England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Hull Paragon Interchange
Hull Paragon Interchange is an integrated rail and coach station in the city centre of Kingston upon Hull, England. The G. T. Andrews-designed station was named Paragon Station, together with the adjoining Station Hotel, it opened in 1847 as the new Hull terminus for the growing traffic of the York and North Midland leased to the Hull and Selby Railway; as well as trains to the west, the station was the terminus of the Y&NMR and H&S railway's Hull to Scarborough Line. From the 1860s the station became the terminus of the Hull and Holderness and Hull and Hornsea railways. At the beginning of the 20th century the North Eastern Railway expanded the trainshed and station to the designs William Bell, installing the present five arched span platform roof. In 1962 a modernist office block Paragon House was installed above the station main entrance, replacing a 1900s iron canopy. A bus station was erected adjacent to the north of the station in the mid 1930s. In the early 2000s plans for an integrated bus and rail station were made, as part of a larger development including a shopping centre.
The new station, named "Paragon Interchange" opened in September 2007, integrating the city's railway and bus stations under William Bell's 1900s trainshed. The station is operated by TransPennine Express, which provides train services along with Northern, Hull Trains and London North Eastern Railway. In 1840 the Hull and Selby Railway opened the first railway line into Hull, terminating at a passenger and goods terminal, Manor House Street station, adjacent to the Humber Dock, near the old town. Subsequently, the Hull and Selby Railway entered into working arrangements with the Manchester and Leeds Railway and the York and North Midland Railway. In 1845 an Act of Parliament enabled the York and North Midland and/or the Manchester and Leeds to take a lease of the company with an option to buy the line at a date – only the York and North Midland was subsequently active. In 1846 the Hull and Selby completed its Bridlington branch which connected from a junction at Dairycoates near Hull to a line the York and North Midland was building from Bridlington to Seamer, connecting to its York to Scarborough Line, forming a railway route from Hull to Scarborough on the east coast.
In 1846 the York and North Midland and Manchester and Leeds railways began proceedings to create a new terminal station and connecting branch line in Hull. The "York and North Midland, 1847" act was subsequently passed; the new station had the advantage of being better situated for travellers, allowed the old station to be used for freight traffic. In addition the Hull and Selby company were keen to attract the investment in a new station from the leaseholders, as the capital investment was to increase the permanence of the relationship with the lessors; the branches to the station were constructed off the Bridlington branch: a branch turning north-east close to the line's crossing of the Hessle Road. In addition a new connecting chord was made from the Hull and Selby Line, to the Bridlington branch, allowing direct through running from the west into the new station; the station was located on the western edge of the growing Georgian town, took its name from "Paragon Street". Construction contracts had been signed by early 1847.
The station opened in 1847 without any notable ceremony. The station and hotel were both in the Italian Renaissance style, with both Doric and Ionic order elements; the main station building was aligned east-west, south of the tracks, facing onto Anlaby Road – a two-storey centrally located booking hall was entered via a small porte-cochère, flanked by 11 bay wide single storey wings, with two storey 3 bay buildings on either end, one a parcels office, the other the station master's house. The train shed contained 5 tracks and 2 platforms, each 30 feet, covered with a three span iron roof; the station site was nearly 2.5 acres. The hotel was in a similar style to the station, located at the east end of the station with its main fascade and entrance facing east, it was completed in 1849 as 9 bays wide, of area 120 by 130 feet. The centre of the building contained a 650 feet square lightwell with ground glass roof. Architect for both buildings was G. T. Andrews, represent his last major commission.
The station and hotel were described by some contemporaries as "Hudson's Folly", who thought the scale of the development too great. By the time of completion of the station hotel George Hudson, chairman of the York and North Midland was in disgrace after his fraudulent dealings had been discovered; the Hotel's official opening ceremony took place on 6 November 1851. Additional facilities at the station included a locomotive house, on the west end of north side of the main shed. A new engine shed was constructed in the 1860s, a 20 engine shed was constructed in the mid 1870s. In 1853 Queen Victoria visited the town, the use of the station hotel given to the corporation for the accommodation of the royal party; the royal party including the Queen, Prince Cons
The Huddersfield line is one of the busiest rail lines on the West Yorkshire MetroTrain network in Northern England. Local services are operated by Northern with longer distance services operated by TransPennine Express; the line connects Huddersfield with Manchester, Manchester Airport and Liverpool. The route travels south-south west from Leeds through Dewsbury. After a short westward stretch through Mirfield, it continues south west through Huddersfield, using the River Colne valley to its headwaters; the long Standedge Tunnel just after Marsden crosses under the watershed and the majority of the run down to Manchester is in the Tame valley. After Manchester, the line reaches the Liverpool and Manchester Railway line over Chat Moss to Liverpool; the Government announced in November 2011 that this route would be electrified, electrification is scheduled to be completed by 2022, though not all the route will now be electrified. At the time of the 1923 Grouping most of the route followed by the line was over London and North Western Railway metals, the exception being a short stretch around Mirfield, the property of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway.
The first section of the line, between Huddersfield and Stalybridge, was opened by the Manchester and Leeds Railway on 1 August 1849. The line became part of the London and Scottish Railway after 1923; the route was furnished with an additional two tracks in 1894, thus giving four tracks between Stalybridge and Leeds. The loss of traffic through the second half of the 20th century saw these cut back to just two lines and the closure of the Micklehurst loop; the length of the line between Manchester Victoria and Holbeck Junction at Leeds is 49 miles, though the Transpennine upgrade work covers the additional section to York which accounts for 76 miles. Metro pre-paid tickets and concessionary fares are available between Marsden. Transport for Greater Manchester fares are available for the Greenfield-Manchester section. Several of the intermediate stations listed were closed in the 1960s. All stations that are still open are in bold: Leeds Copley Hill Goods Farnley and Wortley Cottingley Churwell Morley Batley Staincliffe & Batley Carr Dewsbury: Dewsbury Ravensthorpe was named Ravensthorpe and Thornhill here is Dewsbury Junction with the L&YR.
Trains from Wakefield join the Huddersfield line here, giving connections from the Pontefract and Wakefield lines. Mirfield L&YR junctions here to Low Moor and Halifax: the service from the Huddersfield Line operates to Brighouse Heaton Lodge/Heckmondwike Junctions return the route to the ex-LNWR line Bradley Deighton Huddersfield: served by the Caldervale and Penistone lines; the railway station here was YR joint owned. Here is Springwood Tunnel and Springwood Junction for the trains on the Penistone line Longwood and Milnsbridge Golcar Slaithwaite Marsden Standedge Tunnel: three parallel tunnels, two single-line, one double, 5,340 yards in length Diggle Diggle Junction with line to Stalybridge via Friezland Saddleworth Moorgate Greenfield Mossley Stalybridge Ashton-under-Lyne Manchester Victoria Manchester Piccadilly Manchester Airport Irlam Manchester Oxford Road Birchwood Warrington Central Hunts Cross Liverpool Lime Street TransPennine Express operate the majority of the passenger services over the line as it is the core line linking the North West with Yorkshire and the North East.
Since privatisation in the 1990s, local services on the route have been operated by the Northern franchise. The first incarnation, Arriva Trains Northern operated the express services between Liverpool, Leeds, York and Newcastle before the Strategic Rail Authority spun the express train services off into a separate franchise, now run by TransPennine Express. At the May 2018 timetable change, the Northern services calling at the smaller stations on the section between Greater Manchester and Huddersfield, were transferred to TPE and combined into an hourly Manchester Piccadilly to Leeds service; this saw many of the TPE services diverted away from the Guide Bridge to Manchester Piccadilly corridor, so that through trains could use the newly opened Ordsall Chord. However, Northern still operate local services from Huddersfield to Sheffield and Wakefield. Due to the change of line on the through Manchester services, the Liverpool trains no longer run on the line through Warrington Central, but instead travel via Newton-le-Willows.
TPE provide six trains per hour in both directions between Leeds. Network rail state that this will include doubling the track in some places and upgrading stations as well as some of the intended Transpennine electrification programme; the electrification has been curtailed in parts and as such, the sections between Stalybridge and Huddersfield, a further section of 12 miles east of Leeds will not be electrified. Emphasis has been placed on the Bi-Modal power of
Kirklees is a local government district of West Yorkshire, governed by Kirklees Council with the status of a metropolitan borough. The largest town and administrative centre of Kirklees is Huddersfield, the district includes Batley, Cleckheaton, Denby Dale, Heckmondwike, Kirkburton, Meltham and Slaithwaite. Kirklees had a population of 422,500 in 2011 and is therefore the most populous borough in England, not a city; the borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972 as part of a reform of local government in England. Eleven former local government districts were merged: the county boroughs of Huddersfield and Dewsbury, the municipal boroughs of Batley and Spenborough and the urban districts of Colne Valley, Denby Dale, Holme Valley, Kirkburton and Mirfield; the name Kirklees was chosen by the merging councils from more than fifty suggestions, including Upper Agbrigg and Wooldale. It was named after Kirklees Priory, legendary burial place of Robin Hood, situated midway between Huddersfield and Dewsbury.
The priory was located within the present-day Kirklees Park estate, most of which lies in the neighbouring borough of Calderdale. The name Kirklees is made up of Lees meaning Meadows. Under the original draft of the Act, the district would have included Ossett, part of the Dewsbury Parliamentary constituency at that time, it was decided that Ossett was too remote to be governed from Huddersfield and the town was included within the Wakefield district instead. The principal settlements of Kirklees are mill towns in the Colne Valley, Holme Valley, Calder Valley and Spen Valley; those areas of the district with a more urban character bound Calderdale to the west, Bradford to the northwest, Leeds to the northeast and Wakefield to the east. The district includes several rural villages, with the largest rural area extending from the south of Huddersfield; the Pennine countryside to the southwest of Meltham and Holme lies within the Peak District National Park. This moorland area bounds Saddleworth, a traditional part of Yorkshire but now locally governed from Oldham, Greater Manchester.
There is a short border with the High Peak district of Derbyshire running across the summit of Black Hill, the main border to the south of Kirklees is with Barnsley. The inclusion of two county boroughs resulted in a district without an obvious centre. Over the years there have been suggestions of splitting the district into two, administered from Huddersfield and Dewsbury. Graham Riddick, as MP for Colne Valley, campaigned for a split in the early 1990s. A similar ambition was mentioned by Elizabeth Peacock, MP for Batley and Spen in 1991; the boundaries of metropolitan boroughs were outside the remit of the Banham Commission appointed to review local government structures in 1992 or its successors, only minor boundary changes were made with neighbouring districts in 1994. The district includes parts of three postcode areas. Huddersfield and the rural areas to the south have HD postcodes, Birkenshaw and Gomersal have BD postcodes, the rest of the Heavy Woollen area has WF postcodes; the district is split between several telephone dialling codes, with most residents in the 01484, 01274 and 01924 codes.
A small number of residents in Birchencliffe and Birkenshaw villages fall within the 01422 and 0113 codes respectively. The stated religion of the population of Kirklees, as recorded at the 2001 census of population was as follows: Christian 261,128 No religion 54,445 Muslim 39,312 Religion not stated 28,394 Sikh 2,726 Hindu 1,222 Other Religions 772 Buddhist 397 Jewish 171 Public transport information is provided by Metro, as is the case across West Yorkshire. Kirklees lies along the core Huddersfield Line of the TransPennine Express network, with services calling at Huddersfield and Dewsbury. Direct Grand Central services to London King's Cross call at Mirfield. Other railway stations in the district on these routes and on the Penistone Line have local Northern services; some towns in Kirklees have not been served by rail transport since the Beeching cuts. Most bus services in the Huddersfield area are operated by Yorkshire Tiger and First, most bus services in the Heavy Woollen area are operated by Arriva.
The urban areas of Kirklees are served by the M1 motorways. Parts of the local road network are considered to require improvement, such as the main route from Huddersfield to the southbound M1 which narrows as it passes through Flockton. Kirklees Council has developed a number of traffic-free cycle paths called Greenways in partnership with Sustrans. Tourism in Kirklees is based around the area's countryside and industrial heritage: Bagshaw Museum Castle Hill Colne Valley Museum Holmfirth, setting of long-running sitcom Last of the Summer Wine Kirklees Light Railway Kirklees Way, 72 miles circular walking route Marsden Moor Estate Oakwell Hall Standedge Tunnels and Visitor Centre Tolson MuseumKirklees Council closed Dewsbury Museum and Red House Museum at the end of 2016, claiming it could not afford to continue running them following cuts to its budget. Tourist information in Kirklees can be obtained from major libraries. Huddersfield Town play football in the Premier League as of the 2017-18 season.
They were the first English club to win three successive league titles. The birthplace of rugby league was at the George Huddersfield.
National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were
Manchester Victoria station
Manchester Victoria station in Manchester, England is a combined mainline railway station and Metrolink tram stop. Situated to the north of the city centre on Hunts Bank, close to Manchester Cathedral, it adjoins Manchester Arena, constructed on part of the former station site in the 1990s. Opened in 1844 and part of the Manchester station group, Victoria is Manchester's third busiest railway station after Piccadilly and Oxford Road and the second busiest station managed by Northern after Oxford Road; the station hosts local and regional services to destinations in Northern England, such as Blackburn, Bradford, Newcastle, Halifax, Southport and Liverpool using the original Liverpool to Manchester line. Most trains calling at Victoria are operated by Northern. TransPennine Express services call at the station from Liverpool to Newcastle /Scarborough and services towards Manchester Airport from Middlesbrough/Newcastle. Manchester Victoria is a major interchange for the Metrolink light rail system.
Several former railway lines into the station have been converted to tram operation. The line to Bury was converted in the early 1990s in the first phase of Metrolink construction and the line through Oldham to Rochdale was converted during 2009–2014. Trams switch to on-street running when they emerge from Victoria Station and continue southwards through the city centre to Piccadilly or Deansgate-Castlefield. In 2009, Victoria was voted the worst category B interchange station in the United Kingdom; the station underwent a two-year £44 million modernisation programme, completed in August 2015. Renovation entailed electrification of lines through the station, renewed Metrolink stop with an additional platform, restoration of listed features, upgraded retail units, a new roof; the Ordsall Chord directly linking Victoria to Oxford Road and Piccadilly was completed in December 2017. In the Northern Hub proposals, Victoria will become the rail hub for TransPennine Express and Northern Connect services by the end of 2020 with passenger numbers expected to rise to 12 million as a result.
The Manchester and Leeds Railway was founded in 1836 and the company began building its line between Manchester and Leeds in 1837. Its line terminated at Manchester Oldham Road which opened on 3 July 1839; the company realised it would be advantageous to join its line to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway creating a through route from Liverpool to Yorkshire with a joint station serving the centre of Manchester. In 1839 Samuel Brooks, vice-chairman of the M&LR, bought land at Hunt's Bank close to the cathedral and presented it to the company for the new station; the site was on the north bank of the River Irk, between the workhouse to the north which had opened in 1793 and Walker's Croft Cemetery to the south. After several years of negotiations between the companies, work started in 1842; the M&LR built an extension from Miles Platting to the station which opened on 1 January 1844. On this date, the Oldham Road terminus became a goods station; the new station had a 852 ft long single platform which handled M&LR trains to Leeds and elsewhere at its eastern end.
The L&MR extended its line from Ordsall to Victoria and its trains operated from the western end from 4 May 1844, on which date its Liverpool Road station terminus became a goods station. The station was named Victoria in 1843, its long, single-storey building designed by George Stephenson and completed by John Brogden was approached by a wooden footbridge over the River Irk before the river was culverted. Most of the original 1844 station buildings are standing including part of the original façade on Hunt's Bank; the L&MR became part of the Grand Junction Railway in 1845, which in turn amalgamated with other railways to create the London and North Western Railway in 1846, the M&LR amalgamated with other railways to create the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway the following year. The headquarters of the L&YR were based alongside Victoria. By the mid-1840s six railway companies operated from the station connecting Manchester to London, Liverpool and Sheffield. Victoria Station dominated the Long Millgate area and was one of the biggest passenger stations in Britain.
Victoria underwent several phases of expansion. In 1865, four bay platforms were built on the eastern side on land reclaimed from the cemetery, another was built on the western side, a second through platform was built at the northern side, the station's facilities were expanded by the construction of a new east wing of the station building. Two decades the L&YR purchased the workhouse north of the station and its site was used to build another bay and five through platforms which came into use in 1884; that same year, the LNWR opened its own station, Manchester Exchange to the west on the opposite side of the River Irwell, vacated Victoria. Victoria reached its maximum extent of 17 platforms in 1904 when the station was enlarged with extra bay platforms to the south; the present station façade, designed by William Dawes, was built in 1909. The cast-iron train sheds behind the façade were 700 yards long; because the station handled large amounts of parcel and newspaper traffic, an overhead parcels carrier system was constructed in 1895.
It consisted of an electrically powered trolley suspended from an overhead track operated by an airborne attendant. A large basket could be raised and lowered from the trolley to distribute parcels and newspapers across the station; the system operated until 1940. The L&YR merged with the LNWR on 1 January 1922. A year the merged company became the largest constituent of the London and Scottish Railway. F
Slaithwaite, locally slawit, is a village within the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, in West Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it lies in the Colne Valley, lying across the River Colne and the Huddersfield Narrow Canal 5 miles southwest of Huddersfield.. The village was part of the Earl of Dartmouth estates, a chapelry, in the parishes of Huddersfield and Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg and included the township of'Lingarths' and the Township of Slaithwaite. In the early 19th century a local spring was discovered to contain sulphurous properties and minerals, similar to those found in Harrogate. Sometime after 1820 a bathing facility was built, along with a gardens and pleasure ground, with some visitor cottages. A free school was founded in 1721 and rebuilt twice: first in 1744, again in 1842. In the 1848 edition of'A Topographical Dictionary of England', Samuel Lewis wrote:- "the lands are in meadow and pasture, with a small portion of arable.
In the quarries of the district are found vegetable fossils firs and other mountain trees. The village is beautifully seated in the valley of the river Colne, it is one of a number of cruck framed buildings clustered in this area of West Yorkshire. After many years divided into cottages, the building has been extensively restored and is now a single dwelling. Legend has it that local smugglers caught by the excise men tried to explain their nocturnal activities as'raking the moon from the canal' and not as'fishing out smuggled brandy'. A "Moonraker" is now the official nickname for a native of the village. Similar stories and nicknames exist for the neighbouring villages of Golcar and Linthwaite; the legend is known in Wiltshire, where the locals are known as'Moonrakers'. An apocryphal story associated with Slaithwaite is that in the 19th century, when tenants came to the village to pay their annual rent, The 5th Earl of Dartmouth would provide'rent dinners' and that the shoulder of mutton was the most favoured with the tables of hot roast beef and tongue being available there at that time.
Recent projects have seen a major restoration of the canal. That required new lock gates. Following the emergence of the railway network they were little used and closed down filled in during 1956; the refurbishment has revitalised the high street area and Slaithwaite is the only village in England with a canal running alongside its main street. There are several significant local employers, including Thornton & Ross, Shaw Pallets and Spectrum Yarns - one of a small number of remaining textiles businesses in the Colne Valley, once a major centre for wool and yarn. There are several traditional public houses in Slaithwaite, including the Commercial, the Shoulder of Mutton, the Swan, the'Silent Woman' which came to the attention of the world media on 23 September 2007, when a man walked into the pub and ordered a pint of beer a few minutes after he had murdered his son and attacked his daughter with a knife. Alternative dining and drinking venues are the Little Bridge, Vanilla Bean, Om Is Where The Heart Is, Ashbys and Jax Bar tapas.
There is a new restaurant called Nobles on Manchester Road. Slaithwaite has a vibrant centre with many independent shops, a post office and cafes. Of particular note is the local butcher, E. Grange & Son, selling their own brand of pork pies, which have won some awards. Other shops include the community-owned cooperative the'Green Valley Grocer', the workers' cooperative the'Handmade Bakery,' the'Chocolate Corner' gift shop and cafe, Mystical Moments - which hit national headlines in August 2016 as the Magic Wand shop'. More modern transport is provided by the Slaithwaite railway station, which has direct trains to Huddersfield and Manchester; the Colne Valley defines local geography by channelling the railway line, the canal and the A62: each of which has at one time been the primary means of transport across the Pennines. The small humpbacked bridge over the canal is called'Tim Brig'. There are several bus links from Slaithwaite to several places in the Huddersfield area. Services run by First West Yorkshire go from Slaithwaite to Marsden and Manchester and to Huddersfield.
Other bus services are to Holmfirth and surrounding villages. In February, on alternate years, Slaithwaite celebrates a 19th-century legend of Moonraking with the Slaithwaite Moonraking Festival, with a week of lantern making and a programme of storytelling; the week-long celebration, which always takes place during the school half term week, ends with a parade of lanterns around the village, a festival finale by the canal in the centre of the village. A heritage lottery funded project'Wild about Wool', collating memories of the industrial heritage of the Colne Valley, is linked to the festival.'Wool' was the theme of the festival held in February 2011. The Slaithwaite Philharmonic Orchestra was founded here in 1891. An 80-strong amateur orchestra, the orchestra plays an annual season of concerts in Huddersfield. Slaithwaite Brass Band have been making music here since 1892, they perform at many concerts and events throu