History of children in the military
Children in the military are children who are associated with military organizations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups. Throughout history and in many cultures, children have been involved in military campaigns. For example, thousands of children participated on all sides of the First World War and the Second World War. Children may be trained and used for combat, assigned to support roles such as porters or messengers, or used for tactical advantage as human shields or for political advantage in propaganda. Children are easy targets for military recruitment due to their greater susceptibility to influence compared to adults; some children are recruited by force while others choose to join up to escape poverty or because they expect military life to offer a rite of passage to maturity. Throughout history and in many cultures, children have been extensively involved in military campaigns; the earliest mentions of minors being involved in wars come from antiquity. It was customary for youths in the Mediterranean basin to serve as aides and armor bearers to adult warriors.
Examples of this practice can be found in the Bible, such as David's service to King Saul, in Hittite and ancient Egyptian art, in ancient Greek mythology and literature. In a practice dating back to antiquity, children were taken on a campaign, together with the rest of a military man's family, as part of the baggage; the Roman Empire made use of youths in war, though it was understood that it was unwise and cruel to use children in war, Plutarch implies that regulations required youths to be at least sixteen years of age. Despite this, several Roman legionaries were known to have enlisted aged 14 in the Imperial Roman army, such as Quintus Postunius Solus who completed 21 years of service in Legio XX Valeria Victrix, Caecilius Donatus who served 26 years in the Legio XX and died shortly before his honorable discharge. In medieval Europe young boys from about twelve years of age were used as military aides, though in theory their role in actual combat was limited; the so-called Children's Crusade in 1212 recruited thousands of children as untrained soldiers under the assumption that divine power would enable them to conquer the enemy, although none of the children entered combat.
According to the legend, they were instead sold into slavery. While most scholars no longer believe that the Children's Crusade consisted or mostly, of children, it nonetheless exemplifies an era in which entire families took part in a war effort. Young boys took part in battles during early modern warfare; when Napoleon was faced with invasion by a massive Allied force in 1814 he conscripted many teenagers for his armies. Orphans of the Imperial Guard fought in the Netherlands with Marshal MacDonald and were between the ages of 14 and 17. Many of the conscripts who reported to the ranks in 1814 were referred to as Marie Louises after the Empress Marie Louise of France; these soldiers were in their mid-teens. One of their more visible roles was as the ubiquitous "drummer boy". During the age of sail, young boys formed part of the crew of British Royal Navy ships and were responsible for many essential tasks including bringing powder and shot from the ship's magazine to the gun crews; these children were called "powder monkeys."
During the American Civil War a young boy, Bugler John Cook, served in the US Army at the age of 15 and received the Medal of Honor for his acts during the Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest day in American history. Several other minors, including 11-year-old Willie Johnston, have received the Medal of Honor. By a law signed by Nicholas I of Russia in 1827 a disproportionate number of Jewish boys, known as the cantonists, were forced into military training establishments to serve in the army; the 25-year conscription term commenced at the age of 18, but boys as young as eight were taken to fulfill the quota. In the final stages of the Paraguayan War, children fought in the Battle of Acosta Ñu against the Allied forces of Brazil and Uruguay; the day is commemorated as a national holiday in Paraguay. During the Boshin War, the pro-shōgun Aizu Domain formed the Byakkotai, made up of the 16 to 17-year-old sons of Aizu samurai. During the Battle of Bonari Pass and the Battle of Aizu they fought the Satcho forces who supported the Imperial cause.
A detached unit of Byakkotai was cut off from the rest of the unit and retreated to Iimori Hill, which overlooked Aizu-Wakamatsu Castle. From there, they saw. 20 of the detached unit committed seppuku. He was saved by a local peasant; the youngest known soldier of World War I was Momčilo Gavrić, who joined the 6th Artillery Division of the Serbian Army at the age of 8, after Austro-Hungarian troops in August 1914 killed his parents and seven of his siblings. In the West, boys as young as 12 were caught up in the overwhelming tide of patriotism and in huge numbers enlisted for active service. Others enlisted to avoid dreary lives. Many were able to pass themselves off as older men, such as George Thomas Paget, who at 17 joined a Bantam battalion in the Welsh Regiment; the last surviving combat veteran of the War was Claude Choules, who enlisted in the Royal Navy at age 14 and saw his first action at the Battle of Jutland at 15. In the Gallipoli campaign, otherwise known as "Çanakkale", children as young as 15 fought in the trenches.
120 children fought with no known survivors. Many child soldiers foug
Atlantic slave trade
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people to the Americas. The slave trade used the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage, existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries; the vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were people from central and western Africa, sold by other West Africans to Western European slave traders, who brought them to the Americas. The South Atlantic and Caribbean economies were dependent on the supply of secure labour for the production of commodity crops, making goods and clothing to sell in Europe; this was crucial to those western European countries which, in the late 17th and 18th centuries, were vying with each other to create overseas empires. The Portuguese were the first to engage in the Atlantic slave trade in the 16th century. In 1526, they completed the first transatlantic slave voyage to Brazil, other European countries soon followed.
Shipowners regarded the slaves as cargo to be transported to the Americas as and cheaply as possible, there to be sold to work on coffee, cocoa and cotton plantations and silver mines, rice fields, construction industry, cutting timber for ships, in skilled labour, as domestic servants. The first Africans imported to the English colonies were classified as "indentured servants", like workers coming from England, as "apprentices for life". By the middle of the 17th century, slavery had hardened as a racial caste, with the slaves and their offspring being the property of their owners, children born to slave mothers were slaves; as property, the people were considered merchandise or units of labour, were sold at markets with other goods and services. The major Atlantic slave trading nations, ordered by trade volume, were: the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Spanish, the Dutch Empires. Several had established outposts on the African coast where they purchased slaves from local African leaders.
These slaves were managed by a factor, established on or near the coast to expedite the shipping of slaves to the New World. Slaves were kept in a factory while awaiting shipment. Current estimates are that about 12 to 12.8 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic over a span of 400 years, although the number purchased by the traders was higher, as the passage had a high death rate. Near the beginning of the 19th century, various governments acted to ban the trade, although illegal smuggling still occurred. In the early 21st century, several governments issued apologies for the transatlantic slave trade; the Atlantic slave trade developed after trade contacts were established between the "Old World" and the "New World". For centuries, tidal currents had made ocean travel difficult and risky for the ships that were available, as such there had been little, if any, maritime contact between the peoples living in these continents. In the 15th century, new European developments in seafaring technologies resulted in ships being better equipped to deal with the tidal currents, could begin traversing the Atlantic Ocean.
Between 1600 and 1800 300,000 sailors engaged in the slave trade visited West Africa. In doing so, they came into contact with societies living along the west African coast and in the Americas which they had never encountered. Historian Pierre Chaunu termed the consequences of European navigation "disenclavement", with it marking an end of isolation for some societies and an increase in inter-societal contact for most others. Historian John Thornton noted, "A number of technical and geographical factors combined to make Europeans the most people to explore the Atlantic and develop its commerce", he identified these as being the drive to find new and profitable commercial opportunities outside Europe as well as the desire to create an alternative trade network to that controlled by the Muslim Empire of the Middle East, viewed as a commercial and religious threat to European Christendom. In particular, European traders wanted to trade for gold, which could be found in western Africa, to find a maritime route to "the Indies", where they could trade for luxury goods such as spices without having to obtain these items from Middle Eastern Islamic traders.
Although many of the initial Atlantic naval explorations were led by Iberians, members of many European nationalities were involved, including sailors from Portugal, the Italian kingdoms, England and the Netherlands. This diversity led Thornton to describe the initial "exploration of the Atlantic" as "a international exercise if many of the dramatic discoveries were made under the sponsorship of the Iberian monarchs"; that leadership gave rise to the myth that "the Iberians were the sole leaders of the exploration". Slavery was prevalent in many parts of Africa for many centuries before the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade. There is evidence that enslaved people from some parts of Africa were exported to states in Africa and Asia prior to the European colonization of the Americas; the Atlantic slave trade was not the only slave trade from Africa, although it was the largest in volume and intensity. As Elikia M'bokolo wrote in Le Monde diplomatique: The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes.
Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries... Fou
Mamluk is an Arabic designation for slaves. The term is most used to refer to non-muslimslave soldiers and Muslim rulers of slave origin. More it refers to: Ghaznavids of Greater Khorasan Khwarazmian dynasty in Transoxiana Mamluk dynasty Mamluk Sultanate Bahri dynasty Burji dynasty Mamluk dynasty The most enduring Mamluk realm was the knightly military caste in Egypt in the Middle Ages, which developed from the ranks of slave soldiers; these were enslaved Turkic peoples, Egyptian Copts, Circassians and Georgians. Many Mamluks were of Balkan origin; the "mamluk phenomenon", as David Ayalon dubbed the creation of the specific warrior class, was of great political importance. Over time, Mamluks became a powerful military knightly caste in various societies that were controlled by Muslim rulers. In Egypt, but in the Levant and India, mamluks held political and military power. In some cases, they attained the rank of sultan, while in others they held regional power as emirs or beys. Most notably, mamluk factions seized the sultanate centered on Egypt and Syria, controlled it as the Mamluk Sultanate.
The Mamluk Sultanate famously defeated the Ilkhanate at the Battle of Ain Jalut. They had earlier fought the western European Christian Crusaders in 1154–1169 and 1213–1221 driving them out of Egypt and the Levant. In 1302 the mamluks formally expelled the last Crusaders from the Levant, ending the era of the Crusades. While mamluks were purchased as property, their status was above ordinary slaves but they were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks. In places such as Egypt, from the Ayyubid dynasty to the time of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, mamluks were considered to be "true lords" and "true warriors", with social status above the general population in Egypt and the Levant. In a sense they were like enslaved mercenaries; the origins of the mamluk system are disputed. Historians agree that an entrenched military caste such as the mamluks appeared to develop in Islamic societies beginning with the ninth-century Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad; when in the ninth century has not been determined.
Up until the 1990s, it was believed that the earliest mamluks were known as Ghilman and were bought by the Abbasid caliphs al-Mu'tasim. By the end of the 9th century, such warrior slaves had become the dominant element in the military. Conflict between these ghilman and the population of Baghdad prompted the caliph al-Mu'tasim to move his capital to the city of Samarra, but this did not succeed in calming tensions; the caliph al-Mutawakkil was assassinated by some of these slave-soldiers in 861. Since the early 21st century, historians suggest that there was a distinction between the mamluk system and the ghilman system, in Samarra, which did not have specialized training and was based on pre-existing Central Asian hierarchies. Adult slaves and freemen both served as warriors in the ghilman system; the mamluk system developed after the return of the caliphate to Baghdad in the 870's. It included the systematic training of young slaves in military and martial skills; the Mamluk system is considered to have been a small-scale experiment of al-Muwaffaq, to combine the slaves' efficiency as warriors with improved reliability.
This recent interpretation seems to have been accepted. After the fragmentation of the Abbasid Empire, military slaves, known as either mamluks or ghilman, were used throughout the Islamic world as the basis of military power; the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt had forcibly taken adolescent male Armenians, Turks and Copts from their families in order to be trained as slave soldiers. They formed the bulk of their military, the rulers selected prized slaves to serve in their administration; the powerful vizier Badr al-Jamali, for example, was a mamluk from Armenia. In Iran and Iraq, the Buyid dynasty used Turkic slaves throughout their empire; the rebel al-Basasiri was a mamluk who ushered in Seljuq dynastic rule in Baghdad after attempting a failed rebellion. When the Abbasids regained military control over Iraq, they relied on the ghilman as their warriors. Under Saladin and the Ayyubids of Egypt, the power of the mamluks increased and they claimed the sultanate in 1250, ruling as the Mamluk Sultanate.
Throughout the Islamic world, rulers continued to use enslaved warriors until the 19th century. The Ottoman Empire's devşirme, or "gathering" of young slaves for the Janissaries, lasted until the 17th century. Regimes based on mamluk power thrived in such Ottoman provinces as the Levant and Egypt until the 19th century. Under the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo, Mamluks were purchased while still young males, they were raised in the barracks of the Citadel of Cairo. Because of their isolated social status and their austere military training, they were trusted to be loyal to their rulers; when their training was completed, they were discharged, but remained attached to the patron who had purchased them. Mamluks relied on the help of their patron for career advancement, the patron's reputation and power depended on his recruits. A Mamluk was "bound by a strong esprit de corps to his peers in the same household."Mamluks lived within their garrisons and spent their time with each
Harem known as zenana in the Indian subcontinent, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family. This private space has been traditionally understood as serving the purposes of maintaining the modesty and protection of women. A harem may house a man's wife — or wives and concubines, as in royal harems of the past — their pre-pubescent male children, unmarried daughters, female domestic workers, other unmarried female relatives. In former times some harems were guarded by eunuchs; the structure of the harem and the extent of monogamy or polygamy has varied depending on the family's personalities, socio-economic status, local customs. Similar institutions have been common in other Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilizations among royal and upper-class families, the term is sometimes used in other contexts. Although the institution has experienced a sharp decline in the modern era due to a rise in education and economic opportunities for women, as well as Western influences, seclusion of women is still practiced in some parts of the world, such as rural Afghanistan and conservative states of the Gulf region.
In the West, Orientalist imaginary conceptions of the harem as a hidden world of sexual subjugation where numerous women lounged in suggestive poses have influenced many paintings, stage productions and literary works. Some earlier European Renaissance paintings dating to the 16th century portray the women of the Ottoman harem as individuals of status and political significance. In many periods of Islamic history, women in the harem exercised various degrees of political power, such as the Sultanate of Women in the Ottoman Empire; the word has been recorded in the English language since early 17th century. It comes from the Arabic ḥarīm, which can mean "a sacred inviolable place", "harem" or "female members of the family". In English the term harem can mean "the wives of a polygamous man." The triliteral Ḥ-R-M appears in other terms related the notion of interdiction such as haram, ihram and al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf. In Turkish of the Ottoman era, the harem, i.e. the part of the house reserved for women was called haremlık, while the space open for men was known as selamlık.
The practice of female seclusion is not exclusive to Islam, but the English word harem denotes the domestic space reserved for women in Muslim households. Some scholars have used the term to refer to polygynous royal households throughout history. Leila Ahmed describes the ideal of seclusion as a "a man's right to keep his women concealed—invisible to other men." Ahmed identifies the practice of seclusion as a social ideal and one of the major factors that shaped the lives of women in the Mediterranean Middle East. For example, contemporary sources from the Byzantine Empire describe the social mores that governed women's lives. Women were not supposed to be seen in public, they were guarded by eunuchs and could only leave the home "veiled and suitably chaperoned." Some of these customs were borrowed from the Persians, but Greek society influenced the development of patriarchal tradition. The ideal of seclusion was not realized as social reality; this was in part because working class women held jobs that required interaction with men.
In the Byzantine empire, the ideal of gender segregation created economic opportunities for women as midwives, bath attendants and artisans, since it was considered inappropriate for men to attend to women's needs. At times women engaged in other commercial activities. Historical records shows that the women of 14th-century Mamluk Cairo visited public events alongside men, despite objections of religious scholars; the practice of gender segregation in Islam was influenced by an interplay of religion and politics. Female seclusion has signaled social and economic prestige; the norms of female seclusion spread beyond the elites, but the practice remained characteristic of upper and middle classes, for whom the financial ability to allow one's wife to remain at home was a mark of high status. In some regions, such as the Arabian peninsula, seclusion of women was practiced by poor families at the cost of great hardship, but it was economically unrealistic for the lower classes. Where historical evidence is available, it indicates that the harem was much more to be monogamous.
For example, in late Ottoman Istanbul, only 2.29 percent of married men were polygynous, with the average number of wives being 2.08. In some regions, like Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, prevalence of women in agricultural work leads to wider practice of polygyny, but makes seclusion impractical. In contrast, in Eurasian and North African rural communities that rely on male-dominated plough farming, seclusion is economically possible but polygyny is undesirable; this indicates that the fundamental characteristic of the harem is seclusion of women rather than polygyny. The idea of the harem or seclusion of women did not originate with Islam; the practice of secluding women was common to many Ancient Near East communities where polygamy was permitted. In pre-Islamic Assyria and Egypt, most royal courts had a harem, where the ruler’s wives and concubines lived with female attendants, eunuchs. Encyclopædia Iranica uses the term harem to describe the practices of the ancient Near East. In Assyria, rules of harem etiquette were stipulated by
Wage slavery is a term used to draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person. It is used to refer to a situation where a person's livelihood depends on wages or a salary when the dependence is total and immediate; the term "wage slavery" has been used to criticize exploitation of labour and social stratification, with the former seen as unequal bargaining power between labor and capital and the latter as a lack of workers' self-management, fulfilling job choices and leisure in an economy. The criticism of social stratification covers a wider range of employment choices bound by the pressures of a hierarchical society to perform otherwise unfulfilling work that deprives humans of their "species character" not only under threat of starvation or poverty, but of social stigma and status diminution. Similarities between wage labor and slavery were noted as early as Cicero in Ancient Rome, such as in De Officiis. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, thinkers such as Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Karl Marx elaborated the comparison between wage labor and slavery, while Luddites emphasized the dehumanization brought about by machines.
Before the American Civil War, Southern defenders of African American slavery invoked the concept of wage slavery to favorably compare the condition of their slaves to workers in the North. The United States abolished slavery after the Civil War, but labor union activists found the metaphor useful and appropriate. According to Lawrence Glickman, in the Gilded Age "eferences abounded in the labor press, it is hard to find a speech by a labor leader without the phrase"; the introduction of wage labor in 18th-century Britain was met with resistance, giving rise to the principles of syndicalism. Some labor organizations and individual social activists have espoused workers' self-management or worker cooperatives as possible alternatives to wage labor; the view that working for wages is akin to slavery dates back to the ancient world. In ancient Rome, Cicero wrote that "whoever gives his labor for money sells himself and puts himself in the rank of slaves". In 1763, the French journalist Simon Linguet published an influential description of wage slavery: The slave was precious to his master because of the money he had cost him...
They were worth at least as much as they could be sold for in the market... It is the impossibility of living by any other means that compels our farm labourers to till the soil whose fruits they will not eat and our masons to construct buildings in which they will not live... It is want that compels them to go down on their knees to the rich man in order to get from him permission to enrich him... What effective gain the suppression of slavery brought He is free, you say. Ah! That is his misfortune... These men... the most terrible, the most imperious of masters, that is, need.... They must therefore find someone to die of hunger. Is that to be free? The view that wage work has substantial similarities with chattel slavery was put forward in the late 18th and 19th centuries by defenders of chattel slavery and by opponents of capitalism; some defenders of slavery from the Southern slave states, argued that Northern workers were "free but in name – the slaves of endless toil" and that their slaves were better off.
This contention has been corroborated by some modern studies that indicate slaves' material conditions in the 19th century were "better than what was available to free urban laborers at the time". In this period, Henry David Thoreau wrote; some abolitionists in the United States regarded the analogy as spurious. They believed that wage workers were "neither wronged nor oppressed". Abraham Lincoln and the Republicans argued that the condition of wage workers was different from slavery as laborers were to have the opportunity to work for themselves in the future, achieving self-employment; the abolitionist and former slave Frederick Douglass declared "now I am my own master", upon taking a paying job. However in life he concluded to the contrary, saying "experience demonstrates that there may be a slavery of wages only a little less galling and crushing in its effects than chattel slavery, that this slavery of wages must go down with the other". Douglass went on to speak about these conditions as arising from the unequal bargaining power between the ownership/capitalist class and the non-ownership/laborer class within a compulsory monetary market: "No more crafty and effective devise for defrauding the southern laborers could be adopted than the one that substitutes orders upon shopkeepers for currency in payment of wages.
It has the merit of a show of honesty, while it puts the laborer at the mercy of the land-owner and the shopkeeper". Self-employment became less common as the artisan tradition disappeared in the part of the 19th century. In 1869, The New York Times described the system of wage labor as "a system of slavery as absolute if not as degrading as that which prevailed at the South". E. P. Thompson notes that for British workers at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries, the "gap in status between a'servant,' a hired wage-laborer subject to the orders and discipline of the master, an artisan, who might'come and go' as he pleased, was wide enough for men to shed blood rather than allow themselves to be pushed from one side to the
History of slavery in Asia
Slavery has existed all throughout Asia, forms of slavery still exist today. The early Arab invaders of Sind in the 8th century, the armies of the Umayyad commander Muhammad bin Qasim, are reported to have enslaved tens of thousands of Indian prisoners, including both soldiers and civilians. In the early 11th century Tarikh al-Yamini, the Arab historian Al-Utbi recorded that in 1001 the armies of Mahmud of Ghazna conquered Peshawar and Waihand after Battle of Peshawar, "in the midst of the land of Hindustan", captured some 100,000 youths. Following his twelfth expedition into India in 1018–19, Mahmud is reported to have returned with such a large number of slaves that their value was reduced to only two to ten dirhams each; this unusually low price made, according to Al-Utbi, "merchants from distant cities to purchase them, so that the countries of Central Asia and Khurasan were swelled with them, the fair and the dark, the rich and the poor, mingled in one common slavery". Elliot and Dowson refers to "five hundred thousand slaves, beautiful men and women.".
During the Delhi Sultanate period, references to the abundant availability of low-priced Indian slaves abound. Levi attributes this to the vast human resources of India, compared to its neighbors to the north and west; the Siddi are an ethnic group inhabiting Pakistan. Members are descended from Bantu peoples from Southeast Africa that were brought to the Indian subcontinent as slaves by Arab and Portuguese merchants. Much of the northern and central parts of the subcontinent was ruled by the so-called Slave Dynasty of Turkic origin from 1206 to 1290: Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a slave of Muhammad Ghori rose to power following his master's death. For a century, his descendants ruled presiding over the introduction of Tankas and building of Qutub Minar. According to Sir Henry Bartle Frere, there were an estimated 8,000,000 or 9,000,000 slaves in Company India in 1841. In Malabar, about 15% of the population were slaves. Slavery was abolished in India by the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843. Provisions of the Indian Penal Code of 1861 abolished slavery in India by making the enslavement of human beings a criminal offense.
There are an estimated five million bonded workers in Pakistan though the government has passed laws and set up funds to eradicate the practice and rehabilitate the labourers. As many as 200,000 Nepali girls, many under 14, have been sold into sex slavery in India. Nepalese women and girls virgins, are favored in India because of their fair skin and young looks. In 1997, a human rights agency reported that 40,000 Nepalese workers are subject to slavery and 200,000 kept in bonded labour. Nepal's Maoist-led government has abolished the slavery-like Haliya system in 2008. According to a report of an expedition to Afghanistan published in London in 1871: "The country between Caubul and the Oxus appears to be in a lawless state. A slave, if a strong man to stand work well, is, in Upper Badakshan, considered to be of the same value as one of the large dogs of the country, or of a horse, being about the equivalent of Rs 80. A slave girl is valued at from four horses or more, according to her looks &c..
When I was in Little Tibet, a returned slave, in the Kashmir army took refuge in my camp. In Lower Badakshan, more distant places, the price of slaves is much enhanced, payment is made in coin."In response to the Hazara uprising of 1892, the Afghan Emir Abdur Rahman Khan declared a "Jihad" against the Shiites. His large army defeated the rebellion at its center, in Oruzgan, by 1892 and the local population was being massacred. According to S. A. Mousavi, "thousands of Hazara men and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul and Qandahar, while numerous towers of human heads were made from the defeated rebels as a warning to others who might challenge the rule of the Amir"; until the 20th century, some Hazaras were still kept as slaves by the Pashtuns. Slavery throughout pre-modern Chinese history has come in and out of favor. Due to the enormous population and high development of the region throughout most of its history, China has always had a large workforce; the Tang dynasty purchased Western slaves from the Radanite Jews.
Tang Chinese soldiers and pirates enslaved Koreans, Persians and people from Inner Mongolia, central Asia, northern India. The greatest source of slaves came from southern tribes, including Thais and aboriginals from the southern provinces of Fujian, Guangdong and Guizhou. Malays, Khmers and black Africans were purchased as slaves in the Tang dynasty. Many Han Chinese were enslaved in the process of the Mongols invasion of China proper. According to Japanese historian Sugiyama Masaaki and Funada Yoshiyuki, there were certain numbers of Mongolian slaves owned by Han Chinese during the Yuan dynasty. Moreover, there is no evidence that Han Chinese, who were considered people of the bottom of Yuan society by some research, were suffered a particular
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: only a certain number of days' work each year. Statute labour is a corvée imposed by a state for the purposes of public works; as such it represents a form of levy. Unlike other forms of levy, such as a tithe, a corvée does not require the population to have land, crops or cash, it was thus favored in historical economies in which barter was more common than cash transactions or circulating money was in short supply. The obligation for tenant farmers to perform corvée work for landlords on private landed estates was widespread throughout history before the Industrial Revolution; the term is most used in reference to medieval and early modern Europe, where work was expected by a feudal landowner, or by a monarch of their subjects. However, the application of the term is not limited to that place. Forms of statute labour existed until the early twentieth century in Canada and the United States.
The word "corvée" itself has its origins in Rome, reached the English language via France. In the Late Roman Empire the citizens performed opera publica in lieu of paying taxes. Roman landlords could demand a number of days' labour from their tenants, from the freedmen. In Medieval Europe, the tasks that serfs or villeins were required to perform on a yearly basis for their lords were called opera riga. Plowing and harvesting were principal activities to which this work was applied. In times of need, the lord could demand additional work called opera corrogata; this term evolved into coroatae corveiae, corvée, the meaning broadened to encompass both the regular and exceptional tasks. This Medieval agricultural corvée was not unpaid: by custom the workers could expect small payments in the form of food and drink consumed on the spot. Corvée sometimes included military conscription, the term is occasionally used in a divergent sense to mean forced requisition of military supplies; because corvée labour for agriculture tended to be demanded by the lord at the same times that the peasants needed to attend to their own plots – e.g. planting and harvest – the corvée was an object of serious resentment.
By the 16th century its use in agricultural setting was on the wane. It persisted in many areas of Europe until the French Revolution and beyond; the word survives in modern usage, meaning any kind of "inevitable or disagreeable chore". Corvée labour was essential in the feudal economic system of the Habsburg monarchy – Austrian Empire – and most German states that have belonged to the Holy Roman Empire. Farmers and peasants were obliged to do hard agricultural work for their nobility; when a cash economy became established, the duty was replaced by the duty to pay taxes. After the Thirty Years' War, the demands for corvée labour grew too high and the system became dysfunctional; the official decline of corvée is linked to the abolition of serfdom by Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor and Habsburg ruler, in 1781. Corvée labour continued to exist and was only abolished during the revolutions of 1848, along with the legal inequality between the nobility and common people. Bohemia were a part of the Holy Roman Empire as well as the Habsburg monarchy and corvée labour itself was called "robota" in Czech.
In Russian and other Slavic languages, "robota" denotes any work but in Czech, it refers to unpaid unfree work, corvée labour, serf labor, or drudgery. The Czech word was imported to a part of Germany where corvée labour was known as Robath, into Hungarian as robot; the word "robota" turned out to be optimal for Czech writer Karel Čapek who, after a recommendation by his brother Josef Čapek, introduced the word "robot" for machines that do unpaid work for their owners in his 1920 play R. U. R.. From the Egyptian Old Kingdom onward, corvée labour helped in'government' projects; the 1350 BC Amarna letters has one short letter, with the topic of corvée labour. Of the 382–Amarna letters, it is an example of an undamaged letter, from Biridiya of Megiddo, entitled: "Furnishing corvée workers". See: city Nuribta. In Egyptian times, during the Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemy V, in his Rosetta Stone Decree of 196 BC, listed 22 accomplishments for being honored and the ten rewards granted to him for his accomplishments.
The last reward listed is his making of the Rosetta Stone, in three scripts, to be displayed to the public in the temples-. One of the shorter accomplishments listed near the middle of the list, He decreed:—Behold, not is permitted to be pressed men of the sailors; the statement implies. Until the late 19th century, many of the Egyptian Public Works includ