The Slave Coast is a historical name used for that part of coastal West Africa along the Bight of Benin, located between the Volta River and the Lagos Lagoon. The name is derived from the region's history as a major source of Africans that were taken into slavery during the Atlantic slave trade from the early 16th century to the late 19th century. Other nearby coastal regions known by their prime colonial export are the Gold Coast, the Ivory Coast, the Pepper Coast. European sources began documenting the development of trade in this region and its integration into the trans-Atlantic slave trade around 1670; the slave trade became so extensive in the 18th and 19th centuries that an “Atlantic community” was formed. The slave trade was facilitated on the European end by the Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the British. Slaves went to the New World to Brazil and the Caribbean. Ports that exported these slaves from Africa include Ouidah, Lagos, Aného, Grand-Popo, Agoué, Porto-Novo, Badagry; these ports traded in slaves that were supplied from African communities and kingdoms, including the Alladah and Ouidah, which were taken over by the Dahomey kingdom.
Researchers estimate that between two and three million people were stolen out of this region and traded for goods like alcohol and tobacco from the Americas and textiles from Europe. Current estimates are that about 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic from West Africa, although the number purchased by traders was higher; the coast was called "the White man's grave" due to the mass amount of death from illnesses such as yellow fever, heat exhaustion, many gastro-entero sicknesses. In 1841, 80% of British sailors on expeditions up the Niger river were infected with fevers. Between 1844 and 1854, 20 of the 74 French missionaries in Senegal died from local illnesses and 19 more died shortly after arriving back to France. Intermarriage has been documented in ports like Ouidah. Communication was quite extensive between all three areas of trade, to the point where individual slaves could be tracked; this complex exchange fostered political and cultural as well as commercial connections between these three regions.
Religions, architectural styles, languages and other new goods were mingled at this time. In addition to the slaves, free men used the exchange routes to travel to new places, both slaves and free travellers aided in blending European and African cultures. After slavery was abolished by European countries, the slave trade continued for a time with independent traders instead of government agents. Cultural integration had become so extensive that the defining characteristics of each culture were broadened. In the case of Brazilian culture—which had differentiated itself from Portuguese culture through its combination of African and New World traditions—Brazilian-style dress and speaking Portuguese had become the main requirements for Brazilian identity, regardless of ethnicity, religion, or geographic location. Pepper Coast Gold Coast Guinea Atlantic slave trade Bristol slave trade Dutch Slave Coast References7. Anissa Smith SourcesLaw and Kristin Mann. "African and American Atlantic Worlds". The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser. 56:2 Apr.
1999, pp. 307–334. Shillington, Kevin. History of Africa. 2nd Edition, Macmillan Publishers Limited, NY USA, 2005. St Clair, William; the Door of No Return: The History of Cape Coast Castle and the Atlantic Slave Trade. BlueBridge
Quincy University is a private Roman Catholic liberal arts university in Quincy, Illinois. It was founded in 1860 by Franciscan friars; the university enrolls about 1,100 students. A small group of Franciscan friars left Germany in 1858 to serve the German-speaking population in what was the frontier state of Illinois. On February 6, 1860, they founded the institution as St. Francis Solanus College; this school was established at Maine Street. Under the leadership of Fr. Anselm Mueller, who served as president for a total of 37 years beginning in 1863, the institution moved to its current location on what is now College Avenue. Following two other name changes during the twentieth century, the current name, Quincy University, was adopted in 1993; the university name was adopted in part to recognize the addition of graduate programs. From its founding, Quincy University has combined a deep commitment to the liberal arts with a recognition of the importance of professional programs; the earliest course catalogs, from the 1870s, combined a strong focus on the liberal arts with courses in accounting and other “commercial” programs.
Quincy University continues to offer majors in the professions. Quincy University enrolled under 300 students until the 1930s; the first woman enrolled at the university in the 1920s, women were admitted beginning in 1932. Quincy University was involved in educating Army reservists and Navy cadets during World War II, enrollment grew after the Second World War; the university first enrolled over 1,000 students in the late 1950s. In response to this enrollment growth, several new buildings were planned and put up during the 1960s; the Franciscan friars made up the majority of the university faculty until the late twentieth century. The distinctive Franciscan intellectual tradition remains central to the mission and values of the university. Since the founding of the institution, many Franciscan friars in the Midwest have been educated at Quincy University. Today, the university is home to people of all faiths, who are welcomed in the Franciscan tradition of hospitality. In 1990, the campus became home to Franciscan Press.
The press closed in 2007. Quincy University is organized into four divisions and two schools:Divisions Behavioral & Social Sciences Fine Arts & Communication Humanities Science and TechnologySchools Business EducationAt the undergraduate level, QU requires completion of the Bonaventure general education program, which includes a significant service requirement for all students. Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts degrees are offered in 46 major areas of concentration; the university supports a variety of non-degree programs and multiple degree-completion options for non-traditional students. Courses are offered in traditional, online, or hybrid formats. At the graduate level, QU offers a Master of Business Administration degree, a Master of Science in Education degree and a Master of Science in Education in Counseling degree; the MBA degree is offered online. Classroom technologies and resources are tailored to the needs of specific academic programs. Updated and renovated laboratories in computer science, cybersecurity and chemistry are available, as is the John “Pete” Brown Mock Trial courtroom.
Quincy University is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. QU has specialized accreditation from the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Quincy University's compact, walkable campus is located in a residential area, a few blocks away from Quincy's Broadway Avenue shopping and business district. Historic Francis Hall is at the center of campus and was built and expanded between 1871-1898; the campus features many distinctive examples of Mid-Century modern architecture in its residence halls and classroom and administration buildings. Friar's Field, a large lawn that held various athletic fields during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, now creates a park-like setting for the campus; the newest additions to campus include a large health and fitness center and an apartment-style residence hall. The historic campus holds several noteworthy contemporary public art installations; the Brenner Library includes the regarded Gray Gallery, which features art exhibitions throughout the year.
The spiritual center of Quincy University is its beautiful chapel, built in 1911 and has been renovated on several occasions. The chapel design was shortened and modified to preserve the baseball field located just to the north of Francis Hall. A former Franciscan seminary is now part of Quincy University, just a few minutes to the north of the university's historic campus. Now called the North Campus, this extensively renovated facility houses most of the Division of Science and Technology, the Connie Niemann Center for Music, the QUTV television studio; the university's soccer stadium and softball complex are located adjacent to the North Campus. The football stadium and baseball field are part of the main campus and feature distinctive limestone walls; the football and baseball facilities have been extensively renovated. Campus life at Quincy University features many student clubs and activities, including three Greek-letter organizations. Greek houses are located on campus; each year, the Inaugural ceremony brings together faculty, new students, parents to celebrate the beginning of the university experience for new students.
Following a procession by the faculty in academic regalia, the ceremony takes place in St. Francis Solanus Church, a Franciscan parish located across the street from Quincy University. Quincy University is located in Qu
Lae FC was a short-lived semi-professional association football club founded in 2013 and dissolved in 2014, based in Lae, Papua New Guinea. The club took part in only one edition of the Papua New Guinea National Soccer League, in 2014, where they finished the regular season in third place before reaching the Grand Final. Against Hekari United, they trailed 0–3 before crowd trouble caused the game to be abandoned after 70 minutes; the club were awarded the runner-up position, as their regular season record was inferior to that of their opponents. In October 2013, it was announced that a new side would be participating in the 2014 Papua New Guinea National Soccer League under the name of Lae FC; the side announced Peter Gunemba, in December. The 2014 season was an excellent debut for the club in general, with the side recovering from a 4–0 opening day defeat to local rivals Morobe FC to finish third in the regular season table behind Hekari United and Oro FC; the side came up against Oro in the semi-final, in a fought clash, Lae came out on top in a 3–2 thriller, went on to face Hekari in the final.
However, with Lae trailing 0–3 to the champions, crowd violence broke out, with stones being thrown at the Hekari goalkeeper, the match was abandoned with 20 minutes remaining. Hekari were awarded the championship. Ahead of the 2015 season, the club were expected to pay a fine for'bringing the game into disrepute', although it's unclear whether this fine was paid; the club was dissolved shortly afterwards, with the manager and several players involved in the creation of a new franchise, Lae City Dwellers, before the new season kicked off. Papua New Guinea National Soccer League 2014: Runners-Up