Ardmillan is a residential suburb of Edinburgh, Scotland. The boundary north of Ardmillan is bordered by the area of Dalry. To the west is the area of Gorgie, to the east is the area of Fountainbridge. Polwarth and North Merchiston are to the south of Ardmillan; the name means the "high bare place" in Scottish Gaelic. The area contains many tenements as well as "Diggers" pub, so called because the gravediggers from the large graveyard in the Ardmillan-Dalry area would go in there after work. Another pub in the area, the Caledonian Sample Room, is mistakenly assumed to be owned by the nearby Caledonian Brewery. Ardmillan has two churches; the first is St Michael's Parish Church, an ecumenical church. Building of the church began in 1879 and was completed for services in 1883. There is an old congregation of Wesleyan Methodists in the area. Ardmillan is home to a large, modern health centre called Ardmillan House; the health centre is the location of the South East Scotland Breast Screening Centre. On the southern boundary with North Merchiston is a large public park - Harrison Park.
The origins of the park lie with a public purchase of land by Edinburgh City Council in 1886, with additional land expanding the park being bought in 1930
Barnton is a suburb of Edinburgh, located in the north-west of the city, between Cramond and Corstorphine Hill and west of Davidsons Mains. Part of the area was traditionally known as "Cramond Muir" in reference to Cramond to the north, it is home to the Royal High School of Edinburgh deigned by Reid and Forbes in 1964. Braehead House, a complex house centred on a 15th c remodelled Scottish tower house hides amongst modern housing; the Royal Burgess Golfing Society, one of the oldest golf societies in the world with a clubhouse dating from 1896. Cargilfield Preparatory School lies to the north; the most notable landmark is the former Barnton Hotel at the junction of Whitehouse Loan and Queensferry Road which dates from 1895 and was converted to flats in 2016. The White House dates from 1615, it was extended and remodelled by MacGibbon and Ross in 1895. The area centres on the paired streets of West Barnton Avenue; these stand on the former estate of Barnton House. All that remains is the ornate west gate pillars, designed by David Hamilton in 1810, on Whitehouse Loan at the west end of West Barnton Avenue.
Both halves of the avenue possess a series of large villas dating from the early 20th century. The west avenue in particular has several modern blocks of flats. Barnton Quarry, a former stone quarry in the area, is the site of an underground bunker which, in the event of nuclear war, would have served as the regional seat of government for Scotland from 1961 until its abandonment in 1985. Robert Barton of Over Barnton Alexander Carmichael, compiler of Carmina Gadelica Col John James McIntosh Shaw, military surgeon and pioneer of plastic surgery J. K. Rowling a current resident Robert Blyth Greig lived on West Barton Avenue
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Broughton is an ancient feudal barony, today within the City of Edinburgh, Scotland, once known for its witchcraft. The feudal barony of Broughton in the 16th and 17th centuries was in the hands of the Bellenden family, who had made their money in the legal profession. Sir John Bellenden of Broughton, Knt., present at the Coronation of King James VI in 1567, possessed the barony of Broughton, with the additional superiorities of the Canongate and North Leith, having therein nearly two thousand vassals, according to Sir John Scott of Scotstarvit, writing in 1754. Broughton passed to Sir Lewis Bellenden, Knt. Lord Justice-Clerk and a Lord of Session, cited as one of the Ruthven Raiders and to William Bellenden, 1st Lord Bellenden of Broughton. Scattered houses on the farmlands which made up Broughton gave way to more general housing in the century prior to the formation of Edinburgh's New Town which adjoined the parish of Broughton, its modern borders are defined as being Leith Walk in the south east, Broughton Street in the south west, Broughton Road in the north west and McDonald Road in the north east.
Moving clockwise from south east, Broughton is bordered by Greenside and Calton, the New Town and Pilrig. Broughton's main thoroughfare is Broughton Street; the street has many independent speciality shops. Broughton is today at the centre of Edinburgh's "pink triangle", an area of the city with a number of gay bars and clubs. Edinburgh's first traffic lights were installed in Broughton Street in 1928; the Scottish folk band Silly Wizard were based for some time in a flat located at 69 Broughton Street. Phil Cunningham, member of Silly Wizard and younger brother of the band's founder, Johnny Cunningham, lived in Broughton; the Broughton Spurtle: Broughton's Free Independent Stirrer is a community newspaper for Broughton and adjacent areas in north-east and central Edinburgh. It has no political, religious or commercial affiliation, it reports hyperlocally relevant political, environment, licensing, cultural and plain odd stories, tries to be rude to all sides without fear or favour during elections.
Speaking, it does not see eye to eye with the Edinburgh Evening News. Gayfield House is a Category A listed building at Edinburgh. Father and son builders Charles and William Butler built Gayfield House between 1761 and 1764 as a stylish country villa combining Scots Palladian with Dutch details and a touch of French decor, within walking distance of the crowded Old Town of Edinburgh. In 1765 the Butlers sold it for £ 2,000 to Lord Erskine and his wife Lady Charlotte Hope. In 1767, after Lord Erskine's death it was sold to the Earl of Leven. An entry in the Scots Magazine in 1766 states: "Marriage. June 10th. At Gayfield, near Edinburgh, the Earl of Hopetoun to Lady Betty Leven." A late 18th century print shows Gayfield House standing in attractive grounds, surrounded by fields and by orchards, bounded to the South East by Leith Walk. The fortunes of the house declined in the 19th century as Edinburgh expanded. Loss of garden ground and the ever-approaching tenements around made it less attractive as a private house.
In 1873, it was sold to William Williams as Edinburgh's New Veterinary College. This closed in 1904 and it was bought by a merchant who stored manure in the downstairs rooms. After World War 1 it was used as a laundry which manufactured ammonia and bleach. In the 1970s it was used as a garage and for car repairs, a hole was opened in its facade and the basement was used as a garage. By 1990 it had fallen into disrepair, was vandalised and much was stolen including carved wood and gesso chimneypieces. A roofer Trevor Harding bought it in 1991, renovated much of it and sub-divided the interior into basement and upper floors, he sold it in 2013. Gayfield Square Police station, featured in the Inspector Rebus stories written by Edinburgh-based writer Ian Rankin, is located on Gayfield Square in the south east of Broughton. Broughton High School was located in Broughton, but is now located further west in Comely Bank; the Scottish poet Hugh MacDiarmid undertook part of his formal education at Broughton High.
Schools still located in Broughton include Drummond Community High School, Broughton Primary School and St Marys RC Primary School. 8 7, 14, 49 1, 4, 19, 26, 44 10, 11, 12, 16, 22, 25 Edinburgh Trams operate services to & from York Place tram stop, near the top of Broughton Street. This is the eastern terminus for the route. Bartholomew's Chronological map of Edinburgh Broughton Spurtle Broughton Primary School
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Alnwickhill is a suburb of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. It is on the southern edge of the city four miles from the city centre, it neighbours the areas of Kaimes. The area is now residential, but was the site of Backside Lee Farm until the 1970s when the land was sold to Crudens for development
Water of Leith
The Water of Leith is the main river flowing through Edinburgh, Scotland, to the port of Leith where it flows into the sea via the Firth of Forth. It rises in the Colzium Springs at Millstone Rig of the Pentland Hills, it travels through Harperrig Reservoir, past the ruins of Cairns Castle, through Balerno, Juniper Green, Slateford, Saughton, Roseburn and on to the nearest it gets to the Edinburgh city centre at the Dean Village, on the site of old watermills in a deep gorge. This ravine is spanned by the Dean Bridge, designed by Thomas Telford, built in 1832 for the road to Queensferry, lies next to the New Town; the river flows on past Stockbridge, Inverleith and Warriston where it passes through shallows at a place known as Puddocky, thought to refer to "puddocks", the Scots language term for frogs, but took its name from the former Paddock Hall, sited nearby. The river continues past Bonnington, the site of another watermill, to Leith where it widens into the old harbour and port at the Shore.
Leith Docks have been extended out into the firth from the old shoreline, there are now plans to discontinue their use as a port and use the area for housing redevelopment. There is a Water of Leith Walkway beside the river for the 12.25 miles from Balerno to Leith, with half a mile of the route on roads. The route forms an attractive haven for wildlife, passing through areas of woodland well separated from roads. For some distance the walkway follows the route of former railway tracks, the remains of tunnels and other features of more than one railway may be seen at many places along the route. A visitor centre is open to the public where the Union Canal passes over the Water of Leith via the Slateford Aqueduct at Slateford, in south-west Edinburgh; the Water of Leith Conservation Trust is dedicated to the enhancement of the river. The Trust provides education programs about the environment; the river is stocked with brown trout, contains wild grayling, stone loach, three-spined Stickleback and flounder.
A few sea-trout run the river, occasional Atlantic salmon are reported, although those from which scale samples have been obtained have turned out to be from other catchments. Until the weirs are either demolished or furnished with effective fish-passes, there is little chance of a population of salmon establishing themselves in this river again. Roe deer, badgers and other mammals are seen; the river and its environs are the haunt of a wide variety of woodland and water birds, including kingfishers, wagtails and dippers. The name Leith may be of Brittonic origin and derived from *lejth meaning'damp, moist', it is less that the name derives from the Old Norse lodda meaning a river. The Gaelic form of the name is Lìte. Rivers of Scotland Water of Leith Conservation Trust: The River, Visitor Center, Conservation Scottish Government, 16/03/07: Water of Leith Flood Prevention Scheme Water of Leith Water of Leith Millennium Bid document; the bid was successful and paid for new sections of the Visitor Centre.
"Forth District Salmon Fishery Board" "River Forth Fisheries Trust"