backness and roundedness; these three parameters are indicated in the schematic quadrilateral IPA vowel diagram on the right. There are additional features of vowel quality, such as the velum position, type of vocal fold vibration, tongue root position; this conception of vowel articulation has been known to be inaccurate since 1928. Peter Ladefoged has said that "early phoneticians... thought they were describing the highest point of the tongue, but they were not. They were describing formant frequencies."
The IPA Handbook concedes that "the vowel quadrilateral must be regarded as an abstraction and not a direct mapping of tongue position."Nonetheless, the concept that vowel qualities are determined by tongue position and lip rounding continues to be used in pedagogy, as it provides an intuitive explanation of how vowels are distinguished. Vowel height is named for the vertical position of the tongue relative to either the roof of the mouth or the aperture of the jaw. However, it refers to the first formant, abbreviated F1, associated with the height of the tongue. In close vowels known as high vowels, such as and, the first formant is consistent with the tongue being positioned close to the palate, high in the mouth, whereas in open vowels known as low vowels, such as, F1 is consistent with the jaw being open and the tongue being positioned low in the mouth. Height is defined by the inverse of the F1 value: The higher the frequency of the first formant, the lower the vowel; the International Phonetic Alphabet defines seven degrees of vowel height, but no language is known to distinguish all of them without distinguishing another attribute: close near-close close-mid mid open-mid near-open open The letters are used for either close-mid or true-mid vowels.
However, if more precision is required, true-mid vowels may be written with a lowering diacritic. The Kensiu language, spoken in Malaysia and Thailand, is unusual in that it contrasts true-mid with close-mid and open-mid vowels, without any difference in other parameters like backness or roundness. Although English contrasts six heights in its vowels, they are interdependent with differences in backness, many are parts of diphthongs, it appears that some varieties of German have five vowel heights that contrast independently of length or other parameters. The Bavarian dialect of Amstetten h
Vibrato is a musical effect consisting of a regular, pulsating change of pitch. It is used to add expression to instrumental music. Vibrato is characterised in terms of two factors: the amount of pitch variation and the speed with which the pitch is varied. In singing it can occur spontaneously through variations in the larynx; the vibrato of a string instrument and wind instrument is an imitation of that vocal function. The terms vibrato and tremolo are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably, although they are properly defined as separate effects with vibrato defined as a periodic variation in the pitch of a musical note, tremolo as a fast repetition of the same note in order to produce the audible effect of a longer note on instruments which do not have the ability of producing long sustained notes, such as the guitar. In practice, it is difficult for a singer or musical instrument player to achieve a pure vibrato or tremolo, variations in both pitch and volume will be achieved at the same time.
Electronic manipulation or generation of signals makes it easier to achieve or demonstrate pure tremolo or vibrato. In the world of electric guitar and record production vibrato retains the same meaning as in the classical world but tremolo describes a periodic variation in volume achieved using outboard effects units. A Leslie speaker creates vibrato as a byproduct of tremolo production; as a Leslie speaker is moved by the rotating mechanism on which it is mounted, it moves closer to or farther away from any given object not mounted on the mechanism. Because amplitude varies directly with sound pressure and sound pressure varies directly with distance, such that amplitude varies directly with distance, the amplitude of the sound as perceived by the listener will be greatest when the speaker is at the point in its rotation closest to the listener and least when the speaker is farthest away; because the speaker is moving either toward or away from the listener, the mechanism's rotation is affecting the listener-perceived sound's wavelength by either "stretching" the wave or "squeezing" it — and because frequency, i.e. pitch, is inversely proportional to wavelength, such that increasing wavelength decreases frequency and vice versa, any listener for whom the speaker's motion changes the sound's perceived amplitude must perceive a change in frequency.
However, the size of this effect is to be tiny compared against the tremolo effect since the distance oscillation is small. The use of vibrato is intended to add warmth to a note. In the case of many string instruments the sound emitted is directional at high frequencies, the slight variations in pitch typical of vibrato playing can cause large changes in the directional patterns of the radiated sound; this can add a shimmer to the sound. This directional effect is intended to interact with the room acoustics to add interest to the sound, in much the same way as an acoustic guitarist may swing the box around on a final sustain, or the rotating baffle of a Leslie speaker will spin the sound around the room; the rate and extent of the variation in pitch during vibrato is controlled by the performer. The extent of vibrato for solo singers is less than a semitone either side of the note, while singers in a choir use narrower vibrato with an extent of less than a tenth of a semitone either side. Wind and bowed instruments use vibratos with an extent of less than half a semitone either side.
Vibrato is sometimes thought of as an effect added onto the note itself, but in some cases it is so a part of the style of the music that it can be difficult for some performers to play without it. The jazz tenor sax player Coleman Hawkins found he had this difficulty when requested to play a passage both with and without vibrato by Leonard Bernstein when producing his record album "What is Jazz" to demonstrate the difference between the two. Despite his technique, he was unable to play without vibrato; the featured saxophonist in Benny Goodman's Orchestra, George Auld, was brought in to play the part. Many classical musicians singers and string players, have a similar problem; the violinist and teacher Leopold Auer, writing in his book Violin Playing as I Teach It, advised violinists to practise playing without vibrato, to stop playing for a few minutes as soon as they noticed themselves playing with vibrato in order for them to gain complete control over their technique. The use of vibrato in classical music is a matter of some dispute.
For much of the 20th century it was used continuously in the performance of pieces from all eras from the Baroque onwards by singers and string players. A drastic change in approach cannot be understood wholly without regarding the rise of notionally informed performance from the 1970s onwards. However, there is no actual proof. Vocal music of the renaissance is never sung with vibrato as a rule, it seems unlikely it was. There are only a few texts from the period on
Varieties of Chinese
Chinese known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible. The differences are similar to those within the Romance languages, with variation strong in the more mountainous southeast. A quoted classification divides these varieties into seven groups: Mandarin, Wu, Xiang, Gan and Yue, though a more recent classification splits some of these to obtain ten groups, some varieties remain unclassified. Chinese varieties differ most in their phonology, to a lesser extent in vocabulary and syntax. Southern varieties tend to have fewer initial consonants than northern and central varieties, but more preserve the Middle Chinese final consonants. All have phonemic tones, with northern varieties tending to have fewer distinctions than southern ones. Many have tone sandhi, with the most complex patterns in the coastal area from Zhejiang to eastern Guangdong. Standard Chinese takes its phonology from the Beijing dialect, with vocabulary from the Mandarin group and grammar based on literature in the modern written vernacular.
It is the sole official language of China and the de facto official language of Taiwan, one of the four official languages of Singapore, one of the six official languages of the United Nations. At the end of the 2nd millennium BC, a form of Chinese was spoken in a compact area around the lower Wei River and middle Yellow River. From there it expanded eastwards across the North China Plain to Shandong and south into the valley of the Yangtze River and beyond to the hills of south China; as the language spread, it replaced dominant languages in those areas, regional differences grew. In periods of political unity, there was a tendency to promote a central standard to facilitate communication between people from different regions; the first evidence of dialectal variation is found in texts from the Autumn period. At that time, the Zhou royal domain, though no longer politically powerful, still defined standard speech; the Fangyan is devoted to differences in vocabulary between regions. Commentaries from the Eastern Han period contain much discussion of local variations in pronunciation.
The Qieyun rhyme book noted wide variation in pronunciation between regions, set out to define a standard pronunciation for reading the classics. This standard, known as Middle Chinese, is believed to be a diasystem based on the reading traditions of northern and southern capitals; the North China Plain provided few barriers to migration, leading to relative linguistic homogeneity over a wide area in northern China. In contrast, the mountains and rivers of southern China have spawned the other six major groups of Chinese languages, with great internal diversity in Fujian; until the mid-20th century, most Chinese people spoke only their local language. As a practical measure, officials of the Ming and Qing dynasties carried out the administration of the empire using a common language based on Mandarin varieties, known as Guānhuà. Knowledge of this language was thus essential for an official career, but it was never formally defined. In the early years of the Republic of China, Literary Chinese was replaced as the written standard by written vernacular Chinese, based on northern dialects.
In the 1930s a standard national language was adopted, with its pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect, but with vocabulary drawn from other Mandarin varieties. It is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China and of the Republic of China governing Taiwan, one of the official languages of Singapore. Standard Mandarin Chinese now dominates public life in mainland China, is much more studied than any other variety of Chinese. Outside China and Taiwan, the only varieties of Chinese taught in university courses are Standard Mandarin and Cantonese. Chinese has been likened to the Romance languages of the modern descendants of Latin. In both cases, the ancestral language was spread by imperial expansion over substrate languages 2000 years ago, by the Qin–Han empire in China and the Roman Empire in Europe. In Western Europe, Medieval Latin remained the standard for scholarly and administrative writing for centuries, influenced local varieties, as did Literary Chinese in China.
In both Europe and China, local forms of speech diverged from the written standard and from each other, producing extensive dialect continua, with separated varieties being mutually unintelligible. On the other hand, there are major differences. In China, political unity was restored in the late 6th century and has persisted until the present day. Meanwhile, Europe remained developed numerous independent states. Vernacular writing, facilitated by the alphabet, supplanted Latin, these states developed their own standard languages. In China, Literary Chinese maintained its monopoly on formal writing until the start of the 20th century; the logographic writing, read with varying local pronunciations, continued to serve as a source of vocabulary and idioms for the local varieties. The new national standard, Vernacular Chinese, the written counterpart of spoken Standard Chinese, is used as a literary form by literate speakers of all varieties. Dialectologist Jerry Norman estimated that there are hundreds of mutually unintelligible varieties of Chinese.
These varieties form a dialect continuum, in which differences in speech become more pronounced as distances increase, although there are some sharp boundar
The term phonation has different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration; this is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology and speech production in general. Phoneticians in other subfields, such as linguistic phonetics, call this process voicing, use the term phonation to refer to any oscillatory state of any part of the larynx that modifies the airstream, of which voicing is just one example. Voiceless and supra-glottal phonations are included under this definition; the phonatory process, or voicing, occurs when air is expelled from the lungs through the glottis, creating a pressure drop across the larynx. When this drop becomes sufficiently large, the vocal folds start to oscillate; the minimum pressure drop required to achieve phonation is called the phonation threshold pressure, for humans with normal vocal folds, it is 2–3 cm H2O.
The motion of the vocal folds during oscillation is lateral, though there is some superior component as well. However, there is no motion along the length of the vocal folds; the oscillation of the vocal folds serves to modulate the pressure and flow of the air through the larynx, this modulated airflow is the main component of the sound of most voiced phones. The sound that the larynx produces is a harmonic series. In other words, it consists of a fundamental tone accompanied by harmonic overtones, which are multiples of the fundamental frequency. According to the source–filter theory, the resulting sound excites the resonance chamber, the vocal tract to produce the individual speech sounds; the vocal folds will not oscillate if they are not sufficiently close to one another, are not under sufficient tension or under too much tension, or if the pressure drop across the larynx is not sufficiently large. In linguistics, a phone is called voiceless. In speech, voiceless phones are associated with vocal folds that are elongated tensed, placed laterally when compared to vocal folds during phonation.
Fundamental frequency, the main acoustic cue for the percept pitch, can be varied through a variety of means. Large scale changes are accomplished by increasing the tension in the vocal folds through contraction of the cricothyroid muscle. Smaller changes in tension can be effected by contraction of the thyroarytenoid muscle or changes in the relative position of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages, as may occur when the larynx is lowered or raised, either volitionally or through movement of the tongue to which the larynx is attached via the hyoid bone. In addition to tension changes, fundamental frequency is affected by the pressure drop across the larynx, affected by the pressure in the lungs, will vary with the distance between the vocal folds. Variation in fundamental frequency is used linguistically to produce tone. There are two main theories as to how vibration of the vocal folds is initiated: the myoelastic theory and the aerodynamic theory; these two theories are not in contention with one another and it is quite possible that both theories are true and operating to initiate and maintain vibration.
A third theory, the neurochronaxic theory, was in considerable vogue in the 1950s, but has since been discredited. The myoelastic theory states that when the vocal cords are brought together and breath pressure is applied to them, the cords remain closed until the pressure beneath them, the subglottic pressure, is sufficient to push them apart, allowing air to escape and reducing the pressure enough for the muscle tension recoil to pull the folds back together again; the pressure builds up once again until the cords are pushed apart, the whole cycle keeps repeating itself. The rate at which the cords open and close, the number of cycles per second, determines the pitch of the phonation; the aerodynamic theory is based on the Bernoulli energy law in fluids. The theory states that when a stream of breath is flowing through the glottis while the arytenoid cartilages are held together, a push-pull effect is created on the vocal fold tissues that maintains self-sustained oscillation; the push occurs during glottal opening, when the glottis is convergent, the pull occurs during glottal closing, when the glottis is divergent.
Such an effect causes a transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal fold tissues which overcomes losses by dissipation and sustain the oscillation. The amount of lung pressure needed to begin phonation is defined by Titze as the oscillation threshold pressure. During glottal closure, the air flow is cut off until breath pressure pushes the folds apart and the flow starts up again, causing the cycles to repeat; the textbook entitled Myoelastic Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation by Ingo Titze credits Janwillem van den Berg as the originator of the theory and provides detailed mathematical development of the theory. This theory states that the frequency of the vocal fold vibration is determined by the chronaxie of the recurrent nerve, not by breath pressure or muscular tension. Advocates of this theory thought that every single vibration of the vocal folds was due to an impulse from the recurrent laryngeal nerves and that the acoustic center in the brain regulated the speed of vocal fold vibration.
Speech and voice scientists have long since left this theory as the muscles have been shown to not be able to contract fast enough to accomplish the vibration. In addition, persons with paralyzed vocal folds can produce phonation, whic
Wu is a group of linguistically similar and related varieties of Chinese spoken in the whole city of Shanghai, Zhejiang province and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas. Major Wu varieties include those of Shanghai, Wuxi, Ningbo, Shaoxing, Wenzhou/Oujiang and Yongkang. Wu speakers, such as Chiang Kai-shek, Lu Xun and Cai Yuanpei, occupied positions of great importance in modern Chinese culture and politics. Wu can be found being used in Pingtan, Yue opera, Shanghai opera, the former, second only in national popularity to Peking opera. Wu is spoken in a large number of diaspora communities, with significant centers of immigration originating from Shanghai, Ningbo and Wenzhou. Suzhou has traditionally been the linguistic center of Wu and was the first place the distinct variety of Sinitic known as Wu developed. Suzhou dialect is considered to be the most linguistically representative of the family, it was the basis of the Wu lingua franca that developed in Shanghai leading to the formation of standard Shanghainese, which as a center of economic power and possessing the largest population of Wu speakers, has attracted the most attention.
Due to the influence of Shanghainese, Wu as a whole is incorrectly labelled in English as "Shanghainese", when introducing the language family to non-specialists. Wu is the more accurate terminology for the greater grouping that the Shanghainese variety is part of; the Wu group is well-known among linguists and sinologists as being one of the most internally diverse among the Sinitic groups, with little mutual intelligibility between varieties across subgroups. Among speakers of other Sinitic languages, Wu is subjectively judged to be soft and flowing. There is an idiom in Mandarin that describes these qualities of Wu speech: 吴侬软语, which means "the tender speech of Wu". On the other hand, some Wu varieties like Wenzhounese have gained notoriety for their high incomprehensibility to both Wu and non-Wu speakers alike, so much so that Wenzhounese was used during the Second World War to avoid Japanese interception. Wu dialects are typified linguistically as having preserved the voiced initials of Middle Chinese, having a majority of Middle Chinese tones undergo a register split, preserving a checked tone terminating in a glottal stop, although some dialects maintain the tone without the stop and certain dialects of Southern Wu have undergone or are starting to undergo a process of devoicing.
The historical relations which determine Wu classification consist in two main factors: firstly, both in terms of physical geography and distance south or away from Mandarin, that is, Wu varieties are part of a Wu–Min dialect continuum from southern Jiangsu to Fujian and Chaoshan. The second factor is the drawing of historical administrative boundaries, which, in addition to physical barriers, limit mobility and in the majority of cases more or less determine the boundary of a Wu dialect. Wu Chinese, along with Min, is of great significance to historical linguists due to their retention of many ancient features; these two languages have proven pivotal in determining the phonetic history of the Chinese languages. More pressing concerns of the present are those of language preservation. Many within and outside of China fear that the increased usage of Mandarin may altogether supplant the languages that have no written form, legal protection, or official status and are barred from use in public discourse.
However, many analysts believe that a stable state of diglossia will endure for at least several generations if not indefinitely. Speakers of Wu varieties are unaware of this term for their speech since the term "Wu" is a recent classificatory imposition on what are less defined and heterogeneous natural forms. Saying one speaks Wu is akin to saying one speaks a Romance language, it is not a defined entity like Standard Mandarin or Hochdeutsch. Most speakers are only vaguely aware of their local variety's affinities with other classified varieties and will only refer to their local Wu variety rather than the dialect family, they do this by affixing'話' Wo to their location's endonym. For example, 溫州話 Wēnzhōuhuà is used for Wenzhounese. Affixing 閒話 xiánhuà is common and more typical of the Taihu division, as in 嘉興閒話 Kashin'ghenwo for Jiaxing dialect. Wu: the formal name and standard reference in dialectology literature. Wu dialects: another scholastic term. Northern Wu: Wu spoken in the north of Zhejiang, the city of Shanghai and parts of Jiangsu, comprising the Taihu and the Taizhou divisions.
It by default includes the Xuanzhou division in Anhui as well, however this division is neglected in Northern Wu discussions. Southern Wu: Wu spoken in southern Zhejiang and periphery, comprising the Oujiang and Chuqu divisions. Western Wu (simplified Chinese: 西部吴语.
Whispering is an unvoiced mode of phonation in which the vocal folds are abducted so that they do not vibrate. Supralaryngeal articulation remains the same as in normal speech. In normal speech, the vocal folds alternate between states of voice and voicelessness. In whispering, only the voicing segments change, so that the vocal folds alternate between whisper and voicelessness; because of this, implementing speech recognition for whispered speech is more difficult, as the characteristic spectral range needed to detect syllables and words is not given through the total absence of tone. More advanced techniques such as neural networks may be used, however. There is no symbol in the IPA for whispered phonation, since it is not used phonemically in any language. However, a sub-dot under phonemically voiced segments is sometimes seen in the literature, as for whispered should. Whispering is used to limit the hearing of speech to listeners who are nearby. Loud whispering, known as a stage whisper, is used only for dramatic or emphatic purposes.
Whispering takes less effort to vocalize than a normal speech pattern. This is. However, while it takes less effort to produce a whisper, it tires out the vocal folds more quickly. A number of species of animals have been observed to whisper, including the cotton-top tamarin and the barbastelle bat; the reasons for animal whispering vary, are not understood, but whispering among the tamarins appears to serve a social purpose, while the species of bats appears to whisper in order to evade detection by its particular prey, eared moths. Aspiration Chinese whispers Cocktail party effect Egressive sound vs. ingressive speech Whispering campaign Whispering gallery Whispery voice Other forms of unvoiced vocalization: gasping and panting Autonomous sensory meridian response Functional Neuroanatomy of Human Vocalization: An H215O PET Study
Peter Nielsen Ladefoged was a British linguist and phonetician. He was active at the universities of Edinburgh and Ibadan, Nigeria 1953–61, he was Professor of Phonetics Emeritus at University of California, Los Angeles, where he taught from 1962 to 1991. His book A Course in Phonetics is a common introductory text in phonetics, The Sounds of the World's Languages is regarded as a standard phonetics reference. Ladefoged wrote several books on the phonetics of African languages. Peter Ladefoged was born on 17 September 1925, in England, he attended Haileybury College from 1938–43, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge University from 1943–44. He received an MA and a PhD in Phonetics from the University of Edinburgh in 1959. Ladefoged was involved with the phonetics laboratory at UCLA, which he established in 1962, he was interested in listening to and describing every sound used in spoken human language, which he estimated at 900 consonants and 200 vowels. This research formed the basis of much of The Sounds of the World's Languages.
In 1966 Ladefoged moved from the UCLA English Department to join the newly established Linguistics Department. Ladefoged was a member of the International Phonetic Association for a long time, was President of the Association from 1986 to 1991, his was involved in maintaining its International Phonetic Alphabet, was the principal mover of the 1989 International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention. He was editor of the Journal of the International Phonetic Association. Ladefoged served on the board of directors of the Endangered Language Fund since its inception. Ladefoged is a founding member of the Association for Laboratory Phonology. Ladefoged married Jenny MacDonald in a marriage which lasted over 50 years, they had three children: a bookseller. He had five grandchildren Zelda Ladefoged, Ethan Friedman, Amy Friedman, Joseph Weiss, Catherine Weiss. Ladefoged died on 24 January 2006 at the age of 80 in hospital in London, England after a research trip to India, he was on his way home to California from his research trip.
1953–55: Assistant Lecturer in Phonetics, University of Edinburgh 1955–59: Lecturer in Phonetics, University of Edinburgh 1959–60: Lecturer in Phonetics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria 1960–61: Lecturer in Phonetics, University of Edinburgh 1961–62: Field fellow, Linguistic Survey of West Africa, Nigeria Summer 1960: University of Michigan Summer 1961: Royal Institute of Technology, 1962–63: Assistant Professor of Phonetics, Department of English, UCLA 1962: Established, directed until 1991, the UCLA Phonetics Laboratory 1963–65: Associate Professor of Phonetics, Department of Linguistics], UCLA 1965–91: Professor of Phonetics, Department of Linguistics, UCLA 1977–80: Chair, Department of Linguistics, UCLA 1991: "retired" to become UCLA Research Linguist, Distinguished Professor of Phonetics Emeritus 2005: Leverhulme Professor, University of Edinburgh 2005–06: Adjunct professor at the University of Southern California Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America Fellow of the American Speech and Hearing Association Distinguished Teaching Award, UCLA 1972 President, Linguistic Society of America, 1978 President of the Permanent Council for the Organization of International Congresses of Phonetic Sciences, 1983–1991 President, International Phonetic Association, 1987–1991 UCLA Research Lecturer 1989 Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1990 UCLA College of Letters and Science Faculty Research Lecturer 1991 Gold medal, XIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences 1991 Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy 1992 Honorary D.
Litt. University of Edinburgh, 1993 Foreign Member, Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 1993 Silver medal, Acoustical Society of America 1994 Corresponding Fellow, Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2001 Honorary D. Sc. Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, 2002 Ladefoged; the nature of vowel quality. Monograph supplement to Revista do Laboratório de Fonética Experimental da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Coimbra. Ladefoged. Elements of acoustic phonetics. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-46764-3. Paperback edition 1971. Translation into Japanese, Taishukan Publishing Company, 1976. Second edition, with added chapters on computational phonetics 1996. Ladefoged. A phonetic study of west African languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University. ISBN 0-521-06963-7. Reprinted 1968. Ladefoged. Three areas of experimental phonetics. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-437110-7. Ladefoged, Peter. Language in Uganda. Nairobi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-436101-2. Ladefoged. Preliminaries to linguistic phonetics.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ladefoged. A course in phonetics. Orlando: Harcourt Brace. ISBN 0-15-507319-2. 2nd ed 1982, 3rd ed. 1993, 4th ed. 2001, 5th ed. Boston: Thomson/Wadsworth 2006, 6th ed. 2011 Boston: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. Japanese translation 2000. Ladefoged, Peter; the Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. Ladefoged. Vowels and consonants: An introduction to the sounds of languages. Oxford: Blackwells. ISBN 0-631-21412-7. 2001, 2nd ed. 2004. Ladefoged. Phonetic data analysis: An introduction to instrumental