Roger Eliot Fry was an English painter and critic, and a member of the Bloomsbury Group. Establishing his reputation as a scholar of the Old Masters, he became an advocate of more recent developments in French painting and he was described by the art historian Kenneth Clark as incomparably the greatest influence on taste since Ruskin. In so far as taste can be changed by one man, born in London, the son of the judge Edward Fry, he grew up in a wealthy Quaker family in Highgate. Fry was educated at Clifton College and Kings College, Cambridge, at Cambridge, Fry met many freethinking men who would shape the foundation of his interest in the arts. Alongside men like John McTaggart and Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson, Fry was a part of the elite Conversazione Society, after taking a first in the Natural Science tripos, he went to Paris and Italy to study art. Eventually he specialised in landscape painting, in 1896, he married the artist Helen Coombe and they subsequently had two children and Julian.
Helen soon became mentally ill, and in 1910 was committed to a mental institution. Fry took over the care of their children with the help of his sister and that same year, Fry met the artists Vanessa Bell and her husband Clive Bell, and it was through them that he was introduced to the Bloomsbury Group. Vanessas sister, the author Virginia Woolf wrote in her biography of Fry that He had more knowledge, in 1911, Fry began an affair with Vanessa Bell, who was recovering from a miscarriage. Fry offered her the tenderness and care she felt was lacking from her husband and they remained lifelong close friends, even though Frys heart was broken in 1913 when Vanessa fell in love with Duncan Grant and decided to live permanently with him. After short affairs with artists as Nina Hamnett and Josette Coatmellec. She became his emotional anchor for the rest of his life, Fry died very unexpectedly after a fall at his home in London. His death caused great sorrow among the members of the Bloomsbury Group, Vanessa Bell decorated his casket before his ashes were placed in the vault of Kings College Chapel in Cambridge.
Virginia Woolf, Vanessas sister, novelist and a friend of his as well, was entrusted with writing his biography published in 1940. As a painter Fry was experimental, but his best pictures were straightforward naturalistic portraits, in his art he explored his own sensations and gradually his own personal visions and attitudes asserted themselves. His work was considered to give pleasure, communicating the delight of unexpected beauty, Fry did not consider himself a great artist, only a serious artist with some sensibility and taste. He considered Cowdray Park his best painting the best thing, in a way that I have done, in the 1900s, Fry started to teach art history at the Slade School of Fine Art, University College London. In 1903 Fry was involved in the foundation of The Burlington Magazine, Fry wrote for The Burlington from 1903 until his death, he published over two hundred pieces of eclectic subjects – from childrens drawings to bushman art
Sir Edward John Poynter, 1st Baronet, GCVO, PRA was an English painter and draughtsman who served as President of the Royal Academy. Edward Poynter was the son of the architect Ambrose Poynter and he was born in Paris, though his parents returned to Britain soon after. He was educated at Brighton College and Ipswich School, but left early for reasons of ill health, spending winters in Madeira. In 1853 he met Frederick Leighton in Rome, who made an impression on the 17-year-old Poynter. In 1866 Poynter married the famous beauty Agnes MacDonald, daughter of the Rev G B MacDonald of Wolverhampton, Visit of the Queen of Sheba and King Solomon. He was admitted as an associate of the Royal Academy in 1869 and he became a Royal Academician in 1876. In 1896, on the death of Sir John Millais, Poynter was elected President of the Royal Academy and he received a knighthood in the same year and an honorary degree from Cambridge University in 1898. It appears from the subjects of his paintings and his association with Kipling that he was a Freemason, prints of his painting The Visit of the Queen of Sheba to King Solomon are to be found in many Masonic Lodges around the world.
Poynters old school, Brighton College held an exhibition of Poynters paintings and drawings entitled Life at Arms Length in its Burstow Gallery in November–December 1995, Edward Poynters works Ten lectures on art. Drawings of Sir E. J. Poynter
Randolph Schwabe, was a draughtsmen and etcher who was the Slade Professor of Fine Art at University College London from 1930 until his death. He served as a war artist in both World Wars, created designs for theatrical productions and illustrated a number of books. Schwabe was born in Eccles, the youngest of two sons to Octavie Henriette Ermen and Lawrence Schwabe, a merchant whose father had emigrated from Germany in 1820. The family moved several times before settling in Hemel Hempstead, Randolph was educated at a private school in Hemel Hempstead and from an early age showed a talent for drawing. In 1899, aged fourteen, he was enrolled at the Royal College of Art but was unhappy there, in 1904 Schwabe won a Slade Scholarship and in 1905 won the college Summer Competition Prize. In 1906, a Slade scholarship allowed him to study at the Academie Julien in Paris before travelling to Italy in 1908, working in Rome and Florence he gained a deep knowledge of Italian art and architecture. Work by Schwabe was shown at the New English Art Club in 1909 and he became a member in 1917, in April 1913 Schwabe married Gwendolen Jones and they were to have one daughter.
After the war he began to teach at both the Camberwell School of Art and the Westminster School of Art, in 1930 he succeeded Henry Tonks as Slade Professor of Fine Art at University College and as Principal of the Slade School of Fine Art. Other books illustrated by Schwabe included Crossings by Walter de la Mare, The Tinkers of Elstow by H E Bates, in 1941 Schwabe joined the committee of the War Artists Advisory Committee and was given a short commission to produce pieces for their collection. This included a commission to record the damage to Coventry Cathedral in November 1940. Although he remained Principal of the Slade, he moved to Helensburgh in Dunbartonshire for health reasons, works by Schwabe are held in several major collections, the Imperial War Museum has examples of his war-time commissions from both the First and Second World Wars. The Arts Council toured a retrospective of his work in 1951. Schwabes ashes are interned in the churchyard of St John-at-Hampstead in Hampstead, the angel wears a sash with the legend, Randolph Schwabe in whose life we have seen excellence in beauty.
8 Painting by or after Randolph Schwabe at the Art UK site
Sir Charles Waldstein, from 1918 Sir Charles Walston was an Anglo-American archaeologist. Waldstein was born into a Jewish family in New York City, United States, Waldstein was educated at Columbia University, and studied at Heidelberg. In 1880, he became university lecturer on classical archaeology at Cambridge University, from 1883 to 1889 he was director of the Fitzwilliam Museum. In 1889 he was called to Athens as director of the American School of Classical Studies, which office he held until 1893, in 1894 he was made a fellow of Kings College. In 1895 he returned to England as Slade Professor of Fine Art at Cambridge, he formed an international committee to promote the excavation of Herculaneum. He was knighted in 1912, appointed as Knight of the Danish Order of the Dannebrog and he married Florence, daughter of D. L. Einstein and widow of Theodore Seligman, in 1909. They had one son, and a daughter and he changed his surname to Walston in 1918 and died in 1927 whilst on a Mediterranean cruise.
His final score and place in the competition are unknown, and this put him at 508 points halfway through competition, though the rest of the results have been lost. Joseph Jacobs and Frederick T. Haneman, Jewish Encyclopedia and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Isidore, et al. eds. article name needed. New York, Funk & Wagnalls Company, results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary. Includes reprint of article The Olympian Games at Athens by Charles Waldstein, originally published in The Field magazine, May 1896
Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich OM CBE FBA was an Austrian-born art historian who became a naturalised British citizen in 1947 and spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom. His father was a lawyer and former classmate of Hugo von Hofmannsthal, at the Conservatoire she was a pupil of, amongst others, Anton Bruckner. However, rather than follow a career as a concert pianist she became an assistant of Theodor Leschetizky and she knew Arnold Schoenberg, Gustav Mahler, Hugo Wolf and Johannes Brahms. Rudolf Serkin was a family friend. Adolf Busch and members of the Busch Quartet regularly met and played in the family home, throughout his life Gombrich maintained a deep love and knowledge of classical music. In 1936 he married Ilse Heller, a pupil of his mother and their only child, Richard Gombrich, went on to become a noted Indologist and scholar of Buddhism, acting as the Boden Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford University in 1976–2004. During World War II, Gombrich worked for the BBC World Service, when in 1945 an upcoming announcement was prefaced by a Bruckner symphony written for Wagners death, Gombrich guessed correctly that Hitler was dead and promptly broke the news to Churchill.
He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1960, made CBE in 1966, knighted in 1972 and he was the recipient of numerous additional honours, including Goethe Prize 1994 and Balzan Prize in 1985 for History of Western Art. Gombrich was close to a number of Austrian émigrés who fled to the West prior to the Anschluss, among them Karl Popper, Friedrich Hayek and he was instrumental in bringing to publication Poppers magnum opus The Open Society and Its Enemies. Each had known the other only fleetingly in Vienna, as Gombrichs father served his law apprenticeship with Poppers father and they became lifelong friends in exile. Gombrichs first book, and the one he did not write in English, was Eine kurze Weltgeschichte für junge Leser. It was very popular and translated into several languages, but was not available in English until 2005 and he did most of this translation and revision himself, and it was completed by his long-time assistant and secretary Caroline Mustill and his granddaughter Leonie Gombrich after his death.
The Story of Art, first published in 1950 and currently in its 16th edition, is regarded as one of the most accessible introductions to the history of visual arts. Originally intended for adolescent readers, it has millions of copies. Other important books are Aby Warburg, An Intellectual Biography, The Sense of Order, the complete list of his publications, E. H. Gombrich, A Bibliography, was published by Joseph Burney Trapp in 2000, when Gombrich arrived in England in 1936, Art History was largely concerned with connoisseurship. Gombrich, had brought up in the Viennese culture of Bildung and was concerned with wider issues of cultural tradition. It was in Art and Illusion that he introduced the ideas of schemata and matching, correction and trial and error influenced by conjecture and refutation, the process does not start from scratch, however
Alphonse Legros was a French painter, etcher and medallist. Legros was born in Dijon, his father was an accountant, while young, Legros visited the farms of his relatives, and the peasants and landscapes of that part of France are the subjects of many of his works. He was sent to the art school at Dijon with a view to qualifying for a trade, in Paris, Legros studied with Charles-Antoine Cambon, scene-painter and decorator of theatres. He attended the drawing-school of Lecoq de Boisbaudran where he himself in sympathy with Jules Dalou. In 1855, he attended the classes of the École des Beaux Arts. This work was presented to the museum at Tours by the artist when his friend Jean-Charles Cazin was curator, champfleury saw the work in the Salon, and sought out the artist to enlist him in the Realists, a group round Gustave Courbet. In 1859, Legross LAngelus was exhibited, the first of the interiors for which he was best known. Ex Voto, went the museum at Dijon, but only obtained a mention at the Salon and he moved to England in 1863 and in 1864 married Rrances Rosetta Hodgson.
At first he lived by his etching and teaching and he became teacher of etching at the South Kensington School of Art, and in 1876 Slade Professor at University College, London in succession to Edward Poynter. Whilst teaching at the Slade School Legros taught a large contingent of women, through his field of sculpture he encouraged the design of medals based upon the Italian renaissance style of portrait, illustrating the character, profession or life of the individual portrayed. The Slade Girls attracted commissions from a range of societies and organisations due to the beauty, pupils of note include the Casella sisters, Fedora Gleichen, Lilian Swainson and Elinor Hallé. Legros was naturalized as a British citizen in 1881, and remained at University College for 17 years, Legros picked up the art of etching by watching a college in Paris working at a commercial engraving, and taught himself the making of medals. He considered the traditional journey to Italy an important part of artistic training, dictionary of National Biography,1912 supplement.
Dr Hans W Singer, Alphonse Legros, Die graphischen Künste, Léonce Bénédite, Alphonse Legros, Revue dan, Cosmo Monkhouse, Professor Legros, Magazine of Art. The Boston Public Librarys Alphonse Legros set on Flickr. com Alphonse Legros exhibition catalogs Alphonse Legros in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
John Henry Middleton
John Henry Middleton was an archaeologist and a museum director. As a child he travelled to Italy where he was initially educated and he acquired a love for Italy and its language, which lasted throughout his life. On returning to Britain his parents settled in Cheltenham, where his father practised as an architect, in 1865, he was matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford. The following year, however, he suffered a severe depression accentuated by the death of a close friend at Oxford. This led to him confining himself to his room for six years, during this time, through reading and study he laid the foundations of his extensive knowledge of art and archaeology. On his recovery, Middleton began a series of journeys around the world and he visited the Americas, including Salt Lake City and the Rocky Mountains, and traveled south from there into Mexico. He travelled in Greece, Asia Minor and North Africa and he undertook a special journey to Fez in Morocco to study the philosophy of Plato as taught there, while there he secured entrance to the Great Mosque by posing as an Islamic pilgrim.
After his fathers death in 1885 he liquidated the firm and began life as a professional archaeologist, Middleton never ceased to pursue his favourite studies of art and archaeology, and even went through a course in the schools of the Royal Academy. His vast knowledge became well known and brought him many friends including William Morris, in 1879, he was elected fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and was a frequent contributor to their publications, in 1894 he was elected as vice-president of the society. He contributed to the 9th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, in 1885, he published his book Ancient Rome, looking at antiquities of Rome, which was followed in 1892 by the Remains of Ancient Rome. From 1886 to 1892, he was Slade professor of art at Cambridge. He was given an honorary MA degree at Cambridge in 1886, and in 1887 one from Oxford, followed by a Litt. D. at Cambridge in 1893 and a DCL at Oxford in 1894. He was honoured with a degree at the University of Bologna. In 1889, Middleton was named Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, Middleton was appointed as lecturer at the Royal Academy.
In 1892, he was appointed Director of the art collections of the South Kensington Museum, at the time the department was in need of reform and reorganisation. He brought in several reforms, but the difficult work coupled with his lifelong depression and drug addiction, increased his despondency. He accidentally overdosed on morphia at the age of 49 and died on 10 June 1896 and his body was cremated at Woking, and the remains interred at Brookwood cemetery. In 1892, he married Bella Stillman, they had one child, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Lionel Henry